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Relations with Spain.


try. They insist on the fulfilment of my prom-yours, with my answer, to Opoy Hatcho, and, as ise ; and, as an honest man, I will endeavor to do I am in daily expectation of letters from New it. Let your arm of justice fall on the guilty. Providence, perhaps they may induce me to write An honest and upright man, who harms no man, you further. and endeavors to do all the good he can, fears no I am, sir, your obedient servant, man or judge; his acts are open to inspection,

A. ARBUTHNOT. and will bear the test of scrutiny. Thus, sir, I answer your insinuation, that, since my arrival The murders and thefts you talk of I do not in this country, I have instigaied persons to steal believe. There are a parcel of outlaws calling and murder. Ask the lieutenant commanding themselves Americans, who are continually comat Fort Gaines if the letter I wrote him bears ing into the nation, stealing cattle, &c., and lately, the features of an instigator to murder. Ask I hear, one was killed out of three, and his horse Opoy Hatcho if the recommendatory note I sent taken and publicly sold while in the act of stealbim, by order of Opony, breathes the strains of a ing and driving off cattle.

A. A. murderer. Ask Opony himself if my language

To Mr. WM. HAMBLY. and advice to him was that of a murderer. Ask Mappalitchy, a chief residing on the Ockmulgee,

No. 63. among the Americans, what my advice was. All

Indian Talk. those will contradict your vile insinuation. But Mappaliichy informed me the Cowelas were all To our good brother the Chief Tustonaky Thlucco, pleased with the letter and my note Opony sent

the Big Warrior: them, and perfectly accorded with my sentiments Your brothers, chiefs of the Creek nation, of living as brethren, and as one large family, whose names are put to the talk we now send respectiog their neighbors, but, at the same time, you, have found it necessary to hold the same, at all times ready to protect their property. Yet ihat their sentiments and opinions may be knowa several of them, a few days afterwards, (no doubt to all their red brethren of the four nations, and influenced by some humane and good man,) re- stop the mouths of bad men who are continually canted their promise, and ordered a letter to be sending false and bad talks to us as well as to written me; which letter, I presume, I have this our brethren, for the purpose of making ill.blood day received, signed by you. Now, sir, if your between us.' Know, ihen, we have met at Ochprinciples were as humane as mine if you took lochnee Sound with our warriors and youog as much pleasure in fostering any spark of friends chiefs, and have held our talk, which is this: ship the upper Indians may show to their brethren The red brethren of the four nations are all of the lower nation as you do in fomenting the descended from the same fathers, and ought to quarrels between them, you would then be their live as brothers; and for this reason we now friend and benefactor. You, sir, that speak their take them by the hand, to live henceforth at language fluently, have much in your power ; but peace and united to each other, and let no bad' I fear you use ihat power to the injury of all, talks be listened to, or come among us. and, eventually, to your own ruin. Let me advise When Colonel Nicholls, the English officer you to change your tone and mode of acting. who was last among us, went away, he gave us How much more creditable would it be for you a good talk, desiring us to live wall with all our 10 propagate friendly actions, and create an at- brethren, and never permit illblood to be between tachment among the Indians of all nations one us, and io respect the Americans that were our to the other, thao to endeavor to foment quarrels, neighbors, and not molest them, or permit our and have your emissaries in every quarter of the people to steal. We have carefully kept this nation spreading false reports, tending to harass ialk, followed his advice, &c. and disturb them. Now, sir, with regard to your It is searly three years since we received a and Mr. Doyle's reporting that I am no English- white bead from the Cherokees; we have held it mao, and only one of those wild adventurers who sacred, and it has been in our at all our risk life and property for lucre, be pleased to come talks; we now send you, that you may forward down to Ochlochnee, and I will show you a let- to their head, Minichico Mico, a pipe from his ter written by Earl Bathurst to Governor Came old friends; you will also send him the present ron, (and wbich I received from him to read to talk, and from him let it be sent to the Chickathe chiefs of ibe Creek Dation,) an answer to a saws, and from them to the Choctaws. letter, I believe, written by you, early in the Colonel Nicholls promised us to send people Spring of 1816.

from England to keep stores in different parts of 'I shall not reflect on the part you took in blow the nation to furnish us with goods; he had ing up the fort at Prospect Bluff; it is not my found people williog to come, but when they business. I know the blacks used you shamefully, heard ihai the fort of Appalachicola was deas they did all that went near them, yet I think stroyed, they were fearful of coming, and with. the revenge you took savors much of a savage. drew their promise.

