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Relations with Spain.

der General Gaines, and five hundred under Lower Creek nalion to represent the state of another General, were at Prospect Bluff, where their nation to your excellency, that you may be they are rebuilding the burnt fort; that one thou- pleased to forward the same for the information sand Indians, of different nations, were at Span- of His Majesty's Government, to whom alone ish Bluff, building another fort under the directhey look up for protection against the aggrestion of American officers; that, so soon as these sions and encroachments of the Americans, I beg forts were built, they intended to march- they leave to subunit to your excellency the enclosed have commenced. Yesterday morning advice representations, humbly praying that your excelwas received that they had appeared near lency will be pleased to take an early opportuand taken two of the sons of McQueen and an oity of forwarding the same to Great Britain. Indian. Late in the afternoon three schooners I am also instructed by Boleck, chief of Sucame to anchor at ibe mouth of the river, and wanee, to make the demand herein enclosed, he this morning the American flag is seen flying on never having had any share of the presents disthe largest.

tributed at Prospect Bluff, though he rendered · I am blockaded here ; no Indians will come equally cesential services as any of the other with me; and I am now suffering from the fa-chiefs to the British cause while at war with ligue of coming here alone.

America, and was at New Orleans with a part The main drift of the Americans is to destroy of his warriors. His frontiers being more exthe black population of Suwanee. Tell my posed to the predatory incursions of the back friend Boleck ibat it is throwing away his peo-Georgians, who enter his territory and drive off ple to attempt to resist such a powerful force as his cauile, he is obliged to bave large parties out to will be down on Suwanee; and, as the troops watch their motions, and prevent their plunderadvance by land, so will the vessels by sea. Eoing; and being now deficient of ammunition, be deavor to get all the goods over the river in a

prays your excellency will grant his small deplace of security, as also the skins of all sorts; mand. ihe corn must be left to its fate. So soon as the Humbly submitting the same, I have the honor Suwanee is destroyed, I expect the Americans to remain your excellency's most humble servant, will be satisfied, and retire; this is only my

A. A. opinion; but I think it is conformable to the de. The humble representations of the chiefs of the Creek mand made by General Gaines of Kenhagee sonie months since. In fact, do all you can to save all

nation to His Excellency Governor Cameron. you can; save the books particularly. It is prob

First, we beg leave to represent that Edmund able the commandant will receive some commu- Doyle and William Hambly, late clerks at Pros. pication from the vessels to-day, when he will pect Bluff 10 Messrs. Forbes, and who still reside know more certainly what are their motives in on the Appalachicola river, we consider as the coming off the fort. I think it is only to sbut up principal cause of our present troubles and uneathe passage to the Indians. Twenty canoes weni siness. Hambly was ihe instrumental cause of down the river yesterday, and were forced to re

the fort at Prospect Bluff being destroyed by the turn. The road between this and Mickasuky is Americans, by which we lost the supplies insaid to be stopped. Hillis Hadjo and Homaihle tended for our future wants. Since ihen both mico were here late last night io hear what ves these men have kept emissaries among us, tendsels; they will remove all their cattle and effects ing to harass and disturb our repose, and ihat of across Si. Mark's river this morning, and perhaps our brethren of the Middle and Upper nations; wait near thereto for the event.

they spread among us reports that ihe Cowetas, I have been as brief as I can, to give you the aided by the Americaos, are descending to drive substance of what appear facts that cannot be us off our land; they equally propagate false. doubled ; to enter inio details in the present moment is useless. If the schooner is returned, gel all the goods on board of her, and let her start of From 4. Arbuthnot to Benjamin Moodie, Esq., enfor Mannatee creek, in the bottom of Cedar Key

closing letters to Charles Bagot, Esq., British Minbay; you will then only have the skios to hide

ister at Washington. away. But no delay must take place, as the ves

SUWANEE, IN THE CREEK NATION, sels will, no doubt, follow the land army, and per

January 27, 1818. haps even now some are gone round. I pray Sir: The enclosed containing matter of serious your strictest attention, for the more that is saved moment, and demanding the immediate attenwill be eventually more to your interest. Let tion of his excellency the British Ambassador, I the bearer bave as much calico as will make him trust he will, for this time, forgive the trifing ex: ?wo shirts, for his trouble; be has promised to pense of postage, which I have endeavored to deliver this in three, but I give him four days. prevent as much as possible by comprising much I am yours, affeciionately,

matter in one sheet of paper. Should you, sir, A. ARBUTHNOT. be put to any trouble or expense by this trouble B.

