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Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.


protection of that portion of the frontier on our as Fort Jackson, and there the necessary provis. side of the line, unless your impression should be ions may be obtained and packed 10 answer their decidedly different from that I have stated ; in immediate wants, until they are intercepted by which eveni, you will take post at any point supplies from below. Major Fanning has been which you may judge proper within the country despatched to Fort Hawkins to purchase and possessed by the Indians. On the east of the forward on these supplies to the most convenient Appalachicola you may station the troops on point of interception. I have advanced to him either side of the line, as you may judge proper. iwo thousand dollars, with authority to draw on Fort Gadsden, besides admitting of great facility the quartermaster general for any additional for supplies, appears to be a very commanding sums wanted, and imposed upon him the tempoposition, and ought not to be evacuated. Should rary duties of deputy quartermaster general." I you think so, you will retain it, and garrison it am compelled to this arrangement from an imwith a sufficient force.

pression that there can be no officer of the quarI trust you will be able to make such a distri-iermaster's department in the vicinity of Fort bution of your command as to afford, with vigi- Hawkins, and Colonel Gibson could not po sibly lance, effectual protection to the frontier, without reach that neighborhood to effect the objects resorting to the militia. It is of great import- wished. ance, if the militia can be dispensed with, not My inspector general, Colonel Hayne, (10 to call them into actual service, as it is harassing brigadier general having volunteered' his serto them and exhausting to the Treasury. Pro- vices,) is charged with conducting the march of tection is the first object, and the second is pro- the two regiments of Tennessee volunteers to tection by the regular force. I have, &c. the southera frontier.

J. C. CALHOUN. From the contents of Colonel Arbuckle's and Brevet Major Gen. E. P. Gaines,

Major Muhlenburg's letters, copies of which are Fort Hawkins, Georgia.

herewith enclosed, you will readily perceive that the former must remain inactive, and that the

latter is in a dangerous situation. Every inforDEPARTMENT OF WAR,

mation from our southern frontier justifies the August 19, 1818.

decisive measures I have taken, and urges the Sir: I send the enclosed extract from the let: service. I trust you will view the subject in the

prompt movement of the volunteers called into ter of the Secretary of State to the Spanish same light, and that my arrangements may meet Minister, in relation to St. Mark's and Pensa- with your entire approbation. cola. My instructions to you, of the 14th instant, contained the substance of this extract; boundary, reinforced with the Tennessee volun

The troops now assembled on our southern and my object in communicating it now, is, thai you may be in possession of the precise ideas teers called into service, will enable me to inflict communicated to the Spanish Minister, in case Seminoles. I remain here to facilitate every ar

speedy and merited chastisement on the deluded any difficulty should occur. I have, &c.


rangement for the prompt movement of the Ten

pessee detachment, but will leave this on the 22d General E. P. Gaines.

instant for Fort Scott, via Fort Hawkins.

From Colonel Arbuckle's letter I am advised of

the departure of General Gaines from Fort Scott; HEADQ’rs, Division OF THE SOUTa, and the newspapers communicate the informa

Nashville, January 20, 1818. tion of the Georgia contingency being commandSır: In a communication to you of the 12th ed by a Brigadier General. As he must, conseinstant, I acknowledged the receipt of your order quently, be the commanding officer of the forces of the 26th ultimo, and advised you of the ap. in the neighborhood of Fort Scout, I have tbis peal I had made to the patriotism of the West day directed instructions to him by no means to Tennesseeans. On yesterday, the officers who precipitate himself into a general engagement had so gallantly headed the Tennessee mounted with the Seminoles, but at all hazards to relieve, volunteers

, during the Creek campaigns, met me if possible, Major Muhlenburg from his present at this place, and gave every assurance of their situation, and cover his ascent up the Appalachiability to assemble two regiments of mounted cola river. I have further advised him of my gun-men by the 31st instant, at any designated movements, and directed that he should remain point within the western part of this state. I on the defensive, collect all the necessary supplies, have ordered them to rendezvous at Fayetteville, and have every preparation made for an active and as many as may appear on the 31st instant, campaign as soon as reinforced by the Tennesor the 1st of February, to be mustered and received into service for six months (if not sooner

