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Relations with Spain.
sumed that I had convinced him of the contrary their movements be better known at the fort than in my answer, in which I represented to him that from the Indians themselves ? Thither they came no one better than Mr. William Hambly, who, and went, and passed and repassed incessantly; during his stay here, repeatedly interpreted to me and their reports were so various that they dethe anxiety of the chiefs to obtain such supplies, served very litle attention; as a proof of which, could undeceive him on this point, as well as on nothing certain was known of their operations that of the counsel I uniformly gave them to until the different columns of their troops appear. avoid the destruction that awaited them, and ed at the mouth of the Pinar; and, although which I foresaw from the first. But it appears three of their boats were at anchor there for three he is not yet satisfied, and persists in his charge. or four days, they kept English colors flying until A reference to the returns of the public storekeeper the day before the arrival of the army. My difwill show that, from the month of May last, and ferent communications to you are pledges ihat I prior to the receipt of your orders, there had been took no part in the contesi between the Ameriissued to a few of the most noted chiefs, and that cans and the Indians. I, however, had great cause merely from motives of policy, only three pounds of complaint against the latter. How, then, is it of powder, three pounds of ball, and fourteen possible to believe that I gave them that aid of Aints. The interpreter, Juan Sandoval, and his which General Jackson complains; or how can son, Francisco, through whom I communicated the steps I took to liberate Messrs. Edmund Doyle with the Indians, can testify to the truth of this and William Hambly, by which I exposed myself statement-a step which I request of you to take and my garrison to the vengeance of the Indians, in support of my refutation of General Jackson's be reconciled with the idea of affording them succharge. He cannot but know that a short time cor and aid, or the fact of rescuing from them, at before the negro fort on the Appalachicola was the most critical moment, an American soldier blown up, all the chiefs of the neighboring tribes whom they would otherwise have put to death? went there and supplied themselves with powder I leave it to impartial observers to decide if these and ball, left for them by the English; and that be not proofs of the existence at St. Mark's of a at Mickasuky, and the huts thereabouts, there bias in favor of the American interest; and of was a considerable quantity, Having thus ob- this I trust General Jackson will be thoroughly tained a large supply of the kind of powder and convinced on deliberately reflecting upon the subball they most esteemed, they set litile value on ject. I shall not attempt to deny ihat I have ours, which, in fact, they view with such indif- observed towards those barbarians a policy which ference that it is only a chance hunter among had the appearance of a warm friendship, but by those who come to the fort with venison, wild which I have incurred a considerable expense. fowl, &c., that is willing to use it. And although, If, however, my situation be attentively examined as I formerly stated in an official communication, in its different points of view, it will be seen that a supply was repeatedly, demanded of me by the all this was necessary to restrain them from doing chief Kinache, with a view to prove, by the re- what they had at one time premeditated, on the fusal of it, that the American interest prevailed pretext I have just alluded to, and on others sugin the fort, he did not succeed in it. In conse- gested to them by some persons who had gone quence, we, whom they considered as American from hence to those parts of the country. Alpartisans to the last, were reproached with it, and though I have, as I coaceire, given entire satishave even to put up with some impertinences from faction on all the points embraced by Major them. I shall, however, in a strict adherence to General Jackson, I beg leave to request that, for truth, and because the circumstances may have the purpose of corroborating my statement, you given birth to these suspicions, proceed to state will be pleased to give orders for having the decihat the chief Pelisacho, who was executed, re- larations taken of the interpreter and of his son, ceived, among things, at the fort, from Mr. Ar- of the subaltern Don Miguel Ordonez, of Dos buthnot, an English merchant, when he came Anastasia Montes de Oca, ihe public storekeeper, from Suwanee, to request aid against the negroes, and of Surgeon Don Diego de Barrios, as the from whom he apprehended an attack, a small persons who have the necessary knowledge of the barrel of powder, which might contain from subjects in question. twenty to iwenty-five pounds, and was placed, God preserve you many years. with other property, under the charge of 0-Ke
F. ČÁSO Y LUENGO. lagne. What he did with it, I know not; but I To Don Jose Mazot. well know that the chief caused me extreme per
JOSE MAZOT. plexity and vexation, by surrounding the fort with a body of four or five hundred Indians.