I give you, on being made acquainted with the

same, I will instruct Bain, Dunsbee, & Co., to From A. Arbuthnot to Charles Cameron, Governor order payment of the same. of Bahamas.

I have the honor to be, &c., Sir: Being empowered by the chiefs of the



Relations with Spain.

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From A. Arbuthnot to the Hon. Charles Bagot. ished and passed, if you will come about any

Sir: It is with pain I again obtrude myself of my people, you will see your friends; and if apon your excellency's potice; but the pressing you see me, you will see your friend. But there solicitations of the chiefs of ine Creek pation, is something out in the sea, a bird with a forked and the deplorable situation in which they are tongue; whip him back before he lands, for be placed by the wanton aggressions of the Ameri- will be the ruin of you yet; perhaps you do not cans, I trust your excellency will take as a suti. know who or what I mean-i mean the name of cieni apology for the present intrusion.

Englishmen. In August last, the head chief of the Seminole I tell you this, that if you do not give me up Indians received a letter from General Gaines, of the murderers who have murdered my people, I wbich I have taken the liberty of annexing your say I have got good strong warriors with scalpexcellency the contents, as delivered me by the ing koives and tomahawks. You harbor a great chief's head English interpreter, with Kenhagee's many of my black people among you at Suwanee. reply thereto.

If you give me leave to go by you against them, This letter appears to have been intended to I shall not hurt anything belonging to you. sound the disposition of the chief, and ascertain

GENERAL GAINES. the force necessary to overrun ihe nation, for from then until an actual attack was made on

(No. 2.) Fowl Town, the same General, with General From Kenhagee to General Gaines, in answer to the Jackson, seems to have been collecting troops and

foregoing. settlers in various quarters. If your excellency desires to have further in- ing your catile, and burning your houses. It is I

You charge me with killing your people, steal. formation respecting the situation of this country that have cause to complain of the Americaos. and its inbabitants, I can, from time to time, in- While one American has been justly killed while form your excelleacy of such facts and circum- in the act of stealing catile, more than four lostances as are stated to me by chiefs of koown dians have been murdered while hunting by those veracity, or which may come under my own lawless freebooters. I harbor no negroes. When observation; and your excellency's orders ad: the Englishmen were at war with America, some dressed to me at New Providence will either took shelter among them; and it is for you white find me there, or be forwarded me to this country people to settle those things among yourselves, With great respect, I have the honor to be, &c., and not to trouble us with what we know nothing

A. A.

about. I shall use force to stop any armed Ameri[The following memoranda were on the back of the caos from passing my towns or on my laods. foregoing letter.]

KENHAGEE. Kenhagee, 1,000; Boleck, 1,500; Oso Hatcho,

To General GAINES. Choclaw hatchy, 500; Himashy Mico, Chata:

D. hoochee, 500 ;-at present with Hillis Hadjo. At present under arms, 1,000 and more, and at

Note of Indian talks." tacking those Americans who have made iproads In August, Cap had a letter from General into their territory.

