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Relations with Spain.
Written as spoken, by William Hambly, 26th have no barge or keel-boat. Should the boats April, 1816.
meet with opposition at what is called the Negro W. S. PENDLETON. fort, arrangements will immediately be made for
its destruction; and for that purpose you will be No. 19.
supplied with two eighteeen-pounders and one General Gaines to Colonel Clinch.
howitzer, with fixed ammunition, and implements HEADQ’RB, Fort MONTGOMERY,
complete, to be sent in a vessel to accompany the Mississippi Territory, May 23, 1816. provisions. I have, likewise, ordered fifty thonSir: Your letters up to the 9th instant have Should you be compelled to go against the Negro
sand musket cartridges, some rifles, swords, &c. been received. The British agent, Hambly, and fort, you will land at a convenient point above it, the Little Prince and others, are acting a part and force a communication with the commandwhich I have been at a loss for some time past to ing officer of the vessels below, and arrange with understand. Are they not endeavoring to amuse him your plan of attack. Upon this subject you and divert us from our main object? Their shall hear from me again, as soon as I am notified tricks, if they be so, have assumed a serious as of the time at which the vessels will sail from pect, and may lead io their destruction; but we New Orleans. have little to apprehend from them. They musi
With great respect and esteem, &c. be watched with an eye of vigilance. The post
EDMUND P. GAINES, near the junction of the rivers, to which I called
Major General com'g. your attention in the last monih, must be estab- Lt. Col. D. L. CLINCH, lished speedily, even if we have to fight our way
or Officer com'g on the Chatahoochee. to it through the rapks of the whole pation. The surveyors have commenced laying off the
A true copy: land to be sold and settled, and they must be pro
ROB. R. RUFFIN, tected. The force of the whole nation cannot
Aid-de-Camp. arrest your movement down the river on board
No. 20. the boats, if secured up the sides with two-inch plank, and covered over with clapboards; nor
General Gaines to Commodore Patterson. could all the nation prevent your landing and
Fort MONTGOMERY, May 22, 1816. constructing a stockade work, sufficient to secure Sir: By a letter I have received from Lieu. you, unless they should previously know the spot tenant Colonel Clinch, commanding a battalion at which you intended io land, and had actually of the 4th regiment of infantry on the Chatahooassembled at that place previous to or within four chee, I learn that, in the early part of the present hours of your landing;, but your force is not suf-monih, a party of Indians surprised and took from ficient to warrant your march to the different vil. the immediate vicinity of his camp two privates lages, as suggested, by land. The whole of your sent out to guard a drove of beef cattle purchased force (except about forty men, or one company, for the subsistence of the troops. The cattle, for the defence of Fort Gaines) should be kept amounting to thirty head, were also taken. The near your boats and supplies until the new post Indians were pursued forty-five miles, on a path shall be established. You may then strike at any leading to St. Mark's
, but, being mounted, and hostile party near you, with all your disposable having travelled all night, escaped with their pris. force; but even then you should not go more than oners and booty. one or two day's march from your fort.
This outrage, preceded by the murder of two If your supplies of provisions and ammunition of our citizens, Johnson and McGaskey, by Inhave reached you, let your detachment move as dians below the lines, and followed by certain directed in my letter of the 28th of last month, indications of general hostility, such as the war You can veniure to move with twenty-five days' dance, and drinking war physic, leaves no doubt rations, but you should order a supply to the that we shall be compelled to destroy the hos. agency, or Fort Gaines, where a boat should be ile towns. built, and held in readiness to send down, in The detached situation of the post which I case any accident should prevent or delay the have ordered Lieutenant Colonel Clinch to esarrival of a supply which I have ordered from tablish near the Appalachicola will expose us to New Orleans.
