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Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.
jor General E. P. Gaines, with a large command, covery of a hostile party too strong for his little was ordered to pass the lake or pond, and attack band of warriors. McIntosh moved agaiost them the other towns, but which he found abandoned with his whole force. A small detachment of by the enemy. The red_pole was again found different companies of the Tennessee volunteers, planted in the square of Fowltown, barbarously under Colonels Dyer and Williamson, (they hardecorated with human scalps of both sexes, taken ing joined the army on the evening of the 10th,) within the last six months from the heads of our were left at our encampment to search for horses, unfortunate citizens. General McIntosh, who and, on hearing the report of Major Kanard, was with General Gaines, routed a small party formed themselves into a company under Captain of savages near Fowltown, killed one negro, and Bell, who was with them, and moved to attack took three prisoners, on one of whom was found the enemy, whom they found near a large swamp, the coat of James Champion, of Captain Cum- endeavoring to move off
. A spirited engagement mings's company, .(4th regiment of infantry,) ensued, which resulted in the death of ihirtywho was killed by the Indians on board one of our seven, and six men and ninety-eight women and boals descending the river to the relief of Major children prisoners; and our loss, three killed and Muhlenburg. This coat, with nearly all Captain four wounded of the friendly Indians. The only Cummings's company's clothing, was lost on woman out of seven whose life was spared at the board of Lieutenant Scoti's boat, when he and massacre of Lieutenant Scott was here recaphis party were massacred, on the 30th of Novem- tured by Major Kanard. General McIntosh inber last. The pocket-book of Mr. Thomas Leigh, dividually killed three of the enemy and captured who was murdered at Cedar Creek on the 21st of one. The little band of Tennessee volunteers January last, was found in Kinghajah's town, acted on this occasion as becomes their character. containing several letters addressed to the de- At the commencement of the action the army ceased, and one to General Glasscock. About was halted, and a runner despatched to inform one thousand head of cattle fell into our hands, General McIntosh that any aid he might deem many of which were recognised by the Georgia necessary would be afforded, and that the army militia as the brands and marks of their citizens. would remain until his arrival, which was not Near three thousand bushels of corn were found, until we encamped for the night. The enemy with other articles useful to the army. Upwards abandoned a number of horses, bogs, corn, and of three hundred houses were consumed, leaving about six hundred head of cattle. a tract of fertile country in ruin, where these The army moved on the morning of the 13th, wretches might have lived in pleniy, but for the and on the succeeding day our spies surprised a infernal machinations of foreign traders, if pol camp consisting of two men, a woman, and two agents. The army remained at this point until children. One of the men was killed; the other, the morning of the 5th, when the march was with a small boy, slightly wounded; and the resumed for St. Marks, before which it arrived woman, unfortunately, not being distinguished in on the evening of the 6th, and, after communica- the swamp. received a wound of which she died. ting with the commanding officer, took possession At three o'clock, P. M. on the 16th, the army of that fortress on the following morning. Cap- arrived at a large pond within six miles of Bowtain McKeever, of the navy, having sailed for St. legs town, on Suwany river, where a few ladians Marks with some vessels containing supplies for well mounted discovered our advance. An althe army, was fortunate enough to entice on tempt was made to overlake them, but the enboard his vessel, in the river, Francis, or Hillis feebled state of our horses rendered it impracti. Hadjo, and Homathlamicco, hostile chiess of the cable. Under these circumstances, the General Creek' nation, and whose seuiled hostility has deemed it advisable to take the town by a forced been severely felt by our citizens. The com- march, not allowing the enemy time to cross the manding General had them brought on shore, and river and destroy their supplies. The manner of ordered them to be huug, as an example to deter attack having been previously arranged, the army others from exciting these deluded wretches to moved rapidly, until arriving near the large future scenes of butchery; A man of the name of which flanks the towns, when the troops changed A. Arbuthnot was also taken on the arrival of the position, conformably to previous orders, and army, and placed in close confinement.