Gaines, in substance as annexed, No. 1, and reA quantity of gunpowder, lead, muskets, and turned ihe answer as by No. 2. Nothing further Aints, sufficient to arm one thousand to two thou- was said on either side. The end of October, a sand men.

party of Americans from a fort on Flint river Mu-kets, 1,000, more smaller pieces, if possi- surrounded Fowl Town during the night, and ble; 10,000 fints, a proportion for rifle put up began burning it; the Indians then in it led to separate; 50 casks gunpowder, a proportion for the swamp, and in their flight had three persons rifle ; 2,000 knives, six io pine-inch blades, good killed by fire from the Americans; they rallied quality; 1,000 tomahawks; 1000 pounds ver their people, and forced the Americans to retire million ; 2,000 pounds lead, independent of ball some distance, but not before they had two more for muskeis.

persons killed. The Americans built a blockKENHAGEE, house or fort where they had fallen back to, and

BOLECK. immediately sent to the forts up the country for (No. 1.)

assistance, stating the Indians were the aggres

sors. One of those letters falling into the hands From General Gaines to the Seminole Chiefs. of General Mitchell, he made inquiry, and found To the SEMINOLE CHIEFS: Your Seminoles his people were the aggressors, and also settled are very bad people; don't say whom ; you have with Inhimathlo for the loss his people had sufmurdered many of my people, and stolen my fered; at the same time sending a talk to Kencaitle; and mapy good houses, that have cost hagee, by a headman, Opony, that he would put me money, you have burnt for me; and now things in such a train as to prevent further enthat you see my writing, you will think I have croachments, and get those Americans to leave spoken right. I know is so-you know it is the forts. But no sooner was this good talk so; for now you may say I will not go upon you given, and before the bearer of it returned home, at random ; but just give me the murderers, and ihan hundreds of Americans came pouring down I will show them my law; and when that is fin-l on the Indians. Roused to a sense of their own

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Relations with Spain.

dapger, they flew to arms, and have been com- exertions, had two more of their people killed. pelled to support them ever since. It is not alone The Americans retired some distance and built a from the country, but by vessels entering Appa- fort or block-house to protect themselves upuil lachicola river, that troops and settlers are pour the assistance they had sent for to the forts up ing into the Indian territory, and, if permitted to the country should arrive. A letter falling into continue, will soon overrun the whole of the In- the hands of General Mitchell, the Indian agent, dian lands.

which stated the Indians to have been the ag. From the talk sent Kenhagee by General gressors, he suspected its truth, and, on inquiry, Mitchell, I am in hopes that those aggressions of found it was the reverse ; in consequence, he the Américans on the Indian territory are not made satisfaction to Inhimathlo, the cbief of countenanced by the American Government, but Fowl Town, and his people, for the injuries and originate with men devoid of principle, who set losses they bad sustained ; at the same time he laws and instructions at defiance, and stick at no desired a talk to be sent to our head chiefs, staicruelty and oppressions to obiain their ends. ing his wish to see all the Indians friends, and that Against such oppressors the American Govern- in lwenty days he would send and get the Amerment must use not only all their influence, but, if icans to retire from the forts. But this had no necessary, force, or their names must be handed effect on the lawless invaders of our soil, for, be. down to posterity as a nation more cruel and fore the bearer of the talk could return home, he savage lo ihe unfortunate aborigines of this coun- met hundreds of Americans descending on us; try than ever were the Spaniards, in more dark they have also settlers and troops wbich come ages, to the natives of South America.

from Mobile, and go up the Appalachicola river. The English Government, as the special pro- Thus, seeing no end to those inroads, necessity tectors of the Indian nations, and on whom alone compelled us to have recourse to arms, and our they rely for assistance, ought to step forward brethren are now fighting for the land they inand save those unfortunate people from ruin ; herited from their fathers, for their families and and as you, sir, are appointed to watch over those friends. But what will our exertions do without interests, it is my duty, as an Englishman, and the assistance ? Our sinews of war are almost speot; only one in this part of the Indian pation, to in- and harassed as we have been for years, we bave struct you of the talks the chiefs bring me for not been able to lay by the means to provide for your information; and I sincerely trust, sir, you our extraordinary wants; and to whom can we will use the powers you are vested wiih for the look up to for proiection and support, but to those service and protection of these unfortunate peo- friends who have at all former times held forth ple, who look up to you as their saviour. I have their hands to uphold us, and who have sworn, written General Miichell, who I learn is an ex. in their late treaty with the Americans, to see cellent man, and, as he acts as Indian agent, I our just rights and privileges respected and prohope his influence will stop the torrent of innotected from insult and aggression ? We dow vators, and give peace and quietness to the Creek call on your excellency, as the representative of pation.

our father, King George, to send such aid in amI pray you excellency will pardon this intru- munition as we are absolutely in want of, as our sion, which nothing but the urgency of the case brother chies, Hillis Hadjo, was informed, when would bave induced me to make.

in England, that, when ammunition was wanted I have the honor to be, &c.