great inconvenience and hazard in obtaining supo I enclose you an extract of a letter contaicing plies by land, particularly in the event of war, as an arrangement for the supply by water, and have the road will be bad, and the distance from the to direct ihat you* will provide a boat, and de- settlement of Georgia near one hundred and fifty spatch it with an officer and fifty men to meet miles. the vessels from New Orleans, as soon as you are Having advised with the Commander-in-Chief advised of their being on the river. One of your of the division upon this subject, I have deterlarge boats will answer the purpose, provided you mined upon an experiment by water, and for this
purpose have to request your co-operation; should * Thirty thousand rations have been ordered from you feel authorized to detach a small New Orleans up the Appalachicola, and Commodore or two as a convoy to the boats charged with our Patterson requested to send a convoy of one or two supplies up the Appalachicola, I am persuaded gun-vessels.
ibai, in doing so, you will contribute much to
Relations with Spain.
the benefit of the service, and accommodation of Christian, and consist of the following vessels : my immediate command in this quarter. The schooner Semilante, laden with ordnance; schoontransports will be under the direction of the offi- er General Pike, laden with provisions. cer of the gun-vessel, and the whole should be By late information, the negro fort mounts provided against an attack by small arms from only six pieces of cannon, with about one hunshore. To guard against accidents, I will direct dred men in and about ii planting corn, and I Lieutenant Colonel Clinch to have in readiness apprehend no opposition from them whatever ; a boat sufficient to carry fifty men, to meet the in the event of your remaining to act with the vessels on the river and assist them up.
army, you will communicate with me by mail Should you find it convenient to send a con- through General Gaines. Should the boat, menvoy, I will thank you to inform me of the date of tioned in General Gaines's letter, not meet you its departure, and the time which, in your judg- prior to your arrival at or near the negro fort, and ment, it will take to arrive at the mouth of the you have cause to expect opposition, you will river, (Appalachicola.)
wait her arrival before you attempt to pass it. Enclosed you will receive the best account I Very respectfully, &c. can give you, from the information I have re
DANIEL T. PATTERSON. ceived of the negro fort upon the Appalachicola. Lieut. Com. CHARLES E. CRAWLEY, Should we meet with opposition from that fort,
U. S. cutter Fox. it shall be destroyed; and, for this purpose, the commanding officer above will be ordered to pre
No. 22. pare all bis disposable force to meet the boats at
Commodore Patterson to J. Loomis. or just below the fort, and he will confer with the commanding officer of the gun-vessels upon
New ORLEANS, June 19, 1816. the plan of attack.
Sir: The enclosed despatch for Lieutenant I am, with great consideration and esteem, Commandant Crawley is transmitted under cover your obedient servant,
to you, lest he might not arrive at the Pass EDMUND P. GAINES,
Christian by the time the transports laden with Major General by brevet. ordnance, provisions, &c., mentioned to you verCom. D. T. PATTERSON,
bally when here, shall arrive, and be ready 10 U. S. Nady, New Orleans station. proceed to their place of destination ; in which
case, you will consider them as addressed to you, No. 31.
and act accordingly; in that event, you will take
under your command gunboat No. 154, together Commodore Patterson to Lieutenant Commandant with the transports, and proceed in execution of Crawley.
these instructions. New ORLEANS, June 19, 1816. In the performance of the duties therein pointed Sir: The enclosed copy of a letter from Major out, it will be necessary to act with vigor and General Gaines, commanding the United States judgment; and you will refrain from any act of military forces in the Creek nation, fully informs hostilities against the Spanish force, or violation you of bis situation, and his expectation of im. of their rights and laws. You will make no mediate commencement of hostilities on the part delay in your departure from the Pass Christian, of those Indians.
after the arrival there of No. 154 and the transIn consequence of the information contained ports. Very respectfully, &c. in that letter, I have promised the convoy there.
