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Relations with Spain.
also charged with stimulating the Indians to their present hostile aspect; but whether he is an acknowledged agent of any foreign Power, or a mere adventurer, I do not pretend to determine, but am disposed to believe him the latter."
chief had always been a true and faithful friend to the British.
The reports of friendly Indians concur in estimating the number of hostile warriors, including the Red Sticks and Seminoles, at more than two thousand, besides the blacks, amounting to near four hundred men, and increasing by runaways
Extract of a letter from General Gaines to the Sec- from Georgia. They have been promised, as sev
retary of War, dated
CAMP MONTGOMERY, M. T.,
I received by the last mail a letter from Archibald Clarke, Esq., Intendant of the town of St. Marys, by which it appears that another outrage, of uncommon cruelty, has recently been perpetrated by a party of Indians upon the Southern frontier, near the boundary of Wayne county. They have massacred a woman, (Mrs. Garret,) and two of her children; the mother and eldest child were scalped; the house plundered and
Extract of a letter from A. Culloh to General Gaines,
written at Fort Gaines.
eral Indians inform me, assistance from the Eng-
General Gaines to the Secretary of War-with a talk.
SIR: I had the honor to receive, on the 26th ultimo, your commuication of the 30th October. I am very happy to find that the President approves of my movement, but I much regret that his just expectations as to the effect there was reason to believe would be produced on the We are hourly told by every source of infor- minds of the Indians by this movement have mation, by the friendly Indians, by letters from not been realized. I am now quite convinced William Hambly and Edmund Doyle, who re- that the hostility of these Indians is, and has side low down on the Appalachicola, that all the long since been, of so deep a character as to leave lower tribes of Indians have imbodied, and are no ground to calculate upon tranquillity, or the drying their meats to come on to the attack of this future security of our frontier settlements, until post. The British agent at Ochlochnee Sound is the towns south and east of this place shall regiving presents to the Indians. We have among ceive a signal proof of our willingness to retaliate us Indians who have been down and received for every outrage. It is now my painful duty powder, lead, tomahawks, knives and a drum for to report an affair of a more serious and decisive each town, with the royal coat of arms painted on nature than has heretofore occurred, and which it. We have at this time at least five hundred In- leaves no doubt of the necessity of an immediate dians skulking in this neighborhood, within three application of force, and active measures on our or four miles of us, who will not act for them- part. A large party of Seminole Indians on the selves, and who are evidently waiting for the 30th ultimo formed an ambuscade upon the Apsignal to strike an effectual blow. They have palachicola river, a mile below the junction of stolen almost every horse belonging to the citi- the Flint and Chatahoochee, attacked one of our zens. They have scared them from the fields boats ascending near the shore, and killed, woundwhich they have cleared, and have taken posses-ed, and took the greater part of the detachment, sion of their houses. They are now stealing horses, cattle, and hogs, from the Georgia lines, and have killed one or two families on the Satilla.
consisting of forty men, commanded by Lieutenant R. W. Scott, of the 7th infantry. There were also on board, killed or taken, seven women, the wives of soldiers. Six men of the detachment only escaped, four of whom were wounded.
Extract of a letter from General Gaines to Major They report that the strength of the current at
General Andrew Jackson, dated
FORT SCOTT, GEORGIA,
The first brigade arrived at this place on the 19th instant. I had previously sent an Indian runner, to notify the first town chief, E-me-hemant-by, of my arrival, and, with a view to ascertain whether his hostile temper had abated, requesting him to visit me. He replied that he had already said to the commanding officer here all he had to say, and he would not come.
Among the articles found in the house of the chief was a British uniform coat (scarlet) with a pair of gold epaulets, and a certificate signed by a British captain of marines, "Robert White, in the absence of Colonel Nicholls," stating that the
the point of attack had obliged the lieutenant to keep his boat near the shore; that the Indians had formed along the banks of the river, and were not discovered till their fire bad commenced, in the first volley of which Lieutenant Scott and his most valuable men fell.