moved forward. The left flank, composed of The troops having again received eight days' Colonel Williamson's regiment of Tennessee volrations, and a garrison detached for Fort St. unteers, at the head of which was a force of InMarks, the army marched on the 9th of April, dian warriors under Major (now Colonel) Kadestined for Suwanee. On the morning of the pard, soon came in contact, and warmly engaged 12th, the officer of the day reported that the sen- the Indians and negroes; whilst the right Hank, linels had heard the lowing of cattle and barking composed of Colonel Dyer's regiment of Tennesof dogs during the night; from which the General see volunteers, with a like force of warriors under was induced to send a runner to General McIn- General Mclotosh, advanced near the river, 10 tosh, who was encamped a short distance in rear prevent the enemy from crossing. The centre of the army, with instructions to have the coun- advanced in excellent order, and under the extry below examined. In the mean time, the pectation of having to combat with the strength army moved slowly in advance. General Mc- of these towns and the fugitives from Mickasuky; Intosh despatched Major Kanard with a party, but, on reaching Bowlegs town, found it abanwho returned to him a runner reporting the dis | doned. The left flank, from the nature of the Defeat of the Seminole. Indians, fc.
ground they had to traverse, and Colonel Kapard and we were agreeably surprised in finding Lieunot adhering entirely to the route designated, renant Gadsden had arrived safely that evening drove the Indians and negroes (about three huo- from the mouth of Suwany. On the 26th a spedred) into the river, before the right flank could cial court was ordered for the trial of A. Arbuihoccupy the desired position. The reports give not and Robert C. Ambrister; which court, on eleven killed and three prisoners on the field, and the documents and evidence adduced, sentenced it is believed many were killed and drowned in the first to be hung; and the latter to be shot. swimming the river, it being nearly three hun. They were accordingly executed on the morning dred yards wide. Colonel Kanard had thirteen of the 29th. The army moved and encamped wounded, but one dangerously. About twenty-four miles from St. Marks on the evening of ihe seven hundred bushels of cors were obtained in 28th, and arrived at Fort Gadsden on the 2d inthe towns and neighboring swamps, near ninety stant; the General having previously detached a head of cattle, and a number of horses. Our sen- garrison of two hundred men, under the comtinels, on the night of the 17th, took prisoners mand of Brevet Major Fanning, to occupy Fort two white men (Ambrister and Cook) and one St. Marks. I have only to add, that this army negro, who had just returned from Arbuthnot's has borne hardships and privations to a great exvessel at the mouth of Suwány; from the latter tent, in a manner becoining soldiers and citizens we obtained a letter written by A. Arbuthnot 10 of a nation proud of their liberties. The assiste his son, in which he enumerates the army of the ant topographical engineer will furnish a topoUnited States under the General's command, and graphical report of the country through which requires him to inform his friend Bowlegs that the army operated; and I refer you to the enresistance would be fruitless against such an over- closed sketches for information of our order of whelming force, and to make over the river with movement, and have the honor to be, very reall despatch; admonishing his son, at the same spectfully, your obedient servant, time, to remove and secrete everything which
R. BUTLER, Adj. Gen. could be moved. From Cook we learned that Brig. Gen. Daniel PARKER, this letter was read to the negroes and Indians, Adjutant and Inspector General. when they immediately commenced crossing their families, and had just finished as we entered their towns. Upwards of three hundred houses were
HEADQ'RS, Division OF THE SOUTH, here consumed, the most of which were well
Fort Gadsden, March 25, 1818. built and somewhat regular, extending near three
Sir: I have ordered a supply of provisions to miles up the river. On the morning of the 18th be sent from New Orleans, via Pensacola, to General Gaines was ordered, with a select com- Fort Crawford, on the Caneucho. This route mand, and a number of warriors under General has been adopted as the most speedy one of proMcIntosh, to cross the Suwany river in pursuit visioning one of my garrisons which musi be of the enemy; but found, on advancing about six maintained during ihe present conflict against miles, that they had dispersed in every direction, our mutual enemies, the Seminole Indians, and I from the numerous trails, and too far advanced cannot but express a hope that no attempt will to overtake them, his command being short of be made to interrupt the free passage of my supplies. A detachment of the warriors, having transports to that post