No. 33. I never had an idea that he employed it against the Americans, but that he used it in the pur
Governor Mazot to General Jackson. chase of peliry, which he was collecting for the
PENBACOLA, May 23, 1818. said Arbuthnot at the time of the arrival of the Having received information that you have Americans. The charge alleged against the offi- passed the frontiers with the troops under your cers at St. Mark's in exciting and stirring up the command, and are now within the territory of Indians, and in giving them information of the this province of West Florida, which is under movements of the Americans, is the effect of a my Government, I have solemnly to protest disordered imagination ; for how or whence could / against this proceeding as an offence agaiust.my
A true copy :
Relations with Spain.
Sovereiga; and I do exhort you, and require of laws of self-defence, I have penetrated into Floyou forth with to withdraw from the same; in rida, reduced to ashes the Seminole villages, de default of which, and in case of a continuance of stroyed their magazines of provisions, beaten their your aggression, I shall repel force by force. warriors whenever they hazarded a contest, dise
In this event, the consequences will doubtless persed some, and expelled others across the river. be the effusion of blood, and the interruption of In the course of my operations it became ne. the good understanding which has hitherto sub- cessary to visit the Spanish fortress of St. Mark's.. sisted between our two nations; but as the party Entering the territory of Spain to fight her batrepelling an insult is never deemed the aggressor, tles, to relieve from bondage her subjects, and to you will be responsible before God and men for chastise an Indian tribe whom she acknowledged, all the fatal consequences which may ensue. under existing treaties, she was bound to preserve God preserve you many years.
at peace with the United States, I had every reaJOSE MAZOT. son to expect that the American army would
have been received as friends, and every facility No. 34.
afforded to insure success to operations so interGeneral Jackson to Governor Mazot.
esting to both Governments.
My expectations have not been realized. It HEADQ'RS. DivisiON OF THE South,
had been reported to me, direct from you, that On the line of march, May 23, ’18. Fort St. Mark's had been threatened by the laSır: The southern frontier of the United States dians and negroes; and you expressed sincere: bas, for more than twelve months, been exposed apprehensions, from the weakoess of the garrison to all ihe horrors of a cruel and savage war. and defenceless state of the work, for its safety. party of outlaws and refugees from the Creek From other sources to be relied on, the same innation; negroes who have fled from their mas- formation had been furnished me. It became ters, citizens of the United States, and sought an necessary, therefore, to anticipate the movements asylum in Florida; and the Seminole Indians of the enemy, and amicably to get possession of inhabiting the territory of Spain, all uniting, a work, dislodging the enemy from which might have raised the tomahawk, and, in the character have cost me much precious blood. On entering of savage warfare, have neither regarded sex nor St. Mark's evidence of the duplicity and upfriend age. Helpless women have been massacred, and ly feelings of the commandant evinced itself. I the cradle crimsoned with the blood of innocence. found that the gates of this fort had been thrown The United States, true to their engagements, open to the avowed savage enemies of the United and confiding in the faith of Spain to enforce ex- States ; that councils of war had been permitted isting treaties, never entertained a doubt but that to be held within his own quarters by the chiefs and these atrocities would early attract the attention warriors; that the Spanish storehouses had been of the Spanish Government, and that speedy and appropriated to the use, and were then filled with effectual measures would have been adopted for goods belonging to the hostile party; that cattle their suppression. Under this persuasion a cordon knowingly plundered from citizens of the United of military posts was established, to give imme. States had been contracted for and purchased by diale protection to such of our