« AnteriorContinuar »
2 Life-size Photographs of Australian Natives. Exhibitor, And numerous smaller ones. Richard Daintree. Government.
Exhibited by the Queensland
The Queensland natives are by no means numerous in the unoccupied portions of the country; in the settled districts they are fast sharing the fate of the American Indian.
SEYCHELLES, ARCHIPELAGO OF.
The island of Rodrigues, the Seychelles Islands, Diego Garcia, and others, are dependencies of the Mauritius. Rodrigues is situated about 300 miles east of Mauritius. It is 26 miles in length by 12 in breadth. It is cultivated by colonists from Mauritius.
The Seychelles, or Mahé Islands, are situated between the parallels of S. lat. 4° and 5°; the total number of acres comprised in this group is 50,120; the distance from Mauritius 940 miles. These islands are under the superintendence of a Chief Civil Commissioner (assisted by a Board of Commissioners) at Mahé, who is appointed by the Secretary of State, but is subordinate to the Governor of Mauritius, from whom he takes instructions.
Seychelles, Chief Commissioner of. 67 varieties of Seychelles Woods, in vertical sections of 6 inches each; 7 samples, planks of superior kinds of woods.
Briard, Mr., Praslin Island. 2 Coco de Mer Nuts, polished; 3 Coco de Mer Nuts, rough; 1 Cocoanut, large size.
Bury, Mr. J. Ames. 1 Coco de Mer wood walking stick, 1 Cocoanut wood stick, 1 dozen of hardwood sticks, 1 plum stick, 1 fancy hardwood stock, 5 fancy sticks.
Briard, Mr. 1 sample of Bark dye, black (Bois de Pomme), and sample of stuff dyed from same.
Houareau, Mr. Sylvain. 1 Roll of Sey-
Madine, Mr. 1 Parcel of Cigars, made from
Lemarchand, Mr. 44 lbs. Cacao, 1 lbs.
Brooks & Dupuy, Messrs. 1 sample
Bouquet, Miss. 9 Baskets, Faney, Coco
Cayol, Mrs. Tony. 5 Bouquets of Shell
[Extracted from the Official Report of the Victoria Exhibition, 1875.]
"TASMANIA, the recognised sanatorium of Australia, was undoubtedly formed by nature in her kindliest mood. The whole island is replete with natural beauties. Mountains frown in majesty on peaceful valleys and extensive plains, framed as it were by sinuous rivers, the banks of which form a fit theme for the pen of the poet or the pencil of the artist. The prosperity which marked the progress of the colony in the year 1873 has in no way diminished, and the first half of the year 1874 will bear favourable comparison with the improvement in the condition of the colony which caused such general satisfaction at the date of the Intercolonial Exhibition. On the 7th February 1870, the population, according to the census then taken, numbered 99,328 souls, of whom 52,853 were males, and 46,475 were females. The estimated population on the 31st December 1874 was 104,176, the number of males being 55,117, and the number of females 49,059. The revenue for the year 1874 was 327,9251., and the expenditure 318,2787. The amount expended for public works, roads, bridges, and railways, inclusive of the expenditure on the Launceston and Western District Railway, amounted during the year 1874 to 45,4107. The value of imports during the same period was 1,257,7851, while that of exports was 925,3251.
"Education is compulsory, and of a most comprehensive character; there is scarcely any remote district in which there is no school, and no loophole is allowed to the careless parent to permit him to let his children drift into ignorance. Numerous industries have been established, and those who were once content to observe the wool growing on the sheep's back are astonished at seeing how rapidly and beautifully the Hobart Town and Launceston mills convert the raw material into articles of luxury as well as of domestic consumption.
"The total area of the island of Tasmania is 16,778,000 acres, of which 3,982,003 acres are alienated from the Crown by grant and sale; 1,348,400 acres are held under depasturing licenses from the Crown. The total area under cultivation in the colony is 326,486 acres. Wheat takes first rank in extent and importance, 57,633 acres being allotted to this cereal; barley, 5,129 acres; oats, 32,704 acres. Consequent on the high duties enforced on agricultural produce by the other Australian Colonies, and the fluctuating state of the intercolonial markets, the attention of Tasmanian agriculturists has of late years been turned to the production of wheat for the English market, and this has become the most important article of strictly agricultural produce. The export of grain in the year 1874 was valued at 115,7887.
"Salubrity and comparative coldness of climate, owing to higher latitude, make Tasmania an excellent breeding station of stud stock for all the Australian continent, especially as regards animals whose features of excellence consist in that massiveness of form of muscular development, in the dewy mellowness of skin, and of that hardy constitution so requisite in the ox, the mutton sheep, and the draught horse. The number of horses in Tasmania in 1874 was 23,208, cattle 110,450, and sheep 1,714,168.
"The bulk of the wool produced is Merino. The export of wool during the year 1874 amounted to 5,050,920 lbs., which represented a value at this Port of 350,7131.
"The mining industry for many years past was confined to gold and coal, but during the past year tin, iron, and slate have attracted much attention. The yield of gold for the last twelve months, produced by 185 persons was alluvial 850 oz., quartz 3,800 oz. 14 dwt. The quantity of quartz crushed was 3,452 tons. The average yield per ton of stone was 1 oz. 5 dwt. 8 grs. The average value of gold per ounce was 37. 19s. 6d. for alluvial; quartz, 31. 19s. 6d. The gold from Nine Mile Springs, where 2,398 ounces were produced, was valued at 47. an ounce. The total value of the produce of gold for 1874 was 18,4917.
"The mineral which occupied the greatest share of attention was tin; the supply of ore being practically unlimited-the character at the deposits at Mount Bischoff admitting of no question. The total amount of tin raised in 1874 was 490 tons, valued at 787. a ton. The only locality in which silver ore has been worked in Tasmania is Penguin Creek, but at present operations have ceased.
"With respect to the iron resources, it is stated that a small parcel of 271⁄2 tons of ore was sent to the United Kingdom during the 12 months. The quantity raised during the year is set down as 1,400 tons; of this quantity 1,000 tons were raised at Lempriere, West Tamar, and 400 tons at Lewisham.
"The discovery made since the beginning of the present year of a lode of bismuth is regarded as one of the most important that has yet taken place, and it is alleged that if the lode should prove permanent it must become a source of considerable wealth to the colony.
"The island of Tasmania is intersected by many valuable coal measures. At present the output of Ta manian coal is not extensive, and the island is mainly supplied from Newcasle, New South Wales, although, for domestic purposes, Tasmanian coal is used to a considerable extent.
"During the past two years attention has been directed to the slate deposits of Tasmania; the high prices ruling for English slates in the colonial markets has induced the Australian Slate Company to commence work on a fair scale. In 1874 a quarter of a million of slates were prepared for sale at Piper's River.
"At Ilfracombe Bay there is an extensive bed of pure white clay which seems very refractory, and which, when mixed with fine quartz (also abundant and close at hand) forms an admirable fire brick. Common clays are found in all directions, and the iron companies are now manufacturing bricks. Kaolin or porcelain clay is also found at Circular Head.
"In the West Tamar district limestone quarries have been worked for many years past. There is an immense mountain of blue limestone, situated about two miles from the township of Latrobe, on the River Mersey. At the River Don there are very large deposits of pure carbonate of lime, and the eastern districts, especially Fingal, abound with lime of various kinds and qualities.
"The principal timber trees of Tasmania,-such as Blue Gum, Stringy Bark, White Gum, or Gum-toppi Stringy