. I am not disposed to advanced some distance, fell in with a small enter into any controversy with you on the rights party of the enemy, killed three warriors, took which our Government may claim to the free some women and children and five negroes. On navigation of such water-courses as head within the same morning, Lieutenant James Gadsden, her limits, but flow through the territory of His aid-de-camp to the commanding General, de Catholic Majesty, preferring to leave these subscended the Suwany river to its mouth, withjects to be settled by those legally authorized ; Captain Dunlap's and a few of Captain Critten- but as it is necessary for me to make use of the den's companies of the life-guard, and a small Escambia river in passing up provisions to the detachment of regulars, and captured, without garrison at Fort Crawford, I wish it to be disdifficulty, the schooner of A. Arbuthnot, which linctly understood, that any attempt to interrupt had brought supplies of powder and lead to the the passage of transports cannot be viewed in any Indians and negroes seitled at Suwany. This other light than as a hostile act on your pari. vessel afforded the means of transporting our sick I will not permit myself for a inoment to believe back to St. Marks. On the evening of ihe 20th, that you would commit an act so contrary to the General Glasscock was ordered, at his request, to interest of the King your master. His Catholic march his brigade by Mickasuky to Hartford, in Majesty, as well as the Government of the UniGeorgia, and Captain Bell ordered to muster ted States, are alike interested in chastising a them out of service; and the army moved about savage foe, who have too long warred with im. three-quarters of a mile preparatory to its return. punity against his subjects as well as the citizens On the 24th General McIntosh was ordered to of this Republic, and I feel persuaded that every proceed direct to Fort Scott, on Flint river, and aid which you can give, to promote this objeci, an order furnished him to the commanding officer will be cheerfully tendered. to muster his warriors out of service.
Major General commanding. having marched twenty-eight miles on that day, Don Jose Mazot, Governor of Pensacola.
Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.
HEADQ'RS, DIVISION OF THE South, Marks will be referred to our respective Govern
Before St Marks, April 6, 1818. ments, for amicable adjustment. Some armed Sir: To chastise a savage foe, who, combined vessels of the United States are in the bay of St. with a lawless band of negro brigands, have for Marks, with whom I wish to communicate. You some time past been carrying on a cruel and un- will, I trust, furnish me with a small vessel to provoked war against the citizens of the United convey a letter, as well as some sick and wound. States, has compelled the President to direct me ed-thai are with me. As our mutual savage eneto march my army into Florida. I have penemies are concentrating their forces near or on the trated 10 the Mickasuky towns, and reduced ihem Suwaney, an early and prompt answeris requested to ashes. In these towns I found many indica- to this letter, with an English translation, as tions of a hostile spirit. On a red pole in the neither myself nor staff are acquainted with the centre of the council-houses of Kenhagas town, Spanish. more than fifty fresh scalps, of all ages, from the
This will be handed to you by Aid-de-camp infant to the aged matron, were found suspended. Lieutenant James Gadsden, by whom an answer In addition to this, upwards of three hundred old is expected, I have, &c. scalps were found in the dwellings of the differ
ANDREW JACKSON, ent chiefs settled on the Mickasuky pond. Those
Major General commanding. barbarians who escaped death have fled. From The Comm'G Officer, St. Marks. information communicated by the Governor of Pensacola to two of my captains, Gordon and Call, I was induced to believe they had fled to
St. Marks, OFF APPALACHIE, St. Marks for protection. The Governor stated
