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aright, in a general council, by virtue of his apostolical au-thority, the council approving, excommunicated him, deprived him of the imperial dignity, absolved his subjects from their oath of fidelity to him, and he died heart-broken in an obscure village, deserted by all his friends, except one bishop implicated in his condemnation, who, it is said, gave him in extremis the last sacraments.

Luther raised what has been called the standard of reform, which was soon favored openly by some, secretly by nearly all the sovereign princes of Europe, and he felt sure of his victory—aided as he was by the Turks, then a great power, and at war with Christendom-over the pope, and declared the pa pacy was at an end, the reign of Antichrist finished. Yet though as the tail of the Apocalyptic dragon, he drew after him a third part of the stars of heaven, or states of Christendom, the papacy survived, and left the reforın to devour her own children. The church also was in as great a strait at the close of the last century, as now.

There was not a Catholic power that stood by her; there was less faith in the European populations than even at present; the French revolution, everywhere victorious, swept as a tornado all over Europe, throwing down temples and palaces, thrones and altars, and carrying every thing before it, and leaving only ruins in its track. France beheaded her king, massacred her nobility, or forced them to emigrate, abolished the church, established a constitutional or national church, such. as the “Old Catholics” dream of for Germany, suppressed the religious orders, and sent the religious to prison or the guillotine, butchered, drowned, or deported her faithful bishops and priests, invaded by her victorious armies the Italian peninsula, took possession of Rome, dragged the pope from his throne, and hurried him off a prisoner to France, where he soon died at Valence, broken by grief, by age, and by physical suffering; yet the papacy was not overthrown. Hardly less near did Satan seem to victory, when. Napoleon I. bestrode all Europe as a conqueror, and dreamed of universal monarchy; or, at least, of making all the princes of Europe vassals of the French empire. He founded the kingdom of Italy for his step-son, placed a brother, and then a brother-in-law, on the throne of Naples, transferred the brother to the throne of Spain, crushed Prussia, rendered Austria powerless, formed the Confederation of the Rhine, with himself at its head, despoiled the pope of his temporal possessions, and held him a prisoner at Savona, and then at. Fontainebleau ; and all the world rushed to do him homage. I remember the exultation of the Protestant preachers, and the triumphant air with which, when he cast the pope into prison, they cried out, “ Babylon is fallen, the reign of Antichrist is over, the Mystery of Iniquity is ended."

Well, they did not after all taste the oyster. They reckoned without their host. The pope returned amid the joy and acclamations of the people to Rome, recovered his temporal possessions, repaired to a great extent the damage done to them by the revolution, resumed the free exercise of his pontifical powers to the great benefit of the church, and, full of years and heroic virtues, he calmly and peacefully breathed out his pious and noble soul in his own bed, in his own palace; while his persecutor, stript of all his power, denied the imperial dignity, was sent to fret away Iris life under a brutal English keeper, on the barren rock of St. Helena. Bismarck is reported to have said, that “the pope will find in the present war between him and the empire no Canossa.” It is possible; but the few incidents of ecclesiastical history to which we have referred, will suffice to prove that the church is divine, under divine protection, upheld by a divine arm; for if she had been human, standing on human wisdom and strength alone, any one of these would have swept her from the face of the earth. And if our noble pontiff, gloriously reigning though a prisoner, finds not a Canossa, he may find an angel of the Lord, as did St. Peter, opening his prison-doors, setting him free, and bringing to naught the councils of his enemies.

We tell the astute and unscrupulous chancellor, who for the moment wields all the power of the empire, that he will fail as his predecessors have failed. The unarined, defenceless, and aged prisoner of the Vatican is mightier than he. He may order his obsequious allies, the Italian sacrilegious robbers and assassins, to bar all communication with the Holy Father by the faithful, to rack his aged limbs, and even to slay him ; but that will avail him nothing. Every one of the pope's predecessors, including St. Peter himself, for the first three hundred years of our era, suffered martyrdom; I should say, received the martyr's crown, always the crown of victory. Saintly prelates, faithful priests, holy and devoted religious of either sex, may be put to death by the minions of power ; but it will avail nothing. Such things strengthen, not weaken, the church. We do not need to cite the promises of Christ to his spouse, promises which never have failed, and never can fail. Heaven and earth may pass away, but his word cannot pass away. The fair induction from the authentic history of the church for eighteen hundred years is, that, though she may encounter severe struggles, and be obliged to fight terrible battles, no weapon forged against her shall prosper, that she cannot die, that the immortal years of God are hers," and she will always come forth, like the three children from the fiery furnace, though heated seven times hotter than it is wont to be heated, without the smell of fire on her garments.