The lieutenant and his party had been sent from this place some days before to assist Major Muhlenberg in ascending the river with three vessels laden with military stores brought from Montgomery and Mobile. The Major, instead of retaining the party to assist him, as I had advised, (see enclosure No. 2,) retained only about twenty men, and in their place put a like number of sick, with the women, and some regimental clothing. The boat, thus laden, was detached
Relations with Spain.
chiefs that I should communicate to them my views and wishes. I felt authorized to say but little, and I deemed it necessary, in what I should say, to endeavor to counteract the erroneous impressions by which they have been misled by pretended British agents.
alone for this place. It is due to Major Muhlenberg to observe that, at the time he detached the boat, I have reason to believe he was not apprized of any recent hostilities having taken place in this quarter. It appears, however, from Lieutenant Scott's letter, received about the hour in which he was attacked, (see enclosure No. 3,) that he I hope the President will see in what I have had been warned of the danger. Upon the re- said nothing to disapprove. I feel persuaded a ceipt of this letter, I had two boats fitted up with report of the various talks which I received from covers and port-holes for defence, and detached the chiefs would show the propriety of what I Captain Clinch with an officer and forty men, have said to them; such a report I have not a with an order to secure the movement of Lieu-moment's time now to make. The Indians are tenant Scott, and then to assist Major Muh- at this moment firing at our camp from the oppolenberg. site side of the river.
I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your obedient servant,
EDMUND P. GAINES,
Major General commanding.
Talk enclosed in 51 a, (No. 1.)
This detachment embarked on the evening of the 30th, and must have passed the scene of action below at night, and some hours after the affair terminated. I have not yet heard from Captain Clinch. I shall immediately strengthen the detachment under Major Muhlenberg with another boat, secured against the enemy's fire. He will, CHIEFS AND WARRIORS: The President of the therefore, move up with safety, keeping near the United States has been informed of the murders middle of the river. I shall moreover, take a and thefts committed by hostile Indians in this position with my principal force at the junction part of the country. He has authorized General of the river, near the line; and shall attack any Jackson to arrest the offenders, and cause justice vessel that may attempt to intercept our vessel to be done. The Indians have been required to and supplies below, as I feel persuaded the order deliver up the murderers of our citizens and of the President, prohibiting an attack upon the the stolen property, but they refused to deliver Indians below the line, has reference only to the either. They have had a council at Mickasuky, past, and not to the present or future outrages, in which they have determined upon war; they such as the one just now perpetrated, and such have been at war against helpless women and as shall place our troops strictly within the pale children; let them now calculate upon fighting of natural law, where self-defence is sanctioned men. We have long known that we had enemies by the privilege of self-preservation. The wound-east of this river; we likewise know we have ed men who made their escape concur in the opinion that they had seen upwards of five hundred hostile Indian warriors at different places below the point of attack. Of the force engaged they differ in opinion; but all agree that the number was very considerable, extending about one hundred and fifty yards along the shore, in the edge of a swamp or thick woods. I am assured by the friendly chief that the hostile warriors of every town upon the Chatahoochee prepared canoes and pushed off down the river to join the Seminoles as soon as the account of my
movement from the Alabama reached them.
The Indians now remaining upon the Chatahoochee, I have reason to believe, are well disposed. One of the new settlers, however, has recently been killed; but it has been clearly proved that the murderer had belonged to the hostile party. The friendly chiefs in the neighborhood, when apprized of the murder assembled a party, and sent in pursuit of the offender, and followed him to the Flint river, on the route to Mickasuky, whither he escaped. Onishajo and several other friendly chiefs, have offered me their services, with their wrrriors, to go against the Seminoles. I have promised to give them notice of the time that may be fixed for my departure, and then to accept their services. The enclosure No. 1 contains the substance of what I have said to the chiefs who have visited me; several of whom reside south of the Spanish line, and west of Appalachicola river. It was expected by the
some friends, but they are so mixed together we
No. 51 b, (No. 2.)
FORT SCOTT, November, 1817. SIR: The waters having risen sufficiently high to enable you to ascend the river with all the vessels, I wish you to do so, though it should take longer than I had anticipated. You can avail yourself of the aid of Lieutenant Scott's detachment to erpedite your movement hither. Keep
Relations with Spain.
your vessels near to each other; and, should you meet any insuperable obstacle, eudeavor to apprize me thereof, and you shall have additional relief. Wishing to see you soon, with your fleet, I remain, with great regard, your obedient servant, E. P. GAINES.
To Major MUHLENBERG,
Commanding United States troops.
No. 51 c, (No. 3.)
Lieutenant Scott to General Gaines.