DANIEL' T. PATTERSON. in requested ; you will therefore take under your Sailingmaster JAIRUS Loomis, command gun-boat No. 149, and, with that letter
Com'g U. 9. gunboat No. 149. for your guide, convoy the transports with ordnance, provisions, &c., up the Appalachicola and
No. 23. Chatahoochee, to such point or poiots as may be J. Loomis to Commodore Patterson. required, if practicable. Should you meet with opposition from the negro fort, situated, as stated
UNITED STATES GUN-VESSEL, No. 149, in the letter, on the former river, the military
Bay St. Louis, August 13, 1816. commanding officer will have orders to destroy SIR: In conformity with your orders of the it, in which you will co-operate; the plan of ai- 24th of June, I have the honor to report that, tack to be concerted between yourself and him: with this vessel and No. 154, Sailingmaster James the transports will be under your direction en- Bassett, I took under convoy the schooners Geotirely.
eral Pike and Semilante, laden with provisions In the event of hostilities between the Indians and military stores, and proceeded for Appalachi. and the United States, you will, if practicable, cola river; off the mouth of which we arrived on afford any aid with your vessels in your power the 10th July. At this place I received despatches to the army. Remain in that river, and co-oper- from Lieutenant Colonel Clinch, commanding ate with them, until it sball be necessary to re- the fourth regiment United States infantry, og turn here for provisions ; but, if you cannot aid the Chatahoochee river, borne by an Indian, rethem in their operations, you will then return questing me to remain off the mouth of the river immediately, bringing with you the transports. until he could arrive with a party of men to
The transports will rendezvous at the Pass / assist in getting up the transports ; desiring me,
Relations with Spain.
also, to detain all vessels and boats that might tions to me in future must be made in writing, attempt to descend the river.
and by an officer of the army. On ihe 15th, I discovered a boat pulling out Lieutenant Wilson and thirteen men joined of the river, and, being anxious to ascertain whe- me on the 24ib, to assist in getting up with the ther we should be permitted peaceably to pass transports; he likewise informed me ibat Col. the fore above us, I despatched a boat with an Clinch had sent the canoe the day before. officer to gain the necessary information; on On the 25th, I arrived with the convoy at Dubearing her, she fired a volley of musketry into elling bluff, about four miles below the fort, where my boat, and immediately pulled in for the river; I was met by Colonel Clinch; he informed me I immediately opened a fire on them from the that, in attempting to pass within gunshot of the gun-vessels, but with no effect.
fortifications, he had been fired upon by the neOn the 17th, at 5 A. M. I manned and armed a groes, and that he had also been fired upon for the boat with a swivel and musketry and four men, last four or five days, whenever any of his troops and gave her in charge of Midshipman Lufsbor appeared in view. We immediately reconnoi. ough, for the purpose of procuring fresh water, tred the fort, and determined on a site lo erect a having run sbort of that article. At 11 A. M small battery of iwo eighteen pounders to assist Sailingmaster Bassett, who had been on a simi, the gun-vessels to force the navigation of the lar expedition, came alongside with the body of river, as it was evident from their hostility we John Burgess, ordinary seaman, who had been should be obliged to do. sent in the boat with Midshipman Luffborough ; On the 26th the Colonel began to clear away his body was found near the mouth of the river, the brushwood for the erection of the battery; shot through the heart. At 4 P. M. discovered he, however, stated to me that he was not ac. a man at the mouth of the river on a sand bar, quainted with artillery, but that he thought the sent a boat and brought him on board; he proved distance was 100 great to do execution. On this to be John Lopaz, ordinary seaman, the only sur subject we unfortunately differed totally in opinvivor of the boat's crew sent with Midshipman ion, as we were within point-blank range; he, Luffborough. He reports that, on entering the lowever, ordered his men to desist from further river, they discovered a egro on the beach near operations; I then told bim that the gun vessels a plantation; that Mr. Luffborough ordered the would attempt the passage of the fort in the boat to be pulled directly for him; that on touch morning, without his aid. At 4 a. m., on the ing the shore he spoke to the negro, and directly morning of the 27th, we began warping the gun received a volley of musketry from iwo divisions vessels to a proper position ; at 5, getting within of negroes and Indians, who lay concealed in the gunshot, the fort opened upon us, which we rebushes on the margin of the river; Mr. Luffbor- turned, and, after ascertaining our real distance ough, Robert Maitland, and John Burgess were with cold shot, we commenced with hot, (having killed on the spot; Lopaz made his escape by cleared away our coppers for that purpose,) the swimming, and states that he saw the other sea- first one of which, entering their magazine, blew man, Edward Daniels, made prisoner. Lopaz up and completely destroyed the fort. The nesupposed there must have been forty negroes and groes fought under the English jack, accompanied lodians concerned in the capture of the boat. with the red or bloody fag.