April 7, 1818. that the Indians and negroes had demanded of Most Excellent Sir: Being made to underyou large supplies of munitions of war, with a stand, although with the greatest difficulty, the ihreat, in the event of a refusal, of taking posses-contents of a letter with which your excellency sion of your fortress. He further expressed an honored me yesterday evening, delivered to me apprehension that, from your defenceless state, by your aid-de-camp James Gadsden, I will dethey were already in possession of St. Marks. clare to your excellency the satisfaction the The wife of Chenubby, a noted chief, now a pri- knowledge of the result of your expedition against soner in my camp, informed me that the hostile Mickasuky has afforded me. That such would Indians and negroes obtained their supply of am- be the event could not be doubted, on considermunition from St. Marks. To prevent the recur- ing the superior talents and skilful conduct of rence of so gross a violation of neutrality, and to your excellency; and to these must be attributed exclude our savage enemies from so strong a hold the success, on which I tender you my most coras St. Marks, I deem it expedient to garrison that dial congratulation. fortress with American troops, until the close of My chief, the Governor of Pensacola, had in the present war. This measure is justifiable on truth reason to mention to your captains, Gordon the immutable principle of self-defence, and and Call, what your excellency states 10 me, and cannot but be satisfactory, under existing cir- to entertain fears for the face of this fort, men cumstances, to His Catholic Majesty, the King of aced by Indians and negroes for some months past, Spain. Under existing treaties between our iwo and particularly since they have been disappointe Governments, His Catholic Majesty, the King ed in their expectations of obtaining powder and of Spain, is bound to preserve in peace with the balls, which they have so repeatedly solicited, and citizens of the United States not only his own to which they thought themselves entitled. Trom subjects, but all Indian tribes residing within his the practice which subsisted of supplying them territory. When called upon to fulfil that part annually therewith. This proves how entirely of the treaty in relation to a savage tribe who unfounded is the assertion of the wife of the chief have long depredated with impunity on the Amer. Chenubby, that the Indians have been supplied ican frontier, incompetency is alleged, with an with munitions in this fort since I was advised acknowledgment thai the same tribe have acted and I determined to maintain the most perfect in open hostility to the laws, and invaded the rights neutrality. No one can better remove from your of His Catholic Majesty. As a mutual enemy, excellency's mind any unfavorable opinion you therefore, it is expected that every facility will be may have formed on this subject than the bearer, afforded by the agents of the King of Spain to chas- William Hambly, as he has at various times tise these lawless and inhuman savages. In this interpreted to me the solicitations of the several light is the possession of St. Marks by the Amer- Indian chiefs in my neighborhood; and he can ican forces io be viewed. I come not as the ene- also inform you of the advice I always gave them my but as the friend of Spain. Spanish rights -10 avoid ihe destruction which has overtaken and property will be respected. The property them, and which I foresaw from the begioning. and rights of Spanish subjects will be guarantied This being realized, and there being now no them. An inventory of all public property, mu motive to fear any insult to the fort from these nitions of war, &c., shall be made out and certi- barbarians and the negroes, I beg permission of fied by an officer appointed by each of us, and a your excellency to call your attention to the diffireceipt given for the same, to be accounted for to culty I should involve myself in with my Gov. His Catholic Majesty by the United States. The erament, if I were presently to assent to what subject of my possession of the garrison of St. your excellency proposes to me, to garrison this Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.
fort with the troops of the United States, without Lieut. Simmons, of the Ordoance Department, first receiving its orders. Such I will solicit im. are appointed to act, with one or two officers mediately an opportunity offers, and I do not for nominated on your part, to take an inventory of, a moment doubt that they will be given to me; and inspect all public property in the fort of St. so zealous is my Government to comply with the Marks, for which receipts will be given in the stipulations between her and the United States. name of the American Government. Any disIn the interim I hope your excellency will desist position which you would wish made with the from your intention, and be firmly persuaded of private property of yourself, officers, and soldiers, the good faith and harmony which will reign be- or any other arrangements gratifying to yourself, tween this garrison and whatever troops you will be settled by my aid-de-camps, Lieutenants may think fit to leave in this vicinity, who may Gadsden and Glassell. assist me in the defence of this fort on any un.
ANDREW JACKSON, foreseen event.