Do not think, sir, that I am to be frightened Let us protect all white men that give us good away from this place while I have the protection talks, but let us not regard or listen to those who of the Spaniards, and the support of honest men. give us bad ones, but rather send them from An upright man is not easily daunted.

among us, for he must be a bad man who wishes I keep a copy of this letter, and send a copy of ill-blood between brothers.

Relations with Spain.

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From this time, therefore, let us not listen to bat encroached on almost every point of the Inany bad talks ; let us all hold each other fast by dian territory. The chiefs think that it is imposthe hand of peace, and each brother hold the sible the conduct of the persons acting so contrary other in his heart.

to the treaty can be known to the American Gov. This is sent with a good will, and will be kept ernment; and, the more to blind the Goveroment, by us.

and to mislead them as to the true state and disOpoithlimico, · Imatbluche,

position of the Indians, they are continually Cappachimico,

Inhimathluchy, Palo spreading reports in the public gazettes, of GeorInhimathlo, Fowl Town, Chipely,

gia, &c., of cruelty committed by ibe Seminole Charle Tustonaky, Lahoe Himathlo, Indians on inhabitants living on the borders of Otosmico,

Homathlemico, the United States ; whereas it is persons in the Ocbacona Tustonaky, Talmuches Hatcho, back seulements of Georgia who enter the SemiEuchy Tustonaky,

Hillis Hadjo. nole territory in large parties to steal cattle, which

they frequently drive off io gangs of fifty and one No. 64.

bundred at a time; and if in these excursions the Mr. Arbuthnot to the Honorable Charles Bagot.

Indians meet them and oppose these predatory

plunderers, blood sometimes has been spilt, which [Found with Arbuthnot's papers.)

was the case in April last, when a pariy of MickSir: On my return to this from the Indian asuky Indians mei three men driving off cattle, nation, about a month since, I received a letter and attacked them, killing one, and retaking the from Mr. Moodie, adnexing an extract from a cattle. But those bloodthirsty back-settlers of letter of your excellency, and which in future Georgia soon retaliated on the poor Indians, for shall be attended to, when I have occasion 10 early in June they returned to plunder, and meetwrite on Indian affairs.

ing with an Indian encampment they killed one As I am now especially authorized by the chiefs man; another making his escape, they pursued whose names I beg leave to annex to ihe present him to another encampment, where they killed to make such representations as may be of ser- two others and a hoy; the boy they scalped. vice to the nation, and learning by the copy of a Early in July a headman of the town of Suwaletter from the right honorable Earl Bathurst, nee was killed on St. John's river, while hunting, handed me by his excellency Governor Cameron, but the chief does not reckon the persons who killed that your excellency is instructed to watch over him true Americans. For the better showing your the interests of the four nations, I shall take the excellency how those poor Indians are abused, I liberty to lay before your excellency such mal beg leave to enclose you paragraphs taken from ters as have come under my own observation, American papers, the whole of which are comand what has been reported to me by chiefs in plete fabrications, tending to mislead the Ameriwhose veracity I can place some confidence. On can Government. I also beg your excelleacy's my arrival at Ochlochnee Sound last January, I attention to a letter from an American officer, was met by several of the priocipal chiefs, who dated at Fort Gaines, with Cappachimico, the reiterated ihe complaints that were stated to your head chief of the Seminoles' answer thereto; bot excellency in their letter of last November. Oo notwithstanding it is stated to be by authority of the Chatahoochee particularly, they slated the the President of the United States, the gentleman Americans were descending in numbers, driving waited no time to receive an answer, bul, prior to the poor Indian from bis habitation. The report the chief's messenger arriving at the fort, had was confirmed some weeks after by Otosmico, the continued his road for St. Mary's, leaving them chief of the town of Ecan Halloway, on the ignorant of whai talk be was authorized io give Chatahoochee, who informed me that ihe officer them; and I have since learned that Mr. Dinkins commanding at Fort Gaines had repeatedly sent was an officer of General Jackson's staff, travelmessages to him, desiring he would submit to live ling ibrough the nation. under the American Government, and threaten- Hon. CHARLES BAGOT, ing that bis non-compliance would force him to H. B. M.'s Ambassador, Washington. turn the guns of the fort against the town and drive them out. These threats, and swarms of