On the 20th of July, I received, by a canoe with This was a regularly constructed fortification, five lodians, despatches from Colonel Clinch, built under the immediate eye and direction of advising that he had arrived with a party of Colonel Nicholls, of the British army; there were troops and Indians at a position aboui a mile mounted on the walls, and in a complete state of above the negro fort, requesting that I would equipment for service, four long iwenty-fourascend the river and join him with the gun-pounder cannon ; four long six-pounder cannon; vessels.
one four-pounder field-piece, and a five and a balí He further informed me that he had taken a ioch brass howitzer, with three hundred negroes, negro bearing the scalp of one of my unfortunate men, women, and children, and about twenty Increw to one of the unfriendly Indian chiefs. On dian warriors of the renegado Choctaws; of these, the 22d, there was a heavy canonading in the two hundred and seventy were killed, and the direction of the fort. On ibe 23d, I received a greater part of the rest 'mortally wounded, but verbal message from Colonel Clioch, by a white bree escaped unhurt; among the prisoners were man and two Indians, who slated that Colonel the two chiefs of the negroes and Indians. On Clinch wished me to ascend the river to a cer. examining the prisoners, ihey stated that Edward tain bluff, and wait there until I saw him. Con. Daniels, ordinary seaman, who was made prissidering ihat, by so doing, a narrow and crooked oner in the boat on the 17th July, was tarred and river, from both sides of which my decks could burnt alive. In consequence of this savage act, be commanded, and exposed to the fire of mus both the chiefs were executed on the spot by the ketry, without enabling me to act in my own de-friendly lodians. fence, and also that something like treachery From the best information we could ascertain, might be on foot, from the nature of the message, there were 2,500 stands of musketry, with accou. I declined acting, retained the white map and trements complete; 500 carbines ; 500 steel scab. one of the Indians as bostages, and despatched bard swords; 4 cases, containing iwo hundred the other, with my reasons for 'so doing, to Col. pairs pistols; 300 quarter casks rifle powder ; 762 Clinch, stating that his views and communica-l barrels of cannon powder, besides a large quantity
Relations with Spain.
of military stores and clothing that I was not sion; and unless the fort bad surrendered or able to collect any account of, owing to an en- been destroyed, it would have been impossible gagement made by Colonel Clinch with the lo for the army to have received those supplies, of dians, in which he promised them all the property which they stood so much in need, and without captured, except the cannon and shot.
which their operations against the hostile InThe properiy captured on the 27th July, ac-dians must necessarily have been materially re. cording to the best information we could obtain, tarded, if not totally suspended ; and it was from and at the lowest calculation, could not have the very great importance, as detailed by Genebeen less than $200,000 in value; the remoant of|ral Gaines, that those stores and provisions should the property, that the Indians did not take, was reach the army in safety, that I felt it a duty intransported to Fort Crawford and to this place, cumbent upon me, when thus called upon, to an inventory of which I have the honor to trans. afford the requisite convoy for their protection. mit for your further information.
