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Relations with Spain.
in friendship, I ea tered the fort by violence. States' clothing, shipped in a vessel in the emTwo light companies of the 7th regiment of ploy of the Spanish Government, to that post, I infantry, and one of the 4th, under the com- now enclose, with his reply. The Governor of mand of Major Twiggs, were ordered to ad. Pensacola's refusal of my demand cannot but be vance, lower the Spanish colors, and hoist the viewed as evincing a hostile feeling on bis part, star-spangled banner on the ramparts of Fort particularly in connexion with some circum: St. Mark's. The order was executed promptly. stances reported to me from the most unquestionNo resistance was attempted on the part of the able authority. It has been stated that the Indians Spanish garrison. The duplicity of the Span. at war with the United States have free access ish commandant of St. Mark's, in professing into Pensacola ; that they are kept advised from friendship towards the United States while be that quarter of all our movements; that they are was actually aiding and supplying her sa vage suplied from thence with ammunition and munienemies, throwing open the gates of his garrison lions of war; and that they are now collecting to their free access, appropriating the King's in large bodies, to the amount of four or five slores to their use, issuing ammunition and mu- hundred warriors, in that city; that ioroads nitions of war to them, and knowingly purcha from thence have lately been made on ibe Alasing of thein property plundered from the citi-bama, in one of which' eighteen settlers fell by zens of the United States, is clearly evinced by the tomahawk. These statements compel me to the documents accompanying my correspond make a movement to the west of the Appalachience. la Fort St. Mark's, as an inmate of the cola ; and, should they prove correct, Pensacola family of the Spanish commandant, an English- must be occupied with an American force, the man, by the name of Arbuthnot, was found. Governor treated according to his deserts, or as Unable satisfactorily to explain the objects of policy may dictate. I shall leave strong garrisons his visiting this country, and there being a com- in Fort St. Mark's, Fort Gadsden, and Fort Scott; bination of circumstances to justify a suspicion and in Peosacola, should it become necessary to that his views were not honest, he was ordered possess it. into close confinement. The caplure of his Il becomes my duty to state it as my confirmed schooner, near the mouth of Suwanee river, by opinion that, so long as Spain has not the power my aid-de-camp, Mr. Gadsden, and the papers or will to enforce the treaties by which she is found on board, unveiled his corrupt transactions, solemnly bound to preserve the lodians within as well as those of a Captain Ambrister, late of her territory at peace with the United States, no the British colonial marine corps, taken as a security can be given 10 our southern frontier, prisoner near Bowlegs' town. Those individu. without occupying a cordon of posts along the als were tried, under my orders, by a special seashore. The moment the American army recourt of seleci officers, legally convicted as ex. turns from Florida, the war hatchet will be again citers of this savage and negro war, legally con- raised, and the same scenes of indiscriminate murdemned, and most justly punished for their ini. der with which our frontier seillers bave been quities. The proceedings of the court-martial visited will be repeated. So long as the Indians in this case, with the volume of testimony jus- within the territory of Spain are exposed to the tifying their condemnation, present scenes of delusions of false prophels, and the poison of wickedness, corruption and barbarily, at which foreigo intrigue; so long as they can receive am. the heart sickens, and in which, in this eplight: munition, munitions of war, &c.
, from pretended eped age, it ought not scarcely to be believed traders, or Spanish commandants, it will be imthat a Christian nation would have participated; possible to restrain their outrages. The burning and yet the British Government is involved in of their low s, the destroying of their stock and the agency. If Arbuthnot and Ambrister are provisions, will produce but temporary embarpot convicted as the authorized agents of Great rassments; resupplied by Spanish authorities, Britain, there is no room to doubt but that that they may concentrate or disperse at will, and Government had a knowledge of their assumed keep up a lasting predatory warfare against the character, and was well advised of the measures frontiers of the United States, as expensive as which they had adopted to excite the negroes barassing to her troops. The savages, therefore, and Indians in East Florida to war against the must be made dependant on us, and cannot be United States. I hope the execution of these kept at peace without being persuaded of the certwo unprincipled villains will prove an awful tainty of chastisement being inflicted on the com. example to the world, and convince the Govero- mission of the first offence. ment of Great Britain, as well as her subjects, I trust, therefore, that the measures which hare that certain (if slow) retribution awaits ihese been pursued will meet the approbation of the uachristian wretches, who, by false promises, President of the United States. They have been delude and excite an Indian tribe to all the bor- adopted in pursuance of your instruccions, under rid deeds of savage war.
