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An important concession with reference to the declaration before the Consul was made by the American Treasury, on the application of the British Executive Commissioner through the Foreign Office, in the case of goods intended bonâ fide for exhibition at Philadelphia.
Such goods, it was courteously held, need not be sworn to before the Consul, the Secretary of the Treasury agreeing to authorise in lieu thereof the acceptance by the American Customs authorities, of the signature and official seal to the invoice of the Executive Commissioner for the country from which the goods were despatched.
In the case of British goods this invoice when certified at the central office has been issued to the exhibitor, accompanied by a certificate of entry in duplicate, also signed and sealed, one copy being for the shipper and the other for the consignee.
To complete the foregoing statement it only remains to append the declaration required by the American custom house regarding passengers' baggage :—
Every passenger arriving at any port of the United States from a foreign port is required to make a brief statement of the number of his or her trunks, bags, and other pieces of baggage, of the contents of each, and of the articles upon his or her person. For convenience and uniformity, such statement must be made on a form similar to that annexed, designated "Passengers' Baggage Declaration," copies of which may be obtained from the British Executive.
To avoid detention in landing, such statement should be carefully prepared before arrival, so as to be promptly delivered to the revenue officer upon demand. The following information will aid in the preparation of the declaration :—
The numbers of the several pieces of baggage will be given in the proper place, and their contents entered under two heads:
1. Baggage not dutiable, which comprises the following classes:
"Wearing apparel in the passenger's own use." "Other personal effects" (not merchandise), which are such as are usually carried with or about the person of a traveller, as trunks, articles of the toilet, stationery, a few books, one watch, jewelry, &c., &c., in actual use, and in reasonable amount, may be declared "Personal Effects." "Professional books," "tools of trade," and "household effects," all of which have been used by the passenger abroad, the last named at least one year, may be severally declared as such.
2. Dutiable Merchandise.-Under this head must be entered all articles not included in baggage not dutiable," as above set forth. Among these may be specially mentioned new wearing apparel in excess of that in general use; excessive amounts of jewelry; extra watches; articles of virtu; all presents; piece goods; and all articles purchased of other persons; in short, all articles not essential to the personal comfort and convenience of the traveller.
Great care should be taken to make a full and accurate return, and to examine the certificate which the passenger is required to sign.
The columns headed "Appraisement" are not to be filled by the passenger, but left blank. The senior member of a family, if sufficiently acquainted with the contents of the baggage of the whole party to make a sworn statement of the same, will be allowed to include all such baggage in one declaration, but such a course will not relieve him or the several members from liability to search of their persons in case of suspicion, nor from any penalties for attempts to defraud.
Upon arrival, the declaration will be delivered to the revenue officer. The baggage will be examined on board the vessel or wharf, and duties assessed, which are payable in gold coin.
Any piece of baggage containing over $500 worth of dutiable merchandise will not be delivered on board, but sent to the public store for examination and appraisement.
Packages containing merchandise exclusively will not be considered as baggage, but must be regularly entered at the custom house.
All baggage is subject to actual and thorough examination, and the persons of all passengers are liable to search.
Any fraud on the part of the passengers, any concealment of fact or secreting of articles in the trunks, &c., or on the person, or attempt to bribe a revenue officer, will render the baggage liable to detention and confiscation, and subject the owner to other legal penalties.
Any complaints against revenue officers in the discharge of their duties must be made to the Collector of the port, who will promptly investigate all charges made.
Other packages, viz. :
: I do solemnly swear that this entry contains, to the best of my knowledge and belief, a just and true account of the contents of the several packages mentioned in the entry, and that such packages contain no merchandise whatever other than wearing apparel, personal baggage, or tools of trade specified in said entry; that they are all the property of myself, and members of my family, who have lately arrived in the vessel above-named, and are not, directly or indirectly, inported for any other person or intended for sale.
EXAMINED-No dutiable articles found, except as stated and entered.
I do solemnly swear that it is impracticable for me to produce a certified invoice of the articles mentioned in this statement and entry for the reason that they were purchased at different times and places whilst travelling,
and that the prices above set forth show the actual cost or foreign market value of the articles named, to the best of my knowledge, information, and belief.