General Gaines has been notified of this order. discharged) by my inspector general. The con. I have no later advices from bim than that of the tractor has instructions to issue to these troops 2d of December, informing me of the catastrotwenty days? rations, and every measure has phe of Lieutenant Scott and party. been adopied to facilitate their march, via Fort Your letter, enclosing your general order of the Jackson, by the most practicable route, to Fort 29th ultimo, has been received. Like yourself, I Scott. These troops will be well supplied as far have no other feelings to gratify than ibose con


Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc. nected with the public good, and it gives me Extract of a letter from General Jackson to the Secpleasure to find that we coincide in those opinions

retary of War, dated calculated to produce it. Responsibility now

HARTFORD, GEORGIA, Feb. 14, 1818. rests where it should, on the officer issuing the I arrived at this place on the evening of the order; and the principle acknowledged is calcu- 12ch, and here met with General Gaines. From lated to insure that subordination so necessary to a letter received from the Governor of Georgia, the harmonious movement of every part of the advising of the movement of the militia from the military machine.

several counties to the designated point of rendezIt would afford me much pleasure to commu- i vous, as well as the punctuality with which the nicate with you on all military points which my troops have assembled here under General Gaines's experience may enable me to elucidate.

requisition, has induced a hope that I shall be With respect, &c.

enabled to make a prompt and speedy march for ANDREW JACKSON,

the relief of Fort Scott. Major General commanding. I enclose you a copy of a letter from Colonel Hon. John C. Calhoun, Sec'y of War. B. G. Orr to Captain Callis, contractor's agent

at Fort Hawkins. From the sum with which he Extract of a letter from J. C. Calhoun, Secretary of states to have furnished his agents in this counWar, to Major General Andrew Jackson, dated try, you can judge how far efficient means have

JANUARY 29, 1818.

been adopted to insure the necessary supplies to Your letters of the 12th and 13th instant are the troops heretofore in service, as well as those received. The measures you have taken to bring summoned to the field under the late requisition. an efficient force into the field are approbated; The mode of provisioning an army by contract and a confident hope is entertained that a speedy is not adapted io the prompt and efficient moveand successful termination of the Indian war will ment of troops. It may answer in time of profollow your exertions.

found peace, where a failure or delay cannot pro

duce any serious ill consequences; but where Extract of of a letter from the Secretary of War to active operations are necessary, and success deMajor General Andrew Jackson, dated

pendent on prompt and quick movements, there

is no dependence to be placed on the contractor. DEPARTMENT OF WAR, Feb. 6, 1818.

His views are purely mercenary; and where the I have the bonor to acknowledge the receipt of supplies will not insure him a profit, he hesitates your letter of the 201h ylimo, and to acquaint not on a failure, never regarding how far it may you with the entire approbation of the President defeat the best devised plans of the commanderof all the measures which you have adopted to in-chief. Experience has confirmed me in this terminate the rupture with the ladiaos. The opinion, and the recent failure has prompted me honor of our arms, as well as the interest of our again to express it. country, requires that it should be as speedily tér

The plan which has been adopted to procure minated as practicable; and the confidence re the necessary supplies for the army, to transport posed in your skill and promptitude assures us them to Fori Scott, and the quantity otherwise ibat peace will be restored on such conditions as ordered to that poini, will, I hope, relieve me from will make it honorable and permanent.

any embarrassment on that account, until a de

cisive blow has been struck upon the enemy. I Extract of a letter from General Andrew Jackson to have been so frequently embarrassed from the the Secretary of War, dated

failures of contractors, that I cannot but express Fort HAWKINS, February 10, 1818. a hope that some other more efficient and certain I reached this place last evening, whed I learned, mode of supplying our army may be adopted : by sundry communications received from Brevei such a plan as will render those charged with the Major General Gaines, ibat the Georgia militia, execution of so important a trust responsible to under General Glasscock, had all relurned home, military authority, and exposed to severe and leaving the frontier in a very exposed situation. merited chastisements, whenever defaulters, at The regular troops at Fort Scott have been out the discretion of a court-martial. of provisions, bui the means adopted by Major General Gaines to remedy that evil, induces a strong presumption that they are by this time sup