a firm conviction that they alone were calculated Previous to my leaving Fort Gadsden, I had to iosure "peace and security to the southern occasion to address a communication io the frontier of Geurgia." Governor of Pensacola on the subject of per- The army will move on the 7th from hence, mitting supplies to pass up the Escambià river crossiog the Appalachicola river at the Ochesee 10 Fort Crawford. This letter, with a second bluff, about thirty miles above. from St. Mark's, on the subject of some United
Relations with Spain.
and the surrender of Fort Carlos de Barancas General Jackson to the Secretary of War.
again demanded; the favorable positions obtained
were pointed out, and the inutility of resistance HEADQ'RS, Division OF THE SOUTH, urged. Anxious to avoid an open contest, and Fort Montgomery, June 2, 1818.
to save the effusion of blood, the same terms
previously offered were again tendered. These Sir: In a communication to you of the 5th
were rejected, and offensive operations recomof May, I detailed at length the operations of menced. A spirited and well-directed fire was my army up to that period. Leaving a strong kept up the greater part of the morning, and garrison of regulars in Forts Scott and Gadsden, at intervals during the afternoon. In the eveI resumed my march, with a small detachment bing a flag was sent from the Spanish comof the 4th regiment of infantry, one company of mandant, offering to capitulate, and a suspenartillery, and the effectives of the Tennessee vol-sion of hostilities was granted until eight o'clock unteers, the whole not exceeding twelve huo. next day, when the enclosed articles of capitdred men, to fulfil my intentions, communicated ulation (marked C) were signed and agreed to you, of scouring the country west of the Ap. 1o. The terms are more favorable than a con. palachicola river. On the 10th of May, my quered enemy would have merited; but, under army crossed that river at the Ochesee village, the peculiar circumstances of the case, my oband, after a fatiguing, tedious, and circuitous ject obtained, there was no motive for wounding march of iwelve days, misled by the ignorance the feelings of those whose military pride or of our pilots, and exposed to the severest of pri- honor had prompled to the resistance made. vations, we finally reached aod effected a pas. The articles, with but one condition, amouat to sage over the Escambia. On my inarch, on the a complete cession to the United States of that 221 of May, a protest from the Governor of Pen-portion of the Floridas hitherto under the gove sacola was delivered me by a Spanish officer, ernment of Don Jose Mazot. remonstrating in warm terms against my proceedings, and ordering me and my forces in Pensacola and its dependencies are contained in
The arrangement which I have made to secure stantly to quit the territory of His Catholic Ma: the general orders, marked D. I deemed it most jesty, with a threat to apply force in the event of advisable to retain, for the present, the same a non-compliance. This was so open an iodication of a hostile feeling on his pari, after having somed, until such time as the Executive of the
government to which the people had been accusbeen early and well advised of the object of my United States may order otherwise. It was neoperations, that I hesitated no longer on the meas ures to be adopted. I marched for and en- of the United States, to check the smuggling
cessary, however, to establish the revenue laws tered Pensacola with only the show of resist, which had been carried on successfully in this ance, on the 24th of May. The Governor had previously fled to Fort Carlos de Barancas, American merchant
to an equal participation in
quarter for many years past, and to admit the where, it was said, he had resolved upon a musi
a trade which would have been denied under the desperate resistance. A correspondence ensued. between us, (accompanying this, marked A,) de- partial operations of the Spanish commercial
code. tailing at length my motives for wishing and demanding that Pensacola and its dependencies be
Capt. Gadsden was appointed by me collector, occupied with an American garrison. The pack and he has organized and left the departmeat in age macked B. are documents substantiating the be charge of officers on whom the greatest con
fidence charges, in part, against the conduct of the
may be reposed. Spanish Governor, having knowingly and wil- Though the Seminole Indians have been scat. lingly admited the savages, avowedly hostile to tered, and literally so divided and reduced as 20 the United States, within the towa' of Peosa- longer to be viewed as a formidable enemy, yet, cola.