frontier settlers as the officers of the garrison from the Spanish were peculiarly exposed, and strict injunctions thieves; that foreign agents had free access withissued to the American officers to respect the ter- in the walls of St. Markis; and a Mr. Arbuthnot, ritory of Spain, and not to attempi operations condemned and executed as the instigator of this within its limits. These instructions were most war, an inmate in the commandant's family: scrupulously observed ; and, notwithstanding the From this fort was information afforded the inactivity of the American troops had encouraged enemy of the strength and movements of my army the Indians to the most daring and outrageous by the said Arbuthnot, the date of departure of acts of violence against our citizens, the Govern- express noted by the Spanish commissary, and ment of the United States was still disposed 10 amimunition, munitions of war, and all necessary respect the territory of Spain, and confide in the supplies furnished. ability of the Spanish Government to execute On my return from my operations east, your existing treaties, until advised through you that, letter was received, positively refusing to permit with every disposition, the Spanish authorities (unless exorbitant duties were paid) any provishad not the power of controlling the Indians in ions passing up to the American fort on the EsFlorida; that their acts of late were viewed as cambia. Connected with this strong indication equally hostile to the interests of Spain as those of your unfriendly disposition on your part, I of the United States; that Spanish subjects were have it, from the most unquestionable authority, not exempted from the evils of which we com- that the city of Pensacola has, for some months plained; and that the negro establishments on past, been entirely under the control of ladians; the Appalachicola and St. Juan rivers were that free ingress and egress are permitted to the founded by British agents, contrary to the will of avowed savage enemies of the United States; Spain. These representations determined the that supplies of ammunition, munitions of war, President of the United States to adopt effectual and provisions, have been received by them from measures to restore tranquillity to the southern thence; that, on the 15th of April last, there were frontier of the American Republic; and, pursu- no less than five hundred Indians in Pensacola, ant to his orders, justifiable by the immutable many of them koown to be hostile to the United Relations with Spain,
States, and who had but lately escaped my pur- neighborhood of Pensacola were friendly disposed suit. The late massacre of eighteen individuals to the citizens of the United States, is tested by on the Federal road was committed by Indians the late massacre committed by them on the direct from their return to Pensacola, who were Alabama. The Red Ground chiefs, Muldecoxy received by you, and transported across the bay, and Holmes, avowedly hostile to the United to elude the pursuit of the American troops. The States, were but lately seen in Pensacola, and a Americans returning, the savages were permitted body of Indians descried, a few days since, in the to return. An Indian, wounded in pursuit by a vicinity of the Barancas, in presence of several party for having killed a citizen of the United Spanish officers. They have not delivered themStates, was openly, in the sight of many Ameri-selves up, and these Red Sticks who have surcans, received by you, and every comfort admin. rendered were not advised to this measure by istered. Such practice, if authorized by the King, you, until intelligence of my movements had would justify me in open hostilities. Disposed, been received. however, to believe that it was one of the unau- By a reference to my communications of the thorized acts of his agents, I deem it politic and 25th March, you will see how far I have been the necessary to occupy Pensacola and the Barancas aggressor in the measure protested against. with an American garrison until the Spanish You are there distinctly advised of the objects Government can be advised of the circumstance, of my operations, and that every attempt on your and have force sufficient to maintain, and agents part io succor the Indians, or to prevent the pasdisposed to enforce existing treaties.