Heada’rs, Division of the South, plied; which, with the stores ordered by me from

Fort Early, February 26, 1818. New Orleans, will, I trust, afford us an ample Sir: lo my last letter from Hartford, Georgia, supply for the campaign.

of the 14th instant, I expressed a hope that the The contractor having failed, General Gaines plans adopted to procure supplies for ihe detach. has, by my order, directed the quartermaster 10 ment from Georgia to transport them to Fort purchase provisions, in which he has succeeded so Scott, together with the quantity ordered to that far as to procure one thousand one hundred hogs, point, would relieve me from many embarrassand a sufficiency of bread stuff; this will marchments on that account, until a decisive blow could the troops to aod from the seat of war.

be struck upon the enemy. I am without any official advice as to the pre- The Georgia detachment marched from their paration and march of the late requisition from encampmeni near Hartford on the 19th instant, ihe State of Georgia.

and on that night General Gaines received a let: 15th Con. 2d SESS.-69



Defeat of the Seminole Indians, &c. ter from Lieutenant Colonel Arbuckle, command of February with supplies, and being also advised ing at Fort Scott, containing such intelligence of that two sloops with provisions were in the bay, his intention to abandon that post, in the event of and an officer had been despatched from Fort not receiving supplies in a short given time, as Scott in a large keel-boat to bring up a part of induced him (General Gaines) to set out that their loading, and deeming that the preservation night, and, if possible, by reaching the place in of these supplies would be to preserve the army, time to prevent such a disastrous movement. and enable me to prosecute the campaigo, I as

The General has, as he communicated to me, sumed the command on the morning of the 10th; ordered a large supply of provisions to the Creek ordered the live stock slaughtered, and issued to agency to be transported in boats to Fort Scott the troops with one quart of coro to each man, and this place, which would serve until that or- and the line of march to be taken up at twelve dered from Mobile (by himself) should arrive; meridian. Having to cross the Flint river, which and under that order did calculate on meeting was very high, combioed with some neglect in two boats loaded with flour, on his reaching this returning the boats during a very dark night, I place, but was deceived, having arrived here on was unable to move from the opposite bank until ihe night of the 20th, which he left on the even- nine o'clock, on the morning of ihe 11th, when I ing of the 21st, in a small boat with twelve men. look up my line of march down the east bank of On the night of the 22d I received by express a the river for this place, touching the river as often letter directed to General Gaines, and daied the as practicable, looking for the provision boats 19th instant, from Captain Melvin, of the 4th in- which were ascending, and which I was fortunate fantry, who had been charged by General Gaines enough to meet on the 13th, when I ordered an to build the boats at the agency, and have the extra ration to the troops, they not having received provisions transported thence, stating that two a full one of meal or flour since their arrival at boats would be finished in two days which would Fort Early. transport upwards of one hundred barrels of flour On that day my patroles captured three pris. each; these I had strongly calculated on, but they oners, and found some hidden corn. On the have not arrived. The excessive rains have rep. morning of the 14th I ordered the boat down the dered the roads so bad that I ordered the troops, river to this place, whilst I descended by land, on their march here, to take their baggage on the and reached here, without interruption, on the wagon horses, and abandon the wagons ; this fa- 16th. The eligibility of this spot as a depot decilitated their march to this place, which they termined me, and I immediately directed my aid. reached to-day; and eleven hundred men are now de-camp, Lieutenant Gadsden, of the engineer here without a barrel of flour or bushel of corn. corps, to furnish a plan for, and superintend the We have pork on foot; and to-morrow I shall erection of, a fortification. His talents and indeproceed to Fort Scott, and endeavor 10 procure fatigable zeal, displayed in the execution of this from the Indians a supply of corn that will aid order, induced me to name it Fort Gadsden, lo in subsisting the detachment until we reach that wbich he is justly entitled. On my arrival here I place. How those failures have happened under immediately despatched the boat to the bay for the superintendence of regular officers I cannot the balance of the provisions koowa to be there, imagine, but blame must rest somewhere, and it and 10 ascertain whether the flotilla, in charge of shall be strictly investigated as soon as circum- Colonel Gibson, had reached there, and which stances will permit.