as ihere are still many small marauding parties The peaceable surrender of the fort of Baran- supposed to be concealed in the swamps of the cas was deaied. I marched for and invested it Pe do, Choclaw hatchy, and Chap ey who on the evening of the 25th of May, and on the might make occasional and sudden in roads on our same night pushed reconnoitering parties under frontier sellers, massacreing women and chilits very guns. On the morning of the 26th, adren, I have deemed it advisable to call into sermilitary reconnoissance was laken; and on the vice for six months, if not sooner discharged, two same night, a lodgeinent was made, under a fire companies of volunteer rangers, under Čapiaias from the Spanish garrison, by Caplain Gadsden McGirt and Boyles, with instructions to scour of the eogineers, aided by Caplaios Call and the country between the Mobile and Appalachi
Young, on a commanding position, within three cola rivers, exterminating every bostile party buodred and eighty-five yards of the Spanish who dare resist, or will not surrender and remove works, and a nine-pounder mounted. A bow with their families above the thirty-first degree ilzer ballery was simultaneously established on of latitude. the capitol, and withiu seven hundred and sixty The Seminole war may now be considered as yards of the fort. Al daylight on the 271h, the at a close, tranquillity again restored to the southSpanish garrison opened their artillery on our ern frontier of the United States; and, as long as batteries ; a parley was sounded, a flug sent in, la cordon of military posts is maintained along
Relations with Spain. the Gulf of Mexico, America has nothing to ap- his connexion with my staff, merit the approbaprehend from either foreign or Indian hostilities. tion and gratitude of his country. Indeed, sir, to attempt to fortisy or protect an With respect, your most obedient servant, imaginary line, or to suppose that a frontier on
ANDREW JACKSON, the thirty-first degree of latitude, in a wilderness,
Major General Commanding. can be secured by a cordon of military posts while
The Hon. J. C. Calhoun, the Floridas lay open to an enemy, is visionary
Secretary of War. in the extreme.
No. 56. Under this firm belief, I have bottomed all my Extract of a letter from Thomas Wayne, Esq., purser operations. Spain had disregarded the treaties
on board the United States brig Saranac, to Benjaexisting with the American Government, or had
min Homans, dated not power to enforce them; the Indian tribes within her territory, and which she was bound to
St. Mary's River, Sept. 27, 1817. keep at peace, had visited our citizens with all “On our arrival here, we found General Mcthe horrors of savage war; negro brigands were Gregor in command of'Amelia Island. A few establishing themselves when and where they days afterwards he decamped, and embarked on pleased ; and foreign agents were openly and board the privateer McGregor, formerly the San koowingly practising their iotrigues in this neu
Josef.” tral territory.
“The noted Woodbine, of infamous memory, The immutable principles, therefore, of self- arrived here from Nassau, with a view, as was defence justified the occupancy of the Floridas, said, to join the patriots; but his friend McGregor and the same principles will warrant the Ameri: baving left the cause, he was disappointed, and can Government in holding it until such time since for Nassau, to commence some new expe
embarked with McGregor, who sailed a few days as Spain can guaranty, by an adequate military force, the maintaining her authority within the dition, which, it is generally supposed, will be to colony.