No. 65. American settlers descending, drove the poor lo

A. Arbuthnot to a person of rank in England dians from their homes, and thirty-six fields in a state of cultivation were occupied by the new [Taken from the London Times newspaper of 7th Adsettlers, and where the houses stood the plough

gust, 1818.] has passed over.

SUWANEE, LOWER CREEK NATION, On the Choctawhatchy, which is far within

January 30, 1818. the Indian territory, Americans have formed a When I last took the liberty of writing to you, large settlement, which, if persisted in, will soon by desire of the chiefs of the Creek pation, I litdrive the Indians to the extremity of the pepio- te expected that war would so soon have comsula.

menced between the Americans and them. It is, Agreeably to the treaty bel weep Great Britain however, actually begun, by the wanton aggresand America, the latter were 10 confine them sions of the former, in an attack on Fowl Town, selves to the same boundaries they enjoyed in during the night. Though this wanton attack 812, prior to the war. This they have not done, I has been disavowed by General Mitchell, the

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Relations with Spain.


American agent for Indian affairs, and he has rica; at the peace they agreed to see them promade reparation for the injury and loss sustained tected in their rights and privileges, and placed by Inhimathlo and his people, yet the continued on the same fooling as before the war; since aggressions of the Americans, and the numbers then they have never troubled themselves about pouring into the nation, not from the land side them, thinking it enough that His Majesty's Amalone, but from Mobile and elsewhere, by the Apo bassador had orders to see that those people were palachicola river, bave compelled the Indians to protected in their rights and privileges. But how take arms as their only resource from oppression. is bis excellency the British Ambassador to know

Your friend Hillis Hadjo has been called by his if the Indian is righted, and permitted to live people to put himself at their head, and he is now quietly on his own land ? He interdicts the corencamped at Spanish Bluff, the residence of Doyle respondence of any private individual on Indian and Hambly, which is now in the possession of affairs, unless it can be put into his hand without the Indians, with from one thousand to one thou. any expense. Does he expect a true account of sand two hundred men; those men are princi- what passes in the Indian nation from the Ameripally Red Sticks, who are scattered about in the can Government, or from the hireling gazettes nation, and who have collected and put them of the towns of Upper Georgia ? It is the interest selves under his command, with a few hundred of both to deceive, and unless the door is opened Upper Indians who have joined them.

for British subjects to speak what they know, I cannot allow myself io believe that those en and instruct his excellency of such matters recroachments on lodian territory are made with specting the Creek nation as they are certain to the knowledge of the American Government, be true, he can never have the means of judging and General Mitchell's conduct and message to what is proper to be done. Kenhagee assure me it is not so. But there are I have, by desire of the chiefs, written to his persons who wish to get hold of the Indian lands, excellency the honorable Charles Bagot on their and they stick at po means, however cruel and op- affairs, and also Governor Cameron, with a depressive, to obtain their ends. General Gaines's mand for a small supply, [of arms, munitions, &c.] letter, of August last, to Kenhagee, clearly show of which they stand greatly in need. I trust, sir, that he and General Jackson are determined, if you will make such representations to His Mapossible, to get hold of the whole Indian lands. jesty's Government as ihe circumstances of the After falsely accusing them of murders, thefts, case require, that those unfortunate people, who burning houses, &c., he says: "But there is some look up to you as their friend, may soon rest thing out in the sea, a bird with a forked tongue; peaceably and quiet in their country. whip him back before he lands, for he will be the You will pardon the liberty I take, which ruin of you yet. Perhaps you do not know what nothing but the pressiog solicitations of Kenhaor whom I mean. I mean the name of English-gee would bave induced me to take; and, with man."

much respect, I am, sir, &c. The other contents of this letter plainly show

A. ARBUTHNOT. me that those two Generals have formed a plan of

No. 66. possessing themselves of the whole Indian lands. That this plan has originated with Forbes, la