returned on the 19th with the unpleasing intelli. The waters are unusually high, and the ground gence that nothing had been heard from the filoso rotten that it is with much difículty that even tilla from New Orleans, since it was seen passing pack-horses can pass. Every stream we are com- Fort Bowyer. I immediately put the troops on pelled either to bridge or swim.

half rations, and pushed the completion of the I have the honor to be, &c.

fort for the protection of the provisions, in the ANDREW JACKSON, event of their arrival, in tending to march forthMajor General commanding. with to the heart of the enemy,

and endeavor to Hon. J. C. CALHOUN, Sec'y of War.

subsist upon him. In the mean time, I despatched Major Fanning, of the corps of artillery, to take

another look into the bay, whose return, on the HEADQ'RS, DivisioN OF THE SOUTH, morning of the 23d, brought the information that

Fort Gadsden, March 25, 1818. Colonel Gibson, with one gunboat and three tranSir: At 7 o'clock P. M., on the 9th instant, I sports, and others, in sight, were in the bay. On reached Fort Scott, with the brigade of Georgia the same night I received other information that militia pine hundred bayonets strong, and some

no more had arrived. I am, therefore, apprebenof the friendly Creeks who had joined me on my sive that some of the smaller vessels have been march a few days before, where finding but one lost, as one gunboat went to pieces, and anotber, quart of corn per man, and a few poor cattle, when last spoken, had one foot of water in her which, added io the live pork I brought along, bold; all the vessels had been spoken after a gale would give us three days' rations of meat, deter- that dispersed them. A north and north west mined me at once to use this small supply to the wind has prevailed for six days, but has fortubest advantage. Accordingly, having been ad-Dately changed this morning. I am now awaitvised by Colonel Gibson, quartermaster general, ing a boat from the bay (which is expected tothat he would sail from New Orleans on the 12th 1 day) to complete eight days' rations for my troops,


Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.

upon which I mean to march. From information duced to pass into Georgia for supplies. His men received from Pensacola and New Orleans I have and officers, as reported to me, were willing to no doubt but that St. Marks is in possession of risk the worst of consequences on what they had the Indians. The Governor of Pensacola in- to join me; however, they have been marched formed Captain Call, of the 1st infantry, (now from their supplies to a country stripped of them, here,) that the Indians had demanded arms, am- when every consideration should have induced munition, and provisions, or the possession of the his advisers to have urged him on to secure the garrison of St. Marks of the commandant, and supplies in the bay, and preserve themselves and that he presumed possession would be given from Fort Scott from starvation. I have a hope they inability to defend it. The Spanish Government will join me before I reach St. Marks, or the is bound by treaty to keep her Indians at peace Mickasuky towns; this would be desirable, as the with us. They have acknowledged their iocom- troops ordered from New Orleans, to protect the petency to do ihis, and are consequently bound, supplies, have not reached the bay, and leaving by the law of nations, to yield us all facilities to garrisons at Forts Scott and Gadsden weakens reduce them. Under this consideration, should I my force much; the whole effective strength of be able, I shall take possession of the garrison as the regulars being but three hundred and sixty a depot for my supplies, should it be found in the privates. bands of the Spaniads, they having supplied the Io mine of the 26th ultimo, from Fort Early, Indians; but if in the hands of the enemy I will I stated that despatches received by General possess it, for the benefit of the United States, as Gaines on the 19th instant, from the commanda necessary position for me to hold, to give peace ing officer at Fort Scott

, induced him to set out and security to this frontier, and put a final end that night for Fort Scott to prevent its abanto the lodian warfare in the South.

