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HE Act of Congress of April 5, 1906, re-organ

izing our Consular Service, and the Executive

Order of June 27th following, placing appointments and promotions on a civil-service basis, make possible an attractive and honorable career for young men of ambition and ability, in that branch of our foreign service.

The same principle was applied to the Diplomatic Service by the Presidential Order of November 10, 1905, which provides that vacancies in the office of Secretary of Embassy or Legation shall be filled by promotion or transfer from some branch of the foreign service or by the appointment of persons found to possess the requisite qualifications who shall have been designated by the President for examination. While this does not apply to the appointment of Ambassadors and Ministers, the principle of promotion for meritorious service governs in the Diplomatic Service to an extent that is not generally appreciated. The United States is represented in foreign countries by ten Ambassadors and thirty-two Ministers. Nine of the ten Ambassadors previously served as Ministers and the other had before served as an Ambassador. Three began their diplomatic career as Secretaries of Legation. One had been Assistant Secretary of State, and one had served as a Consul. Of the Ministers, seventeen had previous



ly served as Ministers. Thirteen began their diplomatic career as Secretaries of Legation. Two had served as Assistant Secretaries of State, and four had served as Consuls.

With the remarkable development of our foreign commerce and the greatly enlarged part taken by our Government in international matters during recent years, greater interest is being taken in foreign affairs by the general public. Universities, colleges and law schools are devoting more attention to international subjects, and some are providing special facilities for the preparation of students for the foreign service.

To meet the needs of the general reader, the college student, and the ambitious young man who, though denied the advantages of a course in the higher institutions of learning, aspires to a position in our foreign service, this elementary work has been prepared. It will be of especial value to newly appointed diplomatic and consular officers. The writer ventures to hope that it will be found useful and interesting also to the legal profession and diplomatic and consular officers generally.

The subject is considered under five different heads, the first chapter dealing with the Department of State, the official organ of communication between this government and foreign nations. The second treats of the Diplomatic Service, representing the political branch of this government in foreign countries. The third concerns the Consular Service, which represents the commercial or business interests of the nation. The


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