SPANISH BLUFF, November 28, 1817.
of the 9th. On the evening of the 10th I was joined by the rear of the Tennessee volunteers, also by the Indians under General McIntosh, whom I had left at Mickasuky to scour the country around that place. Although the weather has been dry and pleasant, and the waters had subsided in a great degree, our march might be said to have been through water, which kept the infantry wet to the middle; and the depth of the swamps, added to the want of forage, occasioned the horses to give out daily in great numbers. On the morning of the 12th, near Econfinnah, or Natural Bridge, a party of Indians were discov
SIR: Enclosed you will receive Major Muh-ered on the margin of a swamp, and attacked by lenberg's communication, which he directs me General McIntosh and about fifty Tennessee volto forward to you by express from this place. unteers, who routed them, killing thirty-seven Mr. Hambly informs me that Indians are assem- warriors, and capturing six men and ninety-seven bling at the junction of the river, where they in-women and children; also recapturing a white tend to make a stand against those vessels coming woman who had been taken at the massacre of up the river. Should this be the case, I am not Scott. The friendly Indians also took some able to make a stand against them. My com- horses and about five hundred head of cattle from mand does not exceed forty men, and one-half the enemy, who proved to be McQueen's party. sick and without arms. I leave this immediately. Upon the application of an old woman of the I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, prisoners, I agreed that if McQueen was tied and carried to the commandant of St. Mark's, Lieut. 7th Infantry, com'g detachment.her people should be received in peace, carried NOTE.-The bearer of this is entitled to three to the upper tribes of the Creek nation, and there dollars on delivering this letter. The Indians provisioned until they could raise their own have a report here that the Indians have beaten crops. She appeared much pleased with those the white people. terms, and I set her at liberty, with written instructions to the commandant of St. Mark's to that effect. Having received no further intelligence from McQueen, I am induced to believe the old woman has complied with her part of the obligation.
R. W. SCOTT,
No. 51 d.
General Gaines to Captain Clinch.
Headquarters, Fort Scott, November 30, 1817. SIR: You will embark with the party assigned you on board the covered boats; descend the river until you meet with Lieutenant Scott; deliver to him a cover for his boat, and give him such assistance as, in your judgment, shall be necessary to secure his party, and expedite his movement to this place. You will then proceed, with the residue of your command, down the river, until you meet with Major Muhlenberg; report to him, and act under his orders. You will, in no case, put your command in the power of the Indians near the shore. Be constantly on the alert. Remember that United States troops can never be surprised by Indians without a loss of honor, to say nothing of the loss of strength that might ensue.
To Col. CLINCH, 7th Infantry.
General Jackson to the Secretary of War.
Bowlegs's Town, Suwanee river,
SIR: My last communication, dated Camp before St. Mark's, 8th April, and those to which it referred, advised you of my movements and operations up to that date, and, as I then advised you, I marched from that place on the morning
From St. Mark's I marched with eight days" rations, those that joined me having but five; this was done under the expectation of reaching this place in that time, founded on the report of my faithful Indian guide, which I should have accomplished but for the poverty of my horses and the continued sheets of water through which we had to pass. On the morning of the 15th my scouts overtook a small party of Indians, killing one man and capturing the residue, consisting of one man and woman and two children, and on that evening I encamped, as my guide supposed, within twelve miles of Suwanee. I marched very early on the 16th, under the hope of being able to encompass and attack the Indian and negro towns by one o'clock, P. M., but, much to my regret, at three o'clock, and after marching sixteen miles, we reached a remarkable pond, which my guide recollected, and reported to be distant six miles from the object of my march; here I should have halted for the night, had not six mounted Indians, (supposed to be spies,) who were discovered, effected their escape: this determined me to attempt, by a forced movement, to prevent the removal of their effects, and, if possible, themselves from crossing the river, for my rations being out, it was allimportant to secure their supplies for the subsistence of my troops. Accordingly, my lines of attack were instantly formed and put in motion, and about sunset my left flank column, composed
Relations with Spain.
of the second regiment of Tennessee volunteers, commanded by Colonel Williamson, and a part of the friendly Indians, under Colonel Kanard, having approached the left flank of the centre town and commenced their attack, caused me to quicken the pace of the centre, composed of the regulars, Georgia militia, and my volunteer Kentucky and Tennessee guards, in order to press the enemy in his centre, while the right column, composed of the first regiment of Tennessee volunteers, under Colonel Dyer, and a part of the friendly Indians, headed by General McIntosh, who had preceded me, were endeavoring to turn his left and cut off his retreat to the river; they, however, having been previously informed of our force, by a precipitate retreat soon crossed the river, where, it is believed, Colonel Kanard, with his Indians, did them considerable injury. Nine negroes and two Indians were found dead, and two negro men made prisoners.