donment, &c. In his passage down the Flint he Finding it very difficult to supply Fort Craw. was shipwrecked, by which he lost his assistant ford on the Canecub by land I have ordered the adjutant general, Major C. Wright, and iwo solsupplies for that garrison by water, and written diers, (drowned.) The General reached me six to the Governor of Pensacola, that, if he inter- days alier, nearly exhausted by huoger and cold, rupts them during the present Indian war, I shall having lost his baggage and clothing, and being view it as aiding our enemy, and treat it as an compelled to wander in the woods four and & act of hostility; and stated io him the propriety; half days without anything to subsist on, or any under existing circumstances, of his affording all clothing except a pair of pantaloons. I am happy facilities to put down their own as well as our to have it in my power to say that he is now enemies, and that our Governments, while nego- with me, at the head of his brigade, in good tiating, can take the subject under consideration, health. but, in the mean time, our provisions must pass The great scarcity of subaltern officers, in the to Fort Crawford by water without interruption. 4th and 7th regiments of infantry, has induced

In mine of the 14th February, from Hartford, me to appoint several young men, present, as I informed you of the means adopted to procure second lieutenants in the regiments, who, from supplies, and in my last of ihe 26th, from Fort personal knowledge, and good recommendations, Early, I informed you of their situation. To those I have no doubt, will prove themselves worthy, communications I beg leave to refer you. I have and, I trust, will meet with, the approbation of only to add that I lefi Fort Early for Fort Scott, the President. A list of their names, and the and subsisted my troops on ground peas, corn, regiments to which they are altached, will be and pork, that I could occasionally procure from furnished the adjutant and inspector general, by the Indians, with some pork I had' on foot, the my adjutant general. whole subsistence for man and horse not costing

ANDREW JACKSON, five hundred dollars. Of all the supplies purchased

Major Gen. commanding. for the relief of Fort Scout, and the support of the Georgia militia, nol ope pound was received P.S.-Since writing the above, I have the until 1 passed Fort Scott. I said in my last that pleasure to inform you that the boat from the blame rested somewhere. The cause of those bay has arrived with provisions; also Colonel failures will, in due time, be a subject of investi- Gibson and Captain McKeever of the Navy. I gation, and Colonel Brearly has been arrested on shall move to-morrow, having made the necesthe application of General Gaines.

sary arrangements with Captain McKeever for By some strange fatality, unaccountable to me, bis co-operation in transporting my supplies the Tennessee volunteers have not yet joined around to the bay of St. Marks, from which place me; they promptly left their homes, and through I shall do myself the bonor of communicating the inclement weather reached Fort Mitchell, with you. Should our enemy attempt to escape where I had ordered them supplies, and where with his supplies and booty io the small islands, Colonel Hayne, who led them, met my instruc- and from thence carry on a predatory warfare, tions to pass by Fort Gaines, where he would get the assistance of the navy will prevent his escape. a supply of corn that would enable him to reach General McIntosh, commanding the friendly Fori Scott; but the idea of starvation had stalked Creeks, who had been ordered to reconnoitre the abroad, a panic appears to have spread itself eve- right bank of the Appalachicola, reported to me rywhere, and he was told that they were starving on the 19th that he had captured, without the ai Fort 'Gaines and Fort Scott, and he was in- fire of a gun, one hundred and eighty women and Defeat of the Seminole Indians, fc.

children and fifty-three warriors of the Red dred regulars at Fort Crawford, and I wo-thirds of Ground chief's party, with their cattle and sup- the militia of the territory are not yet organized. plies; the chief and thirty warriors making their Nor can I organize them, and appoint ihe offiescape on horseback. Ten of the warriors, al- cers, until the country is laid off into proper beats. templing to escape after they had surrendered, So soon as the Legislature arranged ihe counties, were killed by the General.