sage of my provisions in the Escambia, would be This is the third time the American troops have viewed in no other light ihan as hostile acts on been compelled to enter Pensacola from the same your part. causes. Twice had the enemy been expelled, and You have done both, and exposed my troops the place left in quiet possession of ihose who to the severest privations, by the detention occahad permitted the irregular occupancy. This sioned in the exaction of duties ou my provision time it must be held uniil Spain has the power vessels in Pensacola. You have, therefore, been or will to maintain her neutrality. This is jus. the aggressor, and the blood which may be shed tifiable on the immutable principles of self-de. by a useless resistance on your part to my defence. The Government of the United States is mand will rest on your head. Before God and bound to protect her citizens; but weak would man you will be responsible. be all her efforts, and ineffectual the best advised This will be handed to you by my aid-de-camp, measures, if the Floridas are to be free to every Captain Gadsden, by whom an answer is expected. enemy, and, on the pretext of policy or neutral
ANDREW JACKSON, ity, Spanish fortresses are to be opened to their
Maj. Gen. commanding. use, and every aid and comfort afforded. I have Don Jose Mazot, been explicit, to preclude the necessity of a tedi- Governor of "Pensacola. ous negotiation. My resolution is fixed, and I have strength enough to enforce it. My army now occupies the old Fort St. Michael, com HEADQ'rs, DivisiON OF THE SOUTH, manding Pensacola. If the town and Barancas
Pensacola, May 24, 1818. are peaceably surrendered, an inventory of all Sir: The enclosed communication was forthe property, ammunition, arms, &c., shall be warded to you by my aid-de-camp, Capt. Gadstaken by officers appointed by both parties, and den, last evening; noi finding you, however, in the amount receipted for by me to be accounted Pensacola, its delivery was delayed. for by the American Government. The properly I have entered Pensacola to provision my troops. of Spanish subjects shall be respected; iheir re. I have only to add, that an immediate compliance ligion and laws guarantied to them; the civil with my 'demand is expected. Resistance on government permitted to remain as now estab- your part would be a needless sacrifice of men. lished, subject to the control of the military au.
ANDREW JACKSON, thority of the United States; the ingress and
Maj. Gen. commanding. egress open to all individuals; commerce free to Don Jose Mazot. the subjects of Spain, as usual; and the military Governor of Pensacola. furnished with transportation to Cuba. If the peaceable surrender be refused, I shall
No. 35. enter Pensacola by violence, and assume the
Governor Mazot to General Jackson. government until ihe transaction can be amicably adjusted by the two Governments. The mil
Fort St. CARLOS OF BARANCAS, itary, in this case, must be treated as prisoners
May 24, 1818.
Most EXCELLENT SIR: Your two notes, dated The proof supporting the accusation against the 23d and on this day, were delivered to me at your official station will justify this procedure. ten o'clock this morning, by, your aid-de-camp,
In reply to your communication of the 22d Captain Gadsden. Having, in mine of the 18th instant I have only to obse that the clothing instant, answered the former in a satisfactory detained will be a subject for future friendly set manner, I shall only add that, as to what relates tlement.
to the Indians, you have been much misinformed, How far the Indians permitted to remain in the the facts alluded to by you being for the most
Relations with Spain.
part unfounded; in proof of which I have to state, nications your excellency may be pleased to that the only two Indians who have been here make. To all such the most prompt answers since the peace negotiated by me, exclusive of shall be given, through the ministry of the bearer, the eighty-seven sent off to Major Youngs, are the interpreter, Don Pedro de Alba. In concluthe two who are in the jail, with three women sion, if, contrary to my hopes, your excellency and children; and, further, that long prior to your should persist in your intention to take possession movements I had sent orders to Appalache, to of this fortress, I am resolved to repel force by prevent any succors being given to the Seminoles, force, and defend it to the last extremity. He and had also given public notice to the same ef- who resists aggression can never be deemed the fect in Pensacola, where those unfortunates had aggressor. from time immemorial received regular supplies. God preserve your excellency many years. Your excellency is disposed to lay to my charge
JOSE MAZOT. the blood which may be shed in consequence of His Ex'cy Major Gen. A. Jackson. my refusal to deliver up this province. A compliance with your demand would dishonor the
No. 36. close of my life and long military career; and I
General Jackson to Governor Mazot. feel assured that, if placed in a similar situation, your conduct would be the same, from your na- HEADQ'RS, DIVISION OF THE SOUTH, tural desire to preserve unsullied your well-earned
Pensacola, May 25, 1818. laurels.