Boleck to Governor Coppinger. neraritys, or those of their subordinate agents, I [Translation from the Spanish translation received have little doubt, as every part of the conduct of

from Governor Coppinger, and communicated by those inferior actors, shows they have been em

Mr. De Onis, enclosed in his letter of the 27th ployed for the express purpose of rooting out the

March, 1818, to the Secretary of State. For the poor Indian from bis paternal inheritance. The

original, in English, see No. 49, court-martial proreport of Hambly having made sales, in the name

ceedings, No.2.] of the chiefs, of all the lands from Pensacola to

SUWANEE, November 18, 1816. St. Augustine, comes from St. Mark's fort. I Sır: I had the honor of receiving your letter shall soon be there, and learn from what source of September, but the impossibility of finding a they derive their information.

person to write an answer is the cause of this apThat false and improper sales have been made, parent neglect. I have no doubt; without such had been the case, I shall be very happy to keep up a good underthe Americans would never have poured into the standing and correspondence with you; and I Iodian nation by the Appalachicola.

hope you will, when occasion offers, advise me of It is reported ihat Joha Forbes has withdrawn such ihings as may be of service io myself and from all Indian concerns; but the lonerarilys are my people. My warriors and others who go to enough, with their subordinate agents, to disturb Si. Augustine return with false reports, tending the whole Indian nation; and I have not the least lo harass and disturb my people, and prevent them doubt that through them the present troubles come. attending to their usual avocations. At one

The chiefs have written to Governor Cameron time, the Americans, supported by a force of for a supply of ammunition, and which Kenhagee three thousand men, and such of our brethren as informs me Hillis Hadjo, when in England, had they have compelled to join them, are ruaning orders to demand, in case of actual need. 'l is lines far within our territory; at another, they are really necessary the Eoglish Government should collecting a large force at Fort Mitchell, in the do something for those people. In the late war forks of the Flint and Chatahoochee rivers, to fall they drew them into their quarrel against Amer-1 on the towns that may not join them. Now,sir, we

Relations with Spain.

know of no reason they can bave for attacking an you and your warriors uneasiness. I see with inoffensive and unoffending people, whose wish pain that ihe whole comes from the information is to inhabit their woods, without disturbing or of persons in whom you ought not to place the being disturbed by any one. We have none of smallest confidence, it being their principle to their slaves; we have taken none of their prop. employ such opportunities for the purpose of seerly since they made peace with our good father, ducing you and your people from their daily laKing George. We have followed the orders of bors. In consequence of this, and of what you tell the officer of our father who was among us, Colome of your desire to keep up the best understandonel Edward Nicholls, and in nowise molesteding and correspondence with me, and of your the Americans, though we daily see them en- hope that the opportunities will not be wanting, croaching on our lands, stealing our cattle, and let me give you such counsel as may be useful to murdering or carrying off our people. We were you, your people, and warriors. I will do so from told by ihe same officer that, as allies of our father, the sentimenis of sincere friendship I bear lowe were included in the treaty of peace between wards you, fearful, however, that the sentiments our good father and the Americans, and that the of others, who come into the territory under the latter were to give up all the territory that had appearance of friendship, but with bad intentions, been taken from us before the war; but, so far may influence your minds and obtain your confi. from complying with the ninth article of that dence by their flattering representations. It is treaty, they are making daily encroachments, ascertained bere that iwo persons have lately preand forging treaties (which they pretend are con- sented themselves as commissioners of the Eng. cluded with our people) for cessions and grants lish nation, who have carried off several runa. of lands which never were in existence, and the way negroes belonging to the subjects of the signatures of which are unknown to the chiess of King, my master, and your friend, among whom the Creek nation, who alone have a right to assign was one of Don Francisco Pellicer's, and another or transfer the common property. The want of of Mr. Bunch's, both inhabitants of ihis province. a proper person among our people to acquaint us This did not seem credible to me, as I could not with ihese transactions is the cause of our long suppose that so good a friend to our nation as you silence on them, and leads the world, as well as are could consent to such proceedings; but, in our friends, to thiok we are in league with the case they have really happened, you will be senAmericans.