The baggage of passengers will be landed upon the steamship wharf as soon as practicable after the vessel is docked. But before any baggage is delivered each passenger will be required to make, under oath, an entry of his or her baggage, and a separate entry, also under oath, of all articles contained in his or her baggage which, by the United States laws, are subject to duty, and to pay such duty, if any.
The blank forms of the entries to be made will (if practicable) be furnished to each passenger after the vessel leaves quarantine by the Customs officers, who will also give the passenger all necessary information relative thereto. In case no Customs officers come on board at quarantine, the forms of entries will be furnished when the vessel arrives at her wharf.
The senior member of a family coming together, if sufficiently acquainted with the contents of the baggage of the whole party to make a sworn statement of the same, may be allowed to include all such baggage in one entry.
Whenever any trunk or package brought by a passenger as baggage contains articles subject to duty, and the value thereof exceeds $500, or if the quantity or variety of the dutiable articles is such that a proper examination, classification, or appraisement thereof cannot be made at the vessel, the trunk or package will be sent to the Public Store for appraisement.
The attention of passengers is directed to the following laws of the United States, and the Regulations of the Treasury Department, relative to the importation and entry of baggage:
SECTION 2505.-The importation of the following articles shall be exempt from duty:
Wearing apparel in actual use, and other personal effects (not merchandise), professional books, implements, instruments, and tools of trade, occupation, or employment of persons arriving in the United States. * * (Revised Statutes, pp. 259, 267.)
SECTION 2799. In order to ascertain what articles ought to be exempted as the wearing apparel, and other personal baggage, and the tools or implements of a mechanical trade only, of persons who arrive in
the United States, due entry thereof, as of other merchandise, but separate and distinct from that of any other merchandise, imported from a foreign port, shall be made with the Collector of the District in which the articles are intended to be landed by the owner thereof, or his agent, expressing the persons by whom or for whom such entry is made, and particularizing the several packages, and their contents, with their marks and numbers; and the persons who shall make the entry shall take and subscribe an oath before the Collector, declaring that the entry subscribed by him, and to which the oath is annexed, contains, to the best of his knowledge and belief, a just and true account of the contents of the several packages mentioned in the entry, specifying the name of the vessel, of her master, and of the port from which she has arrived; and that such packages contain no merchandise whatever other than wearing apparel, personal baggage, or, as the case may be, tools of trade, specifying it; that they are all the property of a person named who has arrived, or is shortly expected to arrive, in the United States, and are not, directly or indirectly, imported for any other, or intended for sale.-(Revised Statutes, pp. 320, 321.)
SECTION 2802.-Whenever any article subject to duty is found in the baggage of any person arriving within the United States, which was not, at the time of making entry for such baggage, mentioned to the Collector before whom such entry was made, by the person making entry, such article shall be forfeited, and the person in whose baggage it is found shall be liable to a penalty of treble the value of such article. -(Revised Statutes, p. 321.)
ARTICLE 399. "Professional books, implements, and tools of trade, occupation, or employment," are understood to embrace such books or instruments as would naturally belong to a surgeon, physician, engineer, or scientific person returning to this country. -(Customs Regulations, 1874, p. 192.) ARTICLE 400.-Jewelry that has been worn or is in use as a personal ornament may be admitted free of duty. *-(Customs Regulations, 1874, p. 192.) Duty must be demanded on all watches but one brought into the United States by a single passenger. If all the watches are old, the passenger may choose the one to be treated as personal effects. If some are old and some new, the new are to be included among those treated as subject to duty.--(Synopsis of Decisions, 1868 (170), p. 52.)
** So far as wearing apparel is concerned, only those articles which have been in actual use exempted from duty. * New articles of clothing which have not been in actual use abroad, and not necessary for the present comfort or convenience of the owner, are chargeable with duty; and the fact that they are intended for the future use of the person who brings them, or of another person, and are not for sale, does not exempt them from duty,
Tourists and passengers are, therefore, cautioned to preserve the proper care, when arriving with articles claimed to be free as personal effects, in making a separate statement of their effects which have been in actual use abroad from those which are new, in order that the customs officers may readily decide what portions are liable to or exempt from duty.-(Department Circular, dated February 23, 1875.)