The service rendered by the destruction of On sounding the river, I found it impassable this fort, and the band of negroes who held it, for vessels drawing more than four and a half and the country in its vicinity, is of great and feet water ; consequently, Colonel Clinch took manifest importance to the United States, and the provisions from the General Pike into flats, particularly those States bordering on the Creek and lightened the Semilante, so as to enable ber nation, as it had become the general rendezvous to ascend the river as high as Fort Crawford. for runaway slaves and disaffected Indians; an On the 3d August, alter setting fire to the re- asylum where they were assured of being remaining parts of ihe fort and village, I left the ceived ; a stronghold where they found arms and river and arrived at this anchorage on the 12.b ammunition to protect themselves against their current.
owners and the Government. This hold being I cannot close this letter without expressing to destroyed, they have no longer a place to dy to, you my entire approbation of the conduct of and will not be so liable to abscond. The able Sailingmaster James Bassett, commanding gun manner in which this enterprise was conducted vessel No. 154, for his cool, deliberate, and mas- cannot but impress the hostile Indians also with terly conduct, and the support I received from a dread of our arms, and increase the confidence him in all cases of difficully and danger. In fact, of those who are friendly; add to which, that sir, every man and officer did his duty.
the force of the negroes was daily increasing ; Very respectfully, &c.
and they felt themselves so strong and secure
J. LOOMIS. that they had commenced several plantations on Commodore DANIEL T. PATTERSON,
the fertile banks of the Appalachicola, which Com'g U. S. naval forces, N. O. station.
would have yielded them every article of sustenance, and which would, consequently, ia a
short time have rendered their establishment No. 24.
quite formidable and highly injurious to the Commodore Patterson to the Secretary of the Navy neighboring States.
The English union jack and red or bloody NEW ORLEANS, August 15, 1816.
flags, under which they committed their upproSIR: It is with great satisfaction I do myself voked hostilities against the American flag, are the hopor to transmit here with a copy of the re. in my possession, and I shall have the satisfacport of operations of two gun.vessels, under the tion of forwarding them to the Department by command of Sailiogmaster Jairus Loomis, de- the first safe conveyance. It appears very exspatched at the request of Major General Gaines, traordinary, and remains with the English Gov. commanding the Voited Siates army in the erament to explain the authority for their flag Creek pation, to convoy two transports, laden being thus hoisted by a band of outlaws, as also with ordnance stores and provisions, up the their officer, Colonel Nicholls, having placed so rivers Appalachicola and Chatahooche, to Fort strong a work, and with so large a supply of Crawford, for the use of the army ; as also arms, (most of which were perfectly new and in copies of the Major General's letter to me, and their cases,) ammunition, and every other imof my instructions to Mr. Loomis.
plemeat requisite to enable the negroes and InYou will perceive by Mr. Loomis's statement dians to prosecute offensive operations against that the unprovoked and wanton aggression the United States-in possession of negroes, too, committed by a party of negroes on bis boats, as known to be runaways from the United States; also their hostile disposition and conduct to the and that, too, some iime after peace had taken army and the gun-vessels, and their approaching place. the fort, evinced in the strongest manner their
Herewith is transmitted a copy of the inventory intention to dispute his passage past their fort, of the articles saved from the explosion, designaand rendered it necessary to silence their fire ting those furnished the army for public use, and and capture the fort. The very able manner those brought off and deposiied here. and short time in which this was so effectually I regret extremely the loss of Mr. Luffborough, accomplished, with a force so very inferior, re killed in the service, who, though much indisdecis the greatest credit upon Mr. Loomis and posed, and having sent in his resignation to the the officers and men under his command, the Department, very handsomely volunteered his ninth shot and first hot one producing the explo-services and accompanied the expedition, Mr. Relations with Spain.
Loomis reports his conduct in the highest terms which must result from them, and which, for of approbation.
my part, I shall endeavor to obviate by every I avail myself of this occasion, with great sat- means in my power ; requesting your excellency isfaction, to recommend to the particular notice again to order the restoration, without restriction, of the Department Sailingmaster Jairus Loomis of the aforesaid Spanish property, which I now and James Basselt, commanding the gunboats on demand of you, officially, for the second time. this expedition, as highly meritorious officers. Permit me to offer to your excellency, person
I cannot but lament exceedingly, the great loss ally, my sentiments of high consideration, whose of lives occasioned by the destruction of the fort, life I pray God to preserve many years. though caused by their opposition to a passage
SOB. KINDELAN. of the river, and hostilities most wickedly com
His Exc'y GEORGE COCKBURN, &c. menced upon a friendly flag, under which not the slightest aggression would have been offered
No. 28. them.