On the 17th foraging parties were sent out, who found a considerable quantity of corn and some cattle. The 18th, having obtained some small craft, I ordered General Gaines across the river with a strong detachment and two days' provision to pursue the enemy. The precipitancy of their flight was soon discovered by the great quantity of goods, corn, &c., strewed through the swamps, and convinced General Gaines that pursuit was in vain. Nine Indians and five negro prisoners were taken by our Indians. The evi dence of haste with which the enemy had fled induced the General to confine his reconnoissance to search for cattle and horses, both of which were much wanted by the army. About thirty head of cattle were procured; but, from the reports accompanying General Gaines's, which will in due time be forwarded to you, and the disobedience of his orders by the Indians, not one pound was brought into camp.
As soon as time will permit, I shall forward a detailed account of the various little affairs with the enemy, accompanied with reports of the commanding officers of the detachment. Suffice it for the present to add, that every officer and soldier under my command, when danger appeared, showed a steady firmness, which convinced me that, in the event of a stubborn conflict, they would have realized the best hopes of their country and General.
I believe I may say that the destruction of this place, with the possession of St. Mark's, having, on the night of the 18th, captured the late Lieutenant Ambrister, of the British marine corps, and, as represented by Arbuthnot, successor to Woodbine, will end the Indian war for the pres ent; and, should it be renewed, the position taken, which ought to be held, will enable a small party to put it down promptly.
I shall order, or take myself, a reconnoissance west of the Appalachicola at Pensacola point, where I am informed, there are a few Red Sticks assembled, who are fed and supported by the Governor of Pensacola. My health being impaired, as soon as this duty is performed, the positions taken, well garrisoned, and security given to the
southern frontiers, (if the Government have not active employment for me,) I shall return to Nashville to regain my health. The health of the troops is much impaired, and I have ordered the Georgia troops to Hartford to be mustered, paid, and discharged; the General having com. municated his wishes, and that of his troops, to be ordered directly there, and reporting that they have a plenty of corn and beef to subsist them to that point. I have written to the Governor of Georgia to obtain from the State the necessary funds to pay General Glasscock's brigade when discharged, and that the Government will promptly refund it. I am compelled to this mode to have them promptly paid, Mr. Hogan, the paymaster of the seventh infantry, (for whom I received from Mr. Brent an enclosure said to contain $50,000,) not having reached me.
From the information received from Ambrister and a Mr. Cook, who was captured with him, that A. Arbuthnot's schooner was at the mouth of this river, preparing to sail for the bay of Tampa, my aid-de-camp, Lieutenant Gadsden, volunteered his services with a small detachment to descend the river and capture her. The importance of this vessel to transport my sick to St. Mark's, as well as to destroy the means used by the enemy, induced me to grant his request; he sailed yesterday, and I expected to have heard from him this morning. I only await his report to take up the line of march on my return for St. Mark's. The Georgia brigade, by whom I send this, being about to march, compels me to close it without the report of Lieutenant Gadsden. I have the honor to be, &c.,
Hon. JOHN C. CALHOUN,
General Jackson to the Secretary of War.
Fort St. Marks, April 26, 1818. SIR: I wrote you from Bowlegs' Town on the 20th instant. On the night of the same day I received the expected despatch from my aid-decamp, Lieutenant Gadsden, communicating the success of his expedition: and, on the next day, as soon as the sick of my army were despatched down the Suwanee river, to be conveyed in the captured schooner to St. Mark's, I took up the line of march for that fort. I arrived at this place last evening, performing a march of one hundred and seven miles in less than five days. Lieutenant Gadsden had reached it a few hours before me. He communicates having found, among the papers of Arbuthnot, Ambrister, and Cook, letters, memorials, &c., all pointing out the instigators of this savage war, and, in some measure, involving the British Government in the agency. These will be forwarded you in a detailed report I purpose communicating to you as early as practicable.