The church has stood, for eighteen hundred years and more, the severest tests of her divinity that can possibly be applied. She has been assailed on every side, and that continually. All that human astuteness and craft, despotism and cruelty, aided by satanic malice, could do against her, has been done. Jew, pagan, leretic, schismatic, barbarian, Saracen, apostasy, power, wealth, fashion, science, literature, public opinion, have all, without a moment's relaxation, for eighteen hundred years, assailed her with all their forces, and have failed. What stronger proof can you ask that man has not made her, and that man cannot unmake her? Why is it that the chancellor cannot see it? Why is it that he fails to recognize a Power in and over the universe before which the mightiest power of earth or hell is simply impotence, weakness itself, and that this power has manifestly upheld and protected the church, and prospered her in spite of all external assaults and internal scandals? Cannot Bismarck read his folly and madness in the fate which has invariably befallen_the persecutors of the church in every age and nation? Does he not see that Pius IX., the vigorous old man, is outliving his persecutors, and increases in vigor and courage as he increases in years and as his wrongs and afflictions are multiplied? Where is Palmerston Dead. Where is Cavour? Dead. Where is Mazzini ? Dead. Where is the mock-hero, Garibaldi ? Worse than dead. He has outlived his prestige, and serves only to point a jest. Where is Napoleon III., the professed friend and betrayer of the pope? Dead. Who then is left to the chancellor? Victor Emmanuel, Gambetta, and the Internationale. Victor Emmanuel, if he fears not God, at least fears hell ; and if the pressure of Prussia was removed, would make his peace with the pope to-morrow, and send his infidel ministers—to their own place. Gambetta's influence is waning, for the Bonapartists have no longer any need of him to create confusion in France; the Internationale has to bear the infamy of the Paris Commune, and it is a dangerous ally for Bismarck, whose work it will rend in pieces the moment that it sees he is not likely to succeed in destroying the church. Even he himself is checked in his attempt to prussianize Germany, and has alarmed by his ecclesiastical policy the conservative portion of Prussian Protestants, who are beginning to see that it is no less hostile to the Prussian Evangelical church than to the church of Rome; and he must not be surprised to find himself as powerless as his Protestant brother, the Saxon Von Beust, sate chancellor of Austria, or if in dying he exclaim, in the words of Julian the Apostate, “Galilean, thou hast conquered 1” Who wars against the church wars against God.

WHOSE IS THE CHILD?

[From Brownson's Quarterly Review for July, 1873.)

In determining who shall be the educators of our children, or who has authority to determine what education may or may not be given them, it inust first be settled, Whose is the Child? Under pagan Rome the child was held to belong to the paterfamilias, whose authority over his family, his wife, children, and slaves, was absolute, and could not be interfered with by the city or state. When the empire became Christian, the child was held to belong to the parents, saving the rights of God, of which the church was the guardian and interpreter. Since the empire has ceased, as it has throughout all modern nations, to be Christian, it is held that the child belongs to the state, to the exclusion both of the rights of parents and the rights of God; and therefore it follows that the state has the right to educate, or to determine what education shall or shall not be given the child, as well as who shall give it.

The church has always taught that the child belongs, 1, to God, whose rights she represents ; 2, after God, and subordinate to him, the child belongs to the parents; and 3, after the parents, to the state. This is strictly philosophical and follows the real order. God, as creator and first cause of all things visible and invisible, is the absolute owner and proprietor of the universe, and consequently of the child; the parents, being second causes of the child, are its owner, against all claimants, except God himself. The state, as representing society based on the family, and as guardian and protector of the temporal interests of the family and society, has an undeniable claim to the child, subordinate to the parental and the divine rights, but none against them, which are both prior to it, and sacred and inviolable for it. The rights of God and the rights of parents limit and subordinate the rights of the state or society.

This is the Christian order and also the order of creation, or the order in which existences, mediante the creative act, proceed from God, the first cause. The church, as the representative of the rights of God in human affairs, whether of individuals or of nations, claims and has always claimed the supreme authority in the bringing up and education of the child, makes and always has made it obligatory on all parents, members of her body, to bring up and educate their children in the faith and practice which God through her enjoins; but, as faith is voluntary and cannot be forced, and as she governs those within, not those without, she leaves non-Catholic parents, - Jews, pagans, Mahometans, and Protestants,-free to bring up their children in their own belief or no-belief, religion or superstition, and even forbids their children to be taken from them and brought up in the Catholic faith against their consent.

The state, representing secular society, its rights and interests, has the right to require that all children should be educated, and to found schools, colleges, and universities, provide sufficient revenues for as full and as extensive an education as is desirable for social interests and the advancement of civilization; but it can itself neither educate, nor determine what education may or may not be given in them. That, for Catholics, is the province of the church; for nonCatholics, who recognize no divinely-instituted teaching church, it is the province of parents whose rights to the child are always paramount to those of the state or society. Such was the order that obtained throughout Christendom till almost our times. Indeed it is very nearly the order that obtained even in pagan Rome. Hostile as the empire before its conversion was to Christianity, I do not find that it ever sought to educate the children of Catholics in paganism, to prevent Catholic parents from having their own

VOL. XIII-26

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