sible of their great impropriety, and of the just The principal chiefs of the nation assembled grounds of complaint on the part of the persons lately ai my iown of Suwanee, and resolved to so injured, who are desirous, as well as myself

, of inform the Minister of King George at Washing; assuring you of the sincere good-will and friendion of our grievances, and of the conduct and ship we have for the Seminole tribe of Indians, usurpation of the Americans; which was accord- of which you are the chief. ingly done, and copies sent to England. Until I am, with great respect, your most affectionate we have one or more persons among our people and faithful servant, to watch over our rights and interests, we shall

JOSE COPPINGER. continue to be exposed to the same conduct on To Friend and Brother BOLECK, the part of the Americans, whose system appears Chief of the Seminole tribe of Indians. to be the destruction of our peace and tranquil. lity, and expelling us from our native land.

No. 68. You desire that I would chase off those who steal my cattle, &c. Some of my people have copy of a sheet of Arbuthnot's journal, found lately driven away several Americans who were

among his papers. endeavoring to selile at Lachua ; and I do not

October 23d (continued.) They had a long doubt they will represent that as an act of hos- talk with Captain W., and stopped all night; this tility, although you well know that Lachua is in day, meridian, observed in latitude 29° 21'. Suthe heart of my territory, and was, until the wanee bearing northeast three miles. 241h. StartAmericans killed my brother, our chief town. Ied with two men in boat to survey if any en. return you my thanks fur your letter,

trance to the west branch of the river; found all And am, with great respect, your most obedi- shallow; pulled boat over the mud, and entered ent, humble servant,

west branch; made poles to mark the easternmost BOLECK, his X mark, outlet, and descended, but could not this day find Chief of the Seminole nation. the direct channel through the oyster bank, the

tide having flowed too much. 251h, at 2 A. M., No. 67.

wind shifted to east, and by 8 A. M. to southeasi, Governor Coppinger to the chief Boleck, (Bowlegs.)

when we got under way, and stood off to sea,

wind freshening and a pasty short sea risiog; at St. AUGUSTINE, IN FLORIDA,

10 tacked in shore, three fathoms, Suwanee northDecember 20, 1816.

east seven miles; the north point of the bay north FRIEND AND BROTHER BOLECK: Your letter of ten miles, Cedar Keys south seven miles; from the 18th of November was delivered to me yes- sundown to midnight, heavy squalls, with rain terday by one of your servants, in which you in- and much thunder and lightning; at 0 anchored form me of the receipt of mine of the 26ih Sep in four fathoms, no wind, and heavy swell. 261h. tember last, and other circumstances which give First part rainy and squally; at '10 A. M., got Relations with Spain.

poder way, Cedar Keys just in sight from deck; half-past 11 A. M.; caught nothing; observation stood easi-northeast, and at 2 P. M. hove to, 10 good, latitude 29° 11'; the high part of South wait for canoes seen coming off; came to anchor Key due east two miles, the sandy beach of Great in iwo fathoms; six canoes came on board full of Cedar Key west half a mile. Aí sundown, CapIndians and blacks, Billy and Jack among them, lain W. arrived from Suwanee; several canoes with several negroes that were at the bluff; found with negroes at the point; captain returned from that Bowlegs and Doherty had started in a canoe fishing on point; some good fish. 4th. Idle all last night; ihis day at meridian observation good, day; afternoon prepared rum, sugar, coffee, and latitude 29° 13', Cedar Keys, the outermost, bear- molasses to send Robin Creighton, per colored ing east-southeast six miles. Al 6 P. M. Bow- lad named Charles, (see note thereof;) during the legs, with relique, consisting of five canoes, came night ibe wind shiited to the north and northon board, and continued all night; bad a very northeast, drizzling rain and very cold. 5th. Jong lalk with Captain W. 27in. The brother- Wind north-northeast