The old woman spoken of in my last commu
Relations with Spain.
nication to you, who promised to use her influence in having McQueen captured and delivered up, has not been heard of. From signs discovered on the opposite shore of the St. Mark's river, I am induced to believe that the Indian party is still in this neighborhood. A detachment will be sent out to reconnoitre the country, to receive them as friends if disposed to surrender, or inflict merited chastisement if still hostile.
foreign or private agents. The outlaws of the old Red Stick party had been too severely convinced, and the Seminoles were too weak in numbers to believe that they could possibly alone maintain a war with even partial success against the United States. Firmly convinced, therefore, that succor had been promised from some quarter, or that they had been deluded into a belief that America dare not violate the neutrality of Spain by penetrating to their towns, I early determined to ascertain these facts, and so direct my movements as to undeceive the Indians. After the destruction of the Mickasukian villages, I marched for St. Mark's. The correspondence between myself and the Spanish commandant, in which I demanded the occupancy of that fortress with an American garrison, accompanies this. It had been reported to me, direct from the Governor of Pensacola, that the Indians and negroes unfriend
I shall leave this in two or three days for For: Gadsden, and, after making all necessary arrangements for the security of the positions occupied, and detaching a force to scour the country west of the Appalachicola, I shall proceed direct for Nashville. My presence in this conntry can no longer be necessary. The Indian forces have been divided and scattered, cut off from all communication with those unprincipled agents of foreign nations who had deluded them to their ruin; they have not the power, if the will re-ly to the United States had demanded of the commains, of again annoying our frontier.
I remain, &c.
General Jackson to the Secretary of War.
mandant of St. Mark's a supply of ammunition, munitions of war, &c., threatening, in the event of a noncompliance, to take possession of the fort. The Spanish commandant acknowledged the defenceless state of his fortress, and his inability to defend it; and the Governor of Pensacola expressed similar apprehensions. The Spanish agents throughout the Floridas had uniformly disFort Gadsden, May 5, 1818. avowed having any connexion with the Indians, SIR: I returned to this post with my army on and acknowledged the obligations of His Catholic the evening of the 2d instant, and embrace an Majesty, under existing treaties, to restrain their early opportunity of furnishing you a detailed outrages against the citizens of the United States. report of my operations to the east of the Appa- Indeed, they declared that the Seminole Indians lachicola river. In the several communications were viewed as alike hostile to the Spanish addressed to you from Hartford, Fort Scott, and Government, and that the will remained, though this place, I have stated the condition of the army the power was wanting, to inflict merited chason my assuming the immediate command, the tisement on this lawless tribe. It was, therefore, embarrassment occasioned from the want of pro- to be supposed that the American ariny, impelled visions, the privations of my troops on their by the immutable laws of self-defence to penemarch from the frontiers of Georgia, and the trate the territory of His Catholic Majesty, to circumstances which compelled me to move di- fight his battles, and even to relieve from a cruel rectly down the Appalachicola river to meet with bondage some of his own subjects, would have and protect the expected supplies from New Or- been received as allies, hailed as deliverers, and leans. These were received on the 25th of March, every facility afforded to them to terminate and on the next day I was prepared for active speedily and successfully this savage war. Fort operations. For a detailed account of my move-St. Mark's could not be maintained by the Spanments from that period to this day you are respect-ish force garrisoning it. The Indians and refully referred to the report prepared by my adju- groes viewed it as an asylum, if driven from tant general, accompanied with Captain Hugh their towns, and were preparing to occupy it in Young's topographical sketch of the route and this event. It was necessary to anticipate their distance performed. This has been principally a movements, independent of the position being war of movements. The enemy, cut off from deemed essential as a depot, on which the suctheir strongholds, or deceived in the promised cess of my future operations measurably dependforeign aid, have uniformly avoided a general en-ed. In the spirit of friendship, therefore. I degagement. Their resistance has generally been manded its surrender to the army of the United feeble; and in the partial rencontres into which States until the close of the Seminole war. The they seem to have been involuntarily forced, the Spanish commandant required time to reflect. regulars, volunteers, and militia, under my com- It was granted. A negotiation ensued, and an mand, realized my expectations; every privation, effort was made to protract it to an unreasonable fatigue, and exposure was encountered with the length. In the conversations between my aidspirit of soldiers, and danger was met with a de-de-camp, Lieutenant Gadsden, and the Spanish gree of fortitude calculated to strengthen the commandant, circumstances transpired convictconfidence I had reposed in them. ing him of a disposition to favor the Indians,
On the commencement of my operations, I was and of having taken an active part in aiding and strongly impressed with a belief that this In-abetting them in this war. I hesitated, theredian war has been excited by some unprincipled fore, no longer; and as I could not be received