the bay of Espiritu Santo, or bay of Tampa, in A topographical sketch of the country from tude 76 degrees 30 minutes west. This is an ex
latitude 28 degrees 18 minules north, and longi. the Appalachicola to Peosacola accompanies this. Captain Young will prepare, as soon as practica- tensive bay, and capable of admitting ships of ble, a topographical memoir of that part of the any size, contiguous to which are the finest lands Floridas in which my uriny has operated, with a him by virtue of a grant from the ladiaos. He
in Florida, which Woodbine pretends belong to map of the country. Captain Gadsden is instructed to prepare a re- Mexico, and Tampa bay is the only place into
says he has surveyed the whole of the Gulf of port on the necessary defences of the country, as which large ships can eater." far as the military reconnoissance he has taken will permit, accompanied with plans of existing
No. 57 a. works, what additions or improvements are ne- [Extracts from Message of 26th March, 1818.] cessary, aod what new works should, in his opin- Extracts of a letter to the Secretary of State, dated ion, be erected to give permanent security to this
DECEMBER 24, 1817. important territorial addition to our Republic.
“My informants, I have no doubt, are possessed As soon as this report is prepared, Captain of as much information of the views and plans Gadsden will receive orders to repair io Wash- of McGregor and Woodbine as any person in the jogton city with some other documents which I United States.” “They sailed froin Amelia ia may wish to confide to his charge.
September, in company with a schooner belong. At the close of a campaign which has termi-ing to Woodbine, he being on board. Some time paled so honorably and happily, it gives me plea- after they had got to sea, General McGregor and sure to express my approbation generally of the family were put on board the schooner with
officers add soldiers of every species of corps Woodbine, and steered for New Providence." which I have had the honor to command. The
"From what has been written, it may readily patience with which they endured fatigue and be supposed that my friends had an oppportunity submilled 10 privations, and the determination of learning something of the plan of the future with which they encountered and vanquished operations of McGregor and Woodbine, and they every difficulty, are the strongest indication of believe it to be as follows: Woodbine persuaded the existence of that patriotic feeling which no McGregor that he could find frieods and funds circumstances can change, and of thai irresistible in New Providence, and that a British regiment ardor in the defence of their country which will had lately been disbanded there; that they would prove her strength and bulwark under any ex. pick up as many of the soldiers as possible, and, posure. I should do violence to my feelings if I with what negroes and others they could gather, did not particularly notice the exertions of my would make a tolerable force. They were then Quartermaster General, Colonel George Gibson, to sail for Tampa bay, a fine barbor to the northwho, under the most embarrassing circumstances, westward of Cape Florida, where they were to relieved the necessities of my army, and to whose be joined by 1,500 lodians, already engaged to exertions I was indebied for ihe supplies received. Woodbine, and invade Florida from that point ; His zeal and integrity in this campaign, as well they were then to march across, and attack Si. as in the uniform discharge of his duties since Augustine."
Relations with Spain.
No. 57 b.
stand by whose authority, and for what purpose, Instructions for sailing in Tampa bay, in McGre the accused came into the country? gor's handwriting.
Answer. I have frequently heard him say be
came to attend to Mr. Woodbine's business ai the [Enclosed in letter of December 24, 1817.]
bay of Tampa. The vessels must be at Tampa bay, commonly From the examination of John J. ARBOTHNOT, called Espiritu Santo. I calculate to be at Tampa a witness on the part of the prosecution : bay by the latter end of April, or 1st day of May,
“And that the prisoner stated to him that he 1818.' There are three bars: the northernmost had come to the country on Woodbine's businesss bae ja board skore going in. There is a small to selection by the prisoner
. Did you hear me is best, having five water ; on
righted." sandy key between the northern and middle chan
that I came on Woodbine's business? nels; upon this sandy key there will be a flag
Answer. I did.. staff, and, on hoisting your signal, you will be
From the examination of PETER B. Cook, a answered by the Florida flag, and a pilot will witness on the part of the prosecution : come off.