Major General commanding. The sick your excellency sent in are lodged in Don F. Caso LUENGO, the royal hospital, and I have afforded them every Commanding Fort St. Marks. ' aid which circumstances admit. I hope your excellency will give me other opportunities of
APPALACHIE, April 7, 1818. evincing the desire I have to satisfy you. I trust your excellency will pardon my not an. I stated to your excellency in my letter of this
Most EXCELLENT SIR: I shouid insist on what swering you as soon as requested, for reasons which have been given you by your aid-de-camp.froin the Governor of Pensacola for the delivery
morning, as to the pecessity of a waiting orders I do not accompany this with an English trans- l of this fort under my command, were I not, in lation, as your excellency desires, because there is no one in the fort capable thereof; but the be- addition to what your excellency says in your fore named William Hambly proposes to trans
apswer, threatened by your aid-de-camp and the late it to your excellency in the best manner
other officers appointed to negotiate on the subhe can.
ject; and had not so large a body of troops enMay our Lord preserve your excellency many tered, without a waiting my permission, and taken years. Such is my prayer.
Most excellent sir,
possession of all the stores and posts, lowering I kiss your excellency's hands, and am your most
ihe Spanish flag, and hoisting the American. obedient and devoted servant,
So manifest a violation of the territory of His F. CASO Y LUENGO.
Catholic Majesty obliges me to complain of it, The Most Ex't A. JACKSON,
and to protest against it; and I accordingly do General-in-Chief, fc.
protest against it, and beg of your excellency to provide me, as speedily as possible, the vessels
necessary to transport me to Pensacola, together HEADQ’rs, Division OF THE SOUTA, with the troops and those persons who are in the
Camp near St. Mark's, April 7, '18. royal employ ; and also to give orders that, in the Sir: I refer you to my communications of yes- interim, the private property and effects of every terday, for the motives which have compelled me Spanish individual here be respected. With to occupy the fort of St. Mark's. I again repeat respect to the public property of His Catholic that I have entered the territory of Spain as a Majesty, I have nominated the subaltern officer friend, to chastise a mutual enemy of both na- of this detachment and commissary of the fort to tions, and whom His Catholic Majesty was bound, make, with the three officers whom you name to under the most sacred of treaties, to have punishme, an inventory thereof. ed himself. Peculiar circumstances, however,
I repeat to your excellency my respects, and have prevented, and it was therefore expected prayers to God to preserve your life many years. that every facility would have been given to the Most excellent sir, I kiss your excellency's hands. American arms, io have insured success to their Your most obedient and devoted servant, operatioos. The occupation of Si. Mark's is es
FR. CASO Y LUENGO. sential to the accomplishment of my campaign, The Most Exc't A. JACKSON, and is peculiarly so at this period, when evidence General U. S. troops before St. Marks. is derived from every source of the designs of the negroes and Indians against that fortress. They are now concentrating with the intention
HEADQ'RS, Division OF THE SOUTA, of taking possession of St. Marks the moment my
Camp, near St. Marks, April 7, 1818. army moves from its vicinity, the dislodging them Sır: I have received your protest against my from which will cost me more American blood proceedings. The occupancy of Fort St. Marks than I am disposed should be shed. Success to by my troops, previous io your assenting to the my operations requires despatch; you will exo measure, became necessary from the difficulties cuse me, therefore, in refusing your request that thrown in the way of an amicable adjustment, a suspension should be granted until a permit is notwithstanding, my assurances that every arobtained from your Government, and on insist. rangement should be made to your satisfaction, ing that Fort St. Marks should be immediately and expressing a wish that my movements against occupied by American troops.
our common enemy should not be retarded by a Major Fanoing, my inspector general, and tedious negotiation. I again repeat wbat has
Defeat of the Seminole Indians, &c. been reiterated to you through my aid-de-camp, duties, as that, being a subordinate officer, I am Lieutenant Gadsden, that your personal rights and bound to obey the superior on whom I depend, it private properly shall be respected; that your sit- being my duiy, until I receive instructions to ihe uation shall be made as comfortable as practica contrary, to be governed on this bead by the ble while compelled to remain in Fort St. Marks; treaties existing between the United States and and that transports shall be furnished, as soon as Spain ; and in the last, of amity, limits, and pare they can be obtained, to convey yourself, family, igation, I do not see the before named river menand command, to Pensacola. I daily expect some tioned, but the sovereignty of the King, my masvessels from the bay of Appalachicola; as soon ter, over all the territories, rivers, coasts, ports, as they arrive, the most suitable shall be selected and harbors lying South of 31° North, solemnly for said purpose.