, rain, and very cold; cleared in-law of Bowlegs desired Captain W. to listen up before midday; at 4 P. M. two canoes from to what be had heard from the Spaniards of the Suwanee; one came on board, reported CappaAmericans' intention of attacking them; they chimico and all the chiefs waited for Captain wished to live quietly and attend to their cattle, W.; prepared sundry articles for Suwanee, and &c., but could not for the Americans and revolted sent a canoe off to get Frank's canoe to go with Spaniards, who daily killed their catile, &c. This Caplain W. and self. 6th, at 12 o'clock M., day bought six deer skios, sixteen racoon skins, started for Suwanee, in Frank's canoe, camped and three pounds wax, paid in taffia. Bowlegs for the night at the little island, mouih of 'ihe and retinue left me at 2 P. M.; Captain W. had river; a canoe, with several men and women, started about an hour before for Suwanee. At 8 camped at same place, bound for schooner, with. P. M. began to blow fresh from southeast, con- corn, &c. 71h. At 4 o'clock A. M. started up tinued blowing all night. 28th, at 2 P. M., got the river; at 8 o'clock A. M., camped and breakunder way and stood to sea. 29.h. Wind norih fasted at Pine bluff, and at 2 o'clock P. M. arrived west, blowing hard and squally, all day beating at Buera landing, took through the pine barren, off and on, double-reefed foresail, reefed main- and lost our way to Christophertown ; again getsail, &c.; at 4 P. M. struck on a shallow bank ting to the river, at half past 4 P. M. arrived at six miles southeast from the mouth of the river; Robert's ; Captain W. and guide had arrived a bore up and stood off; lowered jib and mainsail, little before ; visited Cappachimico and McQueen and repaired latter, which had given way near at Indiantown. 8th. A long talk with Indians ; the gair; wore and stood in shore, and came their complaints of the conduct of the Americans. to anchúr in fourteen feet water, Great Cedar McQueen mentioned they had taken one of his Key bearing southeast six miles. 301h, at 7 A. negroes and confined him in the fort at the forks. M., got under way, and stood for the entrance A chief from Chehaw said that they had killed between the two large. keys, luffing and bearing three Indians in his neighborhood, on their own away so as to keep in iwo fathoms; came to ground, and taken eleven horses ; several others anchor at 9 A. a mile and a half from stated losses in cattle and horses, and the Seminole islands. Captain went to sound channel; re- chiefs in particular; a chief of —said Lurned and reported channel to the southward, that, in confidence of the treaty being faithfully and that the large island must be brought to fulfilled on the part of the Americans, a hall. bear northeast. At 11 A. M., a canoe, iwo men, breed man, pamed Moses, before the war, settled lbree women and their children, from Cape near the forks, returned to take possession of his Anelole; got under way, rounded the bank, and fields, and was murdered by the Americans. The grounded belween iwo baoks, where we lay all chiefs ordered a letter, in way of memorial, to be night. 31st October, warped into a deep channel, written to our ambassador in America, and copies with much difficulty drawing her through the lo be sent to England, representing the conduct mud; wrote W. and Auchisee lodians, and also of Americans; the same was done agreeably to fishermen; cut poles to stake out channel. 1st the substance of their talk, read and interpreted November Wind northeast, extremely cold, to them by their own interpreters afterwards ; again warping, but did not succeed in getting each chief put his mark in my presence, which Í into anchorage ; observed meridian, latitude 29° certified. 9th. Cold and clear; Cappachimico, 11', the south end of the Great Cedar Key north- McQueen, and the other chiefs mei, and had a we st by north, three-quarters of a mile; the outer long talk, more fully particularizing iheir partic. or souihwest point of the high or South Key ular grievances; they also stated the number of southeast and by south one and a half mile; lay forts (seven) the Americans had built, and the quite dry at low water; at 10 P. M. Aoated off

, roads they had cut, and were still continuing to and stood into a good channel, but laying the cut, within their territory. warp too far out she tailed on the west side, McQueen stated that Mclatosh and the Coweta wbere we lay for the night, after bowsing laut Indians were the cause of the Americans' conour best bower, laid in mid channel. 20. Floated duct; that, after the peace, a deputation had been off al 10 A. M., and pulled up to good anchorage sent up to have a talk with the commander at under the lee of the island; boat went to ao Fort Mitchell, in the forks, who were instructed inshore key to look for water, and returned two to inform him of what Colonel Nicholls had casks full.' 3d. Self and captain on shore until stated to them with regard to their rights to the

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