Α. Α. to enable us to protect our just rights, your ex.

cellency would supply us with what was necesE.

sary. We have applied to the Spanish officer at

ibe fort of St. Mark, but his small supply preFrom Cappachimico and Boleck to Governor Cameron. vents his being able to assist us, and we have

It is with pain we are again obliged to obtrude only on your excellency to depend. We likeourselves on your excellency's notice, in conse: wise pray your excellency would be pleased to quence of the cruel war we have been forced send an officer or person to lead us rigbt, and to inlo by the irruption of the Americans into the apportion the supply you may be pleased to send heart of our lands. It will be first necessary to us agreeably to our proper wants. slate to your excellency that one bead chief, Ken- In praying your excellency will lend an ear 10 hagee, received a letter from General Gaines in our demand, and despaich it without delay, we August last, a copy of which is enclosed, with remain your excellency's most obedient friends the answer returned thereto. This letter only and servants, appears to have been a prelude to plaos deter

CAPPACHIMICO, mined on by the said General and General Jack

BOLECK, son, to bring on troops and settlers to drive us For ourselves and all the other chiefs from our lands and take possession of them; for,

of the Lower Creek nation. in the end of October, a party of Americans sur- His Exc'y Governor CAMERON. rounded Fowl Town during ihe night, and in the morning began setting fire to il, making the un

F. fortunate inhabitants tly to the swamp, and who, in their flight, had three persons killed by the

Letter from A. Arbuthnot to Colonel E. Nicholls. fire of the Americans. Our Indians, rallying,

NASSAU, N. P., August 26, 1817. drove the Americans from the town, but, in their Sır: Especially authorized by the chiefs of the

Relations with Spain.

Lower Creek nation, whose names I affix to the the nation, which it was his intention to do. Of present, I am desired to address you, that you the money received of Governor Cameron, he may lay their complaint before His Majesty's had only given him eighty dollars, by Captain Government. They desire it to be made known W., a barrel of sugar, a bag of coffee, and a small that they have implicitly followed your advice in keg of rum; and the interpreter, Shugert, inliving friendly with the Americans, who were formed me that when Hillis Hadjo asked for an their neighbors, and powise attempted to molest account, Captain W. refused, it, saying it would them, though they bave seen the Americans en- be useless to a man who could not read. He croach on their territory, burning their towns, also misses two cases, one of which contained, and making fields where their houses stood, on he thinks, crockery; I have made inquiry of His the Chatahoochee: rather than make resistance, Majesty's ordnance storekeeper, and he informs they have retired lower in the peninsula. The me the whole were delivered to Captain W.; they town of Ecan Halloway, where Otis Mico was are therefore lost to Hillis Hadjo. chief, is one instance of the encroachments of I am desired to return Hillis Hadjo's warmest the Americans. This town is situated under the acknowledgments for the very handsome manguns of Fort Gaines; and Micco was desired to ner you treated him in Eogland, and he begs his submit to the Americans, or his town would be prayer may be laid at the foot of His Royal blown to atoms; rather than do so, he retired, Highness the Prince Regent. I left him and all and is now living in the lower nation; and his his family well on the 20th of June. Old Capfields, and even where the town stood, is ploughed pachimico desires me to send his best respects, up by the Americans. They complain of the and requests that you would send out people to English Goveroment neglecting them after hav- live among them, and all the land they took ing drawn them into a war with America; that from Forbes shall be theirs. At all events, they you, sir, have not kept your promise of sending must have an agent among them, to see that the people to reside among them; and that, if they Americans adhere to the treaty, and permit them have not some person or persons resident in to live unmolested on their own lands. This the nation to watch over iheir interests, they agent should be authorized by His Majesty's will soon be driven to the extremity of the Goveroment, or he will not be attended to by peninsula. You left Mr. Hambly to watch over the Americans. In the gazettes of Georgia, the i he interests of the Creek nation, but you had Americans report the Seminole Indians are conhardly left the nation when he turned traitor, tinually committing murders on their borders, and was led by Forbes to take the part of the and making incursions into the State. These Americans. His letter to me, of which I annex are fabrications tending to irritate the American you a copy, will show you what lengths he could Government against the poor Indians; for, during go if he had the means. It is Hanbly and Doyle the time I was in the nation, there was only one who give the Indians all the trouble ihey experi- American killed, and he, with two others, was ence; they send their emissaries among the Lower in the act of driving off cattle belonging to BowCreeks, and make them believe the Cowelas, legs, chief of Suwanee; whereas three men and aided by the Americans, are arming against a boy were killed last June, by a party of Amerithem: thus both are put in fear; and their fields can cattle-stealers, while in their hunting-camps ; are neglected, and hunting is not thought of. I the boy they scalped; and one of Bowlegs' headhave endeavored to do away this fear, by writing men was killed on Sí. John's river, in July. The the chief of the Coweta towns that they ought back-woods Georgians, and those resident on the to live on friendly terms with their brethren of borders of the Indian nation, are continually en. the lower nation, whose wishes were to be on cering it