“ The prisoner told the witness that he had No.57 6.
been a lieutenant in the British Army, under Extracts of a letter to a gentleman in the District of Woodbine to Tampa, to see about those negroes
Colonel Nicholls. The prisoner was sent by Columbia.
he had left there. The prisoner told the witness BALTIMORE, July 30, 1817. Allow me now to relate, in detail, the particu. that he had written a letter to Governor Came
ron for ammunition for the Indians, some time in lars of my intercourse with General McGregor whilst in this city, in regard to bis objects. He commission in the patriot army under McGregor, declared his object to be, in the first place, to and that he expected a captaincy.” take possession of Amelia ; thence to wrest the Floridas from Spain, when he should immedi.
No. 59. ately call on the inhabitants, by proclamation, to designate some of their most respectable fellow
Ambrister's memorial to the Duke of York. citizens to form a constitution on the model of Bahama Island: some of the adjoining States; that, so far as it To His Royal Highness Frederick, Duke of might depend on him, he would encourage the York, Commander-in-chief, &c., the memorial existing disposition of the people in that section of Robert Christie Ambrister, of the Island of to confederate with the United States; leaving New Providence, gentleman, humbly showeth: it to the will and policy of this (our) Govern.
That your memorialist, a British subject, and ment, and to political circumstances, as they son of James Ambrister, Esq., lieutenani colonel, mighi arise, to indicate the most favorable time and commanding the militia of New Providence, for their admission into the Upion.
having served for nearly four years past as midNo.57 d.
shipman in the British navy, on board His Ma. From G. McGregor to the writer of the above, dated jesty's ships. Sparrow: Captain Edward Burt,
Rhodean, Captain George Mowbray, Reindeer, Nassau,
December 27, 1817. Captain J. P. Douglass, and Bramble, Captain "You know my objects." "On the other side, William P. Poyson; from which last-mentioned you have the extract of a proclamation about to ship he obtained his discharge in England in be published by the person in charge of making 1813, and returned to the island of New Provithe settlement. I leave this to-day for England, dence, where his friends reside; that Major Nichto arrange my privale affairs, which, from the olls, of the royal marines, having shortly after many years that I have been in South America, arrived at the said island of New Providence, in have not improved by my absence; my family His Majesty's ship Hermes, in company with remaip here until my return."
His Majesty's ship Carron, for the purpose of
raising recruits for a corps denominated the corps No. 57 e.
of colonial marines, destined to serve during the Extract from Proclamation.
American war in such paris of the Indian terri"Inhabitants of the Floridas! I expect soon tory bordering upon the United States of America, to see General McGregor among you again. He or in the Slates themselves, as circumstances was animated by a sincere wish for your hap- should render it necessary; your memorialist appiness, and only desired to see you free from the plied for, and obtained, a commission of auxiliary yoke of Spain, in order that you might legislate second lieutenant in that regiment, which he for yourselves."
immediately joined, and proceeded, under the
command of the said Major Edward Nicholls, to No. 58.
Appalachicola, from whence he proceeded to the Extracts from the minutes of the proceedings of the Creek nation, where he served until those forces court.martial in the trial of Ambrister.
were disbanded upon the termination of hostili. From the examination of John Lewis Paenix, ties with the Americans, when he returned to a witness on the part of the prosecution : the said island of New Providence. Question by the court. Did you ever under- And your memorialist further showeth, that
15th Con. 2d SEşs.-66
Relations with Spain.
having been assured by the said Major Nicholls, tempt, which we have stopped. On 1st Decemat the time of his accepting the above-mentioned ber 'I marched with thirty men to go against commission, (a copy of which he begs leave to them. After seven days' march we arrived at annex,) that he had no doubt but he would be the fort; and, after our men got resied I went placed upon hali-pay when his services were no against it. We had an engagement for four longer required, your memorialist is desirous hours, and seeing that we could do no good wish either of obtaining half-pay, or of being more ac-them, we retreated and came off. The balls tively employed, and of obtaining a commission flew like hail stones; there was a ball that had either in one of His Majesty's West India regi- like to have done my job; it just cleared my ments, or in such other of His Majesty's regimeats breast. For six days and six nights we had to as to your Royal Highness shall see fit.