SIR: The accusations against you are founded Whatever motives may be assigned, no nation is authorized in violating the territory of another, certificate of individuals, who, on the 23d instant,
on the most unquestionable evidence. I have the before due representations bave been made to itsat or near the Little Bayou, counted seventeen Government. Your excellency has violated the Spanish ter, I have only to repeat that the Barancas must be
Indians in company of several Spanish officers. ritory at Appalache, by seizing on that fort and occupied by an American garrison, and again to hoisti ng your flag a proceeding in complete hos- tender you the terms offered, if amicably surrentility with the good understanding subsisting be- dered; resistance would be a wanton sacrifice of tween our respective Governments.
blood, for which you and your garrison will have On the 21st instant, by your excellency's orders,
to atone. You cannot expect to defend yourself Don Pedro Philibert and other inhabitants were successfully, and the first shot from your fort made prisoners on their parole of honor, and this must draw down upon you the vepgeance of an day, before Captain Gadsden's arrival at Pensa
I am well advised of your cola, your army advanced upon it, and made pris- strength, and cannot but remark on the incoasistoner, on his parole of honor, Don Pedro de Alba, the interpreter, the same who translated your two an army which has conquered ihe Indian tribes,
ency of presuming yourself capable of resisting letters above-mentioned. These persons, and other military men, whose presence was import
too strong, according to your own acknowledge ant to the tranquillity of the place, have thus been ment, to be controlled by you. If the force which seized in an upjustifiable manner.
you are now disposed wantonly to sacrifice had These facts being established, I ask, who but been wielded against the Seminoles, the Ameri
can troops had never entered the Floridas. I apyour excellency will have to answer for the blood- plaud your feeling as a soldier, in wishing to de. sbed which may ensue in consequence of the defend your post; but where resistance is ineffectual, termination announced in your letter of taking and the opposing force overwhelming, the sacripossession of Pensacola and Barancas? I protest fice of a few brave men is an act of wantonness, before God and men that my conduct is blame for which the commanding officer must be acless, and that my sincere wishes ever have been countable to his God. to maintain peace and amity between our respec
ANDREW JACKSON, tive nations. The sincerity of my intentions is
Major Gen. com'g Div. of the South. founded upon the President's Message of 25th Don Jose Mazot, March last to Congress; the tenor of which holds
Commanding Barancas. out assurances that no aggressions were to be expected from the troops of the United States.
Certificates and Declarations. Unfortunately, however, their operations have violated the tranquillity and peace of the province.
No. 37 a. I expect, from the generosity of your excellen- We certify that, being in Fort St. Mark's, Bacy, that you will leave the officers and troops of rancas, on the 28th of May, 1818, in the afternoon, the garrison of Pensacola at perfect liberty; that soon after the American troops took possession of your army, after receiving the necessary supplies, the works, and as the Spanish troops were march will evacuate the province as speedily as possi-ing out, we saw an Indian carried out by some of ble; and that you will not carry on a partial the Spanish soldiers; he was laid on the beach, warfare against West Florida at a time when our to be put on board a boat. He was wounded in two nations are in a state of profound peace. his leg or thigh, and bad every appearance of
Lieutenant Colonel Don Leni Piernas, provis- having been engaged in the defence of the fort. ional commandant of Pensacola, is duly author
WM. RUSSELL, ized to represent me, and to receive any commu
JAS. L. BELL.
Relations with Spain.
No. 37 b.
to criminate themselves, as might be propounded I certify that, on the 23d of May, being in the to them by Captain Young, relating to the interbayou whish enters Pensacola bay, one and a half course which took place between the late Spanmile from the town, I saw at the ferry, on the ish authorities of ihis province and the hostile road to Barancas, a number of Indians (I think Indians during the recent war with the United about seventeen) in company with four Španish
States. officers. The officers were carried over, and the JOACHIM BARRELAS, being duly sword, declares boat relurned to ferry over the Indians. I saw that he has frequently seen parties of Indians in one boat-load landed on the side next the Baran- the town of Pensacola since the month of Nocas. The Indians concealed themselves in the vember, 1817; says that parties of lodians have bushes on discovering us.