, and driving off caitle. They have, in good terms with them, and not to listen to any some instances

, made settlements, and particubad talks, but to chase those that give them from larly on the Choctow hatchy river, where a conamong them. My letter was answered by them siderable number have descended. rather favorably, and I hope the talk that was By the treaty with Great Britain, the Amerisent to the Big Warrior last June will heal the caos were to give up to the Indians all the lands difference between them.

that they may have taken from them during the Hillis Hadjo arrived in my schooner at Ochlo- war, and place them on the same footing they chpee Sound last June, and was well received by were in 1811. It appears they have not done so; all the chiefs and others who came to welcome that Fort Gaines, on the Chatahoochee river, him home. In consequence of his arrival, a talk and Camp Crawford, on the Flint river, are both was held, the substance of which I put on paper on ladian territory, that was not in possessivn of for them, and it was sent with a pipe of peace to the Americans in 1811. They are fearful that, the other nations. Hillis Hadjo wished to relurn before any aid is given by the English Govern10 Nassau with me, but I prevailed on him to meot, they will no longer be in possession of any stay in the nation, and keep ihem all at peace. I territory. regrel, sir, to notice this

poor man's affairs, though I wrote last January to his excellency the honby his desire: it appears that he arrived in Nas-orable Charles Bagot, respecting the encroachsau a short time after I had left it, in January, ments of the Americans; as I was informed by and Captain W. being here, took charge of him, the copy of a letter from the right honorable his goods and money, prevailing on the Governor Earl Bathurst, handed me by his excellency Gov. to let him stay with bim until he went down to ernor Cameron, that His Majesty's ambassador

Relations with Spain.

had received orders to watch over the interests eause of their troubles, would have long ere this of the Indians. Since my return here, I have had possession of you, and, perhaps, with your received of Mr. Moodie, of Charleston, an extract life made you pay the forfeit for the injuries of a letter from the honorable Charles Bagot, heaped on them, had not that man, who has been stating that the expense of postage is so con- your friend from your early youth, stepped in as siderable, that any further communications of your protector. Yet this is the man whom Mr. the same nature must be sent him by private Hambly presumes to call an outlaw! A parhands. Now, sir, as no person goes direct from doned villain, when going to the gallows, would this to Washington, how am I to be able to com- bless the hand that saved his life; but Mr. Hamply with his desire 3 Thus he will be kept igno: bly blasphemes his saviour ! rant of the real situation of the poor Indians, and As Mr. Hambly's generous friend is the printhe encroachments daily made on their lands by cipal cause of my being in this country, as an American selilers: while he may be told by the honest man I shall endeavor to fulfil my promise American Government that no encroachments to him and the other chiefs. The guiliy alone have been made, and that the forts they still hold have fear; an honest and upright man dreads no are necessary to check the unruly seminoles. danger, fears no evil, as he commits po ill; and Thus the person appointed to watch over the in- your arm of justice ought to be applied where it terests of ihe Indians having no other means of would rightly fall-on the heads of the really information than from the parties interested in guilty. Your mean and vile insinuation, that I their destruction, and seeing from time to time, have been the cause of thefts and murders, comes in the American gazeties, accounts of cruel mur- ill from him who has been the cause of the murders, &c. committed by the Indians on the frontier der of hundreds. Though your usage was made settlements of the United States, he apprehends / villainous at the fort, yet your revenge was too the lodians merit all the Americans do to them. savage and saaguioary. If your conduci, sir, lo