encamp in the wild woods, and it was constantly Your memorialist, therefore, humbly prays raining night and day; and as for the cold, I sulyour Royal Highness to take into your conside- fered very much by it; in the morning the water ration this his memorial, and he shall ever pray. would be frozen about an inch thick. There ROBERT C. AMBRISTER. was a boat that was taken by the lodians which
had in it thirty men, seven women, aod four No. 60.
small children ; there were six of the men who Ambrister's commission as auxiliary second licu- got clear, and one woman saved, and all the rest tenant.
of them got killed; the children were taken by By the honorable Sir Alexander Cochrane, Knight the heels, and their brains dashed out against the of the Bath, Vice Admiral of the Red, and Com. boat. We have got Mr. Hambly and Doyle mander-in-chief of His Majesty's ships and prisoners, and we are going to send them to Nasvessels employed, and to be employed, on the sau to stand their trial, as they have caused all North American station, &c., io Mr. Robert this disturbance. Hambly told me that it was C. Ambrister, hereby appointed auxiliary sec. published in the American newspapers that they cond lieutenant of the corps of colonial marines were to take possession of the nation in March'; to be raised upon the continent of North and if that be the case, you will see us sooner America :
than you expected. If they should come when Whereas I have thought fit to send a detach- the vessel is away, we shall have to take to and ment of the royal marine corps to the Creek run in our canoes, as we have some very fine nations for the purpose of training to arms such
ones here. One knows not hardly whal to do Indians and others as may be friendly to, and for those
dd puppies, as we may call them, willing to fight under the standard of His Majesty,
for they are no better. I do, by these presents, constitute and appoint dd lies. But Arbuthnot has threatened my
We find that what I have mentioned is all you an auxiliary second lieutenant of such
corps of colonial marines as may be raised upon the life once or twice; but, on iny return, I will pua. contineat of North America, to hold such local ish him by the law. You must excuse my bad rank while actually employed upon the said con- writing, as I am in a hurry. Give my love to tinent, until further orders. You are therefore your niother and your sister, and Mrs. Roberts, carefully and diligently to discharge the duty of and all inquiring friends. I have nothing more auxiliary, second lieutenant, by exercising and to say at present, as times will not admit. well-disciplining both the inferior officers and
I remain yours, forever, marines of the said corps; and I do hereby com
PETER B. COOK. mand them to obey you as their second auxiliary [Addressed on the back to] lieutenant. And you are to observe and follow Miss E. A. Carney, Nassau, N. Providence, such orders and directions from me, or any other of your superior officers, according to the rules
No. 62. and discipline of war, in pursuance of the trust
A. Arbuthnot to W. Hambly. hereby reposed in you. Given under my hand and seal, at Bermuda, ibis
OCHLOCHNEE SUUND, May 3, 1817. 251h day of July, 1814, in the fifty-fourth year of
Sir: Oo my return here this day, I received a His Majesty's reign.
letter signed by you, and dated the 231 March [L. 8.]' ALEXANDER COCHRANE. last. As you have taken the trouble of advisiag By command of the Vice Admiral:
me, you will
, of course, expect my reply; and I W.BALHETCHET, Secretary.
embrace the opportunity of doing it at leo.th.
First let me premise, sir, that when you lived at No. 61.
Prospect Bluff, a clerk to Messrs. Forbes & Co., P. B. Cook to Elizabeth A. Carney.
you did not consider Cappachimico, McQueen, SUWANCE, January 19, 1818.
or any other of the chiefs of the Lower Creek
nation, as outlaws. Does the man whom the My Dear AMELIA: I have embraced this op attachment of Cappachimico bas saved from the portunity of writing you, hoping to find you well, hands of retributive justice presume to call him as it leaves me at present; and I am very sorry an outlaw ? For shame, sir! The most barto inform you of the times at present. We are dened villain would not thus calumniate the threatened every day by the dd Americans; saviour of his life. Your generous friend, sir, not threatened only, but they have made an at-land ihe other chiefs, have called me to this coun.