The importance of a comprehensive work dealing with the United States Tariff is evidenced by the following extract from the "Times" of September 30, 1875
"In 1874 we imported merchandise from the United States of the value of nearly 74 millions sterling, but exported thither our own produce not quite to the value of 281 millions."
Whereas in 1837 we imported 11 millions and exported 9 millions.
The gross amount of imports for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1875 in the United States was about 72 millions sterling, paying a duty of nearly 21 millions, averaging about 34 per cent.
The British manufacturer on perusing the following pages will probably conclude that the high rates of duty shown in the Tariff must ultimately prove prohibitive so far as staple goods are concerned. It should however be borne in mind that the best goods, when distinguished by intrinsic excellence and taste, together with stability of manufacture, will always find a market in the United States.
Manufactures, throughout the world, are localised by the skill of the population in each particular production as well as by district peculiarities. This is probably the reason why manufactories can seldom be removed with success, or be established in foreign countries, since various details in skill and labour in combination with natural local advantages are necessary to mature the peculiar excellences of any particular fabric.
For instance, a West of England broadcloth (unsurpassed in the world) when imitated in Yorkshire from a precisely similar class of wool with the same care and attention, and made at the same expense, does not hold its own in the markets against the produce of the West country mill.
Without entering into general statistics, it may not be out of place to refer here to the remarkable and sudden success of the United States manufacturers, which success may certainly be held to have deranged our home industries, and appears not unlikely to create a revolution in our exports to that market of any goods save the choicest specialities. Whilst admitting the decadence of exports from Great Britain to the United States of America, it may not be inexpedient to suggest to British merchants that they should not overlook the markets of Central and South America, which seem destined to prove of great value to any nation inclined to study their specific requirements. As an illustration of the perseverance of American manufacturers in the face of many obstacles, the following is quoted from a recent number of the "United States Economist," a journal of acknowledged authority :
"The contract for the carpets of the Palace Hotel, San Francisco, is the largest ever undertaken by any firm in the United States. The total length of the carpets, if stretched three quarters of a yard wide, would reach 45 miles, the conditions being that as far as possible they should be manufactured in the United States. With the exception of two Axminster reception room carpets, the whole were woven by 20 looms, within five months, at the works of the Bigelow Carpet Company, the patterns being all new and effective."
With a tariff of over 60 per cent. ad valorem besides cost of freight, the English carpet manufacturer has at present but limited opportunities for competition. A few years since nearly one quarter of the English-made carpets went to the United States to supply such contracts as that above referred to. There are now in the States upwards of 2,000 Brussels and Tapestry looms for carpet weaving with manifest advantages for economical production, since female labour is chiefly employed.
It is gratifying, however, to learn that the two Axminster carpets for the San Francisco Hotel (which were made at Glasgow), were said by the "Economist " "to surpass every"thing of the kind ever produced, both in beauty of design and excellence of manu"facture," which confirms, so far as a typical branch of industry is concerned, the inference before suggested in this paper, that the British manufacturer must rely upon the superior excellence and intrinsic merit of his goods to maintain a footing in the American market whilst the present duties exist.
It may not be widely known that, in many specialities of British manufacture, trade is becoming reversed; the buyer of yesterday becoming the seller of to-day; this is shown by the following quotations :
"As an indication of the growth of our export trade to Great Britain it may be stated that the Borden City Mills, at Fall River, Mass., have received an order from Manchester for 25,000 pieces of printing cloths, and preparations are now being made for this manufacture."-(New York Custom House Reports, Feb. 1876.)
At the annual meeting of the Sheffield Chamber of Commerce, January 27th, 1876, the President referred to the startling decline of our American trade, and said that "neither "Sheffield nor Birmingham would bave such a position in the American market as they " formerly had. American and German manufacturers were pushing our goods into a