been provisioned by the late authorities at this RICHARD BRICKHAM. place on several occasions: has frequently heard Witness: T. CROSS,
and believed that the Indians were in the habit Lieut. 1st Infantry.
of bringing into this place horses, cattle, &c., for
the purpose of selliog them and other plunder. I certify that I was in the boat with Brickham, Says he was at Barancas at the time that Genat the place and time mentioned in the above cer: eral Jackson came to Pensacola, ia May last; tificate; that I saw several Indians in company deponent acted there as commissary, and knows with four Spanish officers. The officers were that several Indians went from town down to ferried over with one Indian. I did not see the Baraucas with the Spanish forces, and took refIndians ferried over; they coocealed themselves uge in the fort; that, at the same time, several on discovering us.
small parties were encamped about the BaranJOHN BONNER, his mark. cas; that, upon the arrival of General Jackson Witness: T. Cross,
before the Barancas, Tapaulca and family were Lieut. 1st Infantry.
also in the fort. Deponent has seen said chief Witness to both certificates :
several times in Pensacola, and believes him to WM. S. FULTON,
be either a Creek or Seminole Indian; that, while Private Sec'y to Com'g Gen.
deponent was at Barancas, and subsequently to
the said month of November, 1817, he saw an No. 37 c.
lodian, named Luna, an express from St. Marks,
cross over from Santa Rosa island to Barancas, Fort MONTGOMERY, June 2, 1818. with despatches for the Governor here; says I certify that, between the 5th and 7th of May, thal, since the said month of November, 1817, 1818, while at Fort Gadsden, on the Appalachi- Governor Mazot, being himself at Barancas, did cola river, I was informed by a Mr. Larua and order this deponent to give rations to several parBenneto Gassea, both citizens of, and at that time ties of Indians then there, of at least from thirty direct from Pensacola, that at ihe time of their to forly strong-men, women, and children. departure thence there were about five hundred
JOACHIM BARRELAS. Indians in and about Pensacola; and I further certify that, on my arrival at Pensacola, on the
GEORGE SKEATE, being duly sworn, declares 23d of May, I was informed by Mr. Skeate and that he has constantly resided in the town of other citizens of that place, that on the 22d, which he has repeatedly seen, at different times, in said
Pensacola since November, 1817; since which was the day before my arrival, Holmes (a noted Red Stick) with his party had left Pensacola to town, from thirty to fórty Indians; has not seen proceed to the Choctawhatchy for safety, having any ammunition given to the Indians within the been for several days previous in town.
period alluded to; has heard and believes that
ΑΠ which I certify on honor.
horses, cattle, &c., were brought into this place WM. HAMBLY.
by the Indians and sold, which deponent however
did not see. Witness: WM. S. FULTON,
Deponent believes that the late Private Sec'y to Com'g Gen.
Governor (Mazot) was well acquainted with the several murders that were committed on the neigh
boring American frontier; knows of no supplies No. 37 d.
furnished by order of the Spanish Government PROVINCE OF West FLORIDA,
since about the month of March, 1817, when a Town of Pensacola, Sept. 15, 1818. supply of koives, a few blankets, and some copper In pursuance with an order to me directed by keitles, were furnished and delivered to a party Colonel William King, civil and military gov- of lodians, for the purpose, as was then said, of ernor of said province, (a copy whereof is hereto acting against the insurgents who were expected; annexed) I caused to appear before me, at the that the said party of Indians shortly disappeared, quarters of Captain Hugh Young, of the army of and nothing more was heard of them. Deponent the United States, in this town, the following saw, on the day that Major Youngs attacked a persons, viz: Manuel Gonzales, Dr. Brosnaham, party of Indians in the neighborhood of this town, William Cooper, J. Dauphin, Skeate, Fe- a number of lodians who he believes were seni lippa Prieto, Joachim Barrelas, P. Alba, júnior, (or went themselves) across the bay in a boat Jose Bonefi, (Marian,) and Charles Le Jeune, to belonging to Don Antonio Molina, captain of the answer, on oath, such interrogatories, pot tending | port.