I issued the necessary instructions on that sub

A. J. ject ; but owing to high waters, and the want of Hon. J. C. CALHOUN, Sec'y of War.

bridges, it is impossible to have them executed at

present. There is not, moreover, nor has there Coosada, NEAR FORT JACKSON,

been one dollar in our treasury. You will readily

perceive my embarrassmeats, and I earnestly enMarch 27, 1818.

ireat you to place funds at my disposal for the Sir: Having arranged the affairs of the terri- protection of the people, and, if practicable, to tory, as far as was practicable, I left St. Stephen's order a much larger number of regular troops to the 14th instant, with the intention of proceeding our frontiers. to Georgia for my family. At the town of Clai- I shall make this my headqua ters for some borne, the next day, intelligence reached me that, weeks. I have the honor to be, &c. on the night of the 13tb, a party of Indians had

WM. W. BIBB. attacked a house on the Federal road, about six- Hon. John C. Calhoun, ty-five miles distant from that place, and mur.

Secretary of War. dered eight persons. I immediately ordered a detachment of mounted militia into service, and proceeded with them to the place. At the same

HEADQ'RS, DIVISION OF THE SOUTH, time, apprehending the murderers might attempt

Camp near St. Mark's, April 8, 1818. to escape to Florida, the asylum for our enemies, SIR: I wrote you from Fort Gadsden, commuI transmitted a communication, by express, to the nicating the embarrassments under which I had commanding officer at Fort Crawford, notifying labored, previous to my arrival at that post, and him of my arrangements, and desiring a force to my determination, being then in a situation to be sent from the fort, in iwo detachments, along commence active operations, to penetrate immecertaio routes, to the place of rendezvous. The diately into the centre of the Seminole towns. express was also instructed to overtake me. I ac- My army marched on the 26th ultimo, and, on cordingly received information from Major Young the 1st of April, was reinforced by the friendly that my request had been executed. The detach. Creek warriors, under General Mclotosh, and a ments were marched with a promptitude honoradetachment of Teanessee volunteers, commanded ble to the major, and I trust ihey will be enabled, by Colonel Elliott. On the same day, a mile and with the aid of ihe militia, to arrest the progress a half in advance of the Mickasukian villages, of the hostile party,

a small party of hostile Indians were discovered Understanding that the inhabitants, in this judiciously located on a point of land projecting quarter, considered themselves in much danger, into an extensive marsby pood; the position deI issued the necessary orders for the disposition sigoated, as since understood, for the concentraof the troops, and proceeded hither. I have since ting of the negro and Indian forces to give us been correctly informed, that the morning I left batile. They sustained, for a short period, a the place of rendezvous, five men, riding on the spirited attack from my advanced spy comparoad in that neighborhood, were fred on by the nies, but filed and dispersed in every direction, Indians-bree killed, and one wounded; in this upon coming in contact with my flank columos, state of things it is indispensable to the safety of and discovering a movement to encircle them. the country, that troops should be stationed at The pursuit was continued through the Micka. several points; and I have taken measures, as far sukian towns, until night compelled me to enas I can, for that object. I have also issued an camp my army. The next day detachments were order, that all Indians who are hunting in our sent out, in every direction, to reconnoitre the woods depart forth with to their nation. It has country, secure all supplies found, and reduce 10 become necessary to their safety, and to the re- ashes ihe villages. The duty was executed to pose of the inhabitants. We cannot distinguish my satisfaction; nearly three hundred houses the hostile from the friendly party; and such is were consumed, and the greatest abundance of the state of alarm, that the sight of an Indian corn, catile, &c., brought in. Every indication creates among the women and children the most of a hostile spirit was found in the habitations of frightful apprehensions. I have sent a letter to their chiefs. In the council house of Kenhagee's the Big Warrior, requesting him to call his peo- town, the King of the Mickasukians, more iban ple home, and assuring him that my order is dic- fifty fresh scalps were found; and, in the centre iated by the most friendly motives.

of the public square, the old Red Stick's stanIs it not probable that when the Seminoles are dard, a red pole, was erected, crowned with the pressed by General Jackson, in the neighborhood scalps, recognised by the hair, as torn from the of Appalachicola, they will retreat to our fron- heads of the unfortunate companions of Scott. tiers, and take revenge on our defenceless inhab. As I had reason to believe that a portion of the ilanis? I look for it, and am without the means hostile Indiaos had Red to St. Marks, I directed of resistance. There are not more than one hun-my march towards that fortress. As advised, I

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