But let His Majesty's Government appoint an the Indians were guided by as pure motives as agent, with full powers, and to correspond with mine, you would endeavor io in duence them to His Majesty's ambassador at Washington, and esteem and respect each other as brothers, and bis eyes will then be opened as to the motives live in harmony and friendship; cultivating iheir that influence American iodividuals, as well as lands in Summer, and taking iheir diversions of the Government, in vililying the Indians. The hunting in Winter; respecting their neighbors, powers given me and the instructions were to and making yourself respected by them. If thus, memorialize His Majesty's Government as well sir, you would act, (and by your koowledge of as the Governor General of Havana; but if you their language you have much more in your will be pleased to lay this letter before His Ma- power than any other man,) you would then be jesty's Secretary of State, it will save the necesihe true friend of the lodians. Were I an instisity of the first; and I fear that a memorial to gator to theft and murder, would I hold the lan. the Governor General would be of no use. Re-guage I have done to the chiefs and others who ferring you to the answer,* I am, most respecto have called on me? Ask the lieutenant comfully, sir, your obedient servant,

manding at Fort Gaines if my leiler 10 him A. ARBUTHNOT. breathed the strains of a murderer; ask Opony Lt. Col. E. NICHOLLS.

Hatcho, or Dany, his interpreter, is the recom

mendatory note I sent him by order of Opony G.

could be written by an iostigator io murder; ask From A. Arbuthnot to William Hambly.

Opony himself if my language to bim was ibat

of a murderer; ask Mappalitchy, a chief residing OCALOCHNEE SOUND, May 3, 1817. among the Americans on Ockmulgee, if my lanSir: Oa my return here this day, I received a guage and advice to him savored of that of a letter signed by you, and dated the 230 Marcb. murderer. All those, and every Indian who has As you therein take the liberty of advising me, as beard my talks, will contradici your vile asseryou say, by order of the chiefs of the Creek na lions. iion, I am glad of, and shall embrace this opening But Mappalitchy has given me a clue by which you give me, and reply to you at some leogth. I can unravel from whence the aspersions come: First, sir, let me premise that, when you lived at not from Opony Halcho, or any of the chiefs of Prospect Bluff, a clerk to Messrs. Forbes & Co., the upper towns, but from him who endeavors to you did not consider Cappachimico, McQueen, lead ihem to mischiefs and quarrels with each or any other of the chiefs of the Lower Creek other. Did not the chiefs hear my pole read with nation, as outlaws, nor have they ever been con respect, and perfectly accord with my sentiments sidered as such by the English Goveroment, who of being all as brethren, uniting in the bonds of are the especial protectors of the lodian nations; friendship and love? Did not they agree to and it ill becomes Mr. Hambly to call Cappachi- smoke the pipe of peace with their brethren of mico ao outlaw-that man who has ever been his the lower nation, and live in future as brothers ? friend. and by bis authority, has prolonged his What made some of them alter their minds afterlife. Yes, sir, the young chiefs and warriors of wards? The interference of a humane man, who the Creek'nation, considering you as the chief caused them to write a letter to me demanding

my removal from a band of outlaws, and which • See the unsigned paper, No. 71. leiter is signed "William Hambly."


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