and explicitly recognised by the United States; ANDREW JACKSON, and, if extraordinary and existing circumstances
Major General commanding. should require any further temporary concessions, Dop. FR. Caso Y LUENGO,
not explained in the said treaty, I request your Governor of St. Marks.
excellency to have the goodness to apply, in fu
ture, for the obtaining of them, to the proper au. PENSACOLA, April 16, 1818.
thority, as I, for my part, possess no power what.
ever in relation thereto. Most ExceLLENT SIR: Your excellency's let- May God preserve your excellency many years. ter of the 25th of the last month has been deliv.
JOSE MAZÓT. ered to me, and also that of the 26th, in answer His Ex'cy A. Jackson, to mine of the 16th of February last. I have the
Major General, sfc. honor to advise your excellency of the receipt of both, and to answer the former. In' the month of May, of the last year, from a
HEADQ'RS, DivisioN OF THE SOUTH. spirit of conciliation I permitted a cargo of pro
Fort St. Mark's, April 27, 1818. visions, which the schooner Mobiterra had brought Sir: After I left this port for St. Juan, to disfrom New Orleans to this place, to pass up the perse and destroy the mutual enemy of Spain Escambia to Fort Crawford. Influenced by the and the United States, a small schooner, with same sentiments, I made a similar concession to men and supplies, arrived from Pensacola, and Captain Call, assenting to the transporting of the was taken possession of and detained by my officer cargo brought by the schooner Italiana, in Janu- left in command. This vessel has been liberated ary last, to the said destination; and, more lately, with all her effects, excepting some clothing of in continuance of the same amicable and concil. the United States unaccompanied with any in. iatory spirit, I consented that Lieutenant Eddy, voice, and which bas been detained, as supposed of the garrison of the before named fort, (com- to be a part of that taken on board the boats missioned by its commander, Major Young, for within the territory of this Republic, in which the purpose,) should procure sixty barrels of pro- Lieutenant Scott, of the United States army, with visions in this place; and the cargo of the schoon his command, were so inhumanly massacred. er Italiana (which is, or ought to be, deposited I regret being compelled to state to you, that, here) not being yet exported, I do not think the from the papers and proofs taken at San Juan's; further introduction of provisions, which your the quantity of American cattle found at Si. excellency asks at present necessary; but, never. Marks, and purchased by me from the commistheless, as I infer from your excellency's letter ary of the post; and the intercourse kept up bethat these provisions are already on their passage, tween this post and the hostile Indians, there is in pursuance of the sufferance hitherto accorded, too much ground to believe that the lodians bave and observing the restrictions and course estab- been encouraged, aided, and abetted by the offi. lished, that is, to consign them to a Spanish com- cers of Spain in this cruel war against the United mercial house, who will take care to forward States. Proof positive exists ihat the lodians them, and pay the royal duties of import and ex- were supplied with ammunition by the late com. port, I will allow the same destination to be given mandant of St. Marks. The United States clothio them as to the former, provided that the Gov. ing being found on board of a vessel in the employ ernment of the United States shall not set up, or of the Government of Spain, sailing from Pensaderive any right, either now or hereafter, from cola direct for this port, com pels, me to call on these purely gratuitous concessions, as I make them you for a statement in what manner you came from the obligation of existing circumstances, possessed of said clothing. The good underwhich do not admit of supplying the garrison of standing that so happily exists between His Caththe before named Fort Crawford by any other olic Majesty and the United States formed a just way.
ground to believe that his agents would have disIn accordance with the declaration of your ex. countenanced this cruel and savage war against cellency, when you add it is not your intention the citizens of this Republic. Spain, too weak to enter into a discussion with me in relation to to comply with her treaties with the United States, the right which the United States may claim to or chastise her own savage subjects, waging war the free navigation of the Escambia, so neither is against a friendly nation, it was scarcely io be it mine to discuss this subject with your excel- believed that her officers would have been delency, as well because it does not fall within my tected in aiding and abetting the enemy, assisting