General Jackson to Governor Mazot. The course pursued in this service, and the result, will, I trust, meet the approbation of the HEA D'ARS, DIVISION OF THE SOUTH, President of the United States.
Fort Gadsden, March 25, 1818. I have the honor to be, &c.
Sir: I have ordered a supply of provisions to DANIEL T. PATTERSON. be sent from New Orleans, via Pensacola, to Hon. B. W. CROWNINSHIELD,
Fort Crawford, on the Conecub. This route Secretary of the Navy.
has been adopted as the most speedy one of pro
visiopiog one of my garrisons, which must be No. 25.
maintained during the present contest against Governor Kindelan to G. Cockburn.
our mutual enemies, the Seminole Indians; and
I cannot but express a hope that no attempt will
be made to interrupt the free passage of my
transports to that post. I am not disposed to Most EXCELLENT Sir: The support and pro-enter into any controversy with you on ihe right tection which the subaltern officers of the troops which our Government may claim to the free under my command now on Cumberland Island navigation of such watercourses as head within afford to the runaway slaves of this province her limits, but flow through the territory of His under my charge, invitiog them to desert their Catholic Majesty; preferring to leave these submasters and enlist as soldiers, with the tempting |jects to be settled by those legally authorized. promise of the liberty which they will enjoy But as it is necessary for me to make use of the when once they are transported to His Britannic Escambia river in passing up provisions to the Majesty's colonies, have filled with consternation garrison at Fort Crawford, I wish to be distinctthe peaceable inhabitants, subjects of His Cath- ly understood that any aliempt to interrupt the olic Majesty ; to which may be added the aggra- passage of my transports cannot be received in vation offered them by the manner in which the any other light than as a hostile act on your part. restoration has been eluded, as to answer the I will not permit myself for a moment io believe claim which their masters make personally, by that you would commit an act so contrary to the saying that they might take those that would interests of the King, your master. His Cathoaccompany them voluntarily, is the same thing lic Majesty, as well as the United States, are as to refuse their restoration ; for where is the alike interested in chastisiog a savage foe, who slave that will voluntarily return to slavery if have too long warred with impunity against his left to his election For my part, even if there subjects as well as the citizens of this Republic; did not exist that good understanding, concord, and I feel persuaded that every aid which you and friendship between our respective nations, I can give to promote this object will be cheershould feel very averse to suppose that the British fully tendered. Government, generous England, would tolerate
I'am, with sentiments of respect, your obedi. in its subjects the spoliation of this property be- ent servant, longing to the pacific, industrious, and defenceless
ANDREW JACKSON, planter, not only of a friendly Power, but (except
Major Goneral commanding. ing in certain cases) I conceive they would not
Don Jose Mazot, permit it towards an enemy. I pronounce it as
Governor of Pensacola. undeniable that this laudable maxim bas ever been so religiously observed by civilized and en
No. 29. lightened people, that until now it has always been considered as an inviolable principle of the
Governor Mazot to General Jackson. laws of nations.
PENSACOLA, April 15, 1818. This abuse or disorder, most excellent sir, from Most EXCELLENT Sir: Your excellency's letits important nature, demands from your Éxcel- ter of the 25th of last month has been delivered lency the most prompt and efficacious remedy in to me; also that of the 16th, in answer 10 mine your power, in order to do away those appearan- of the 16th of February preceding. I now have ces of hostility which such unusual proceedings the honor to acknowledge the receipt of both, manifest, as well as to avoid the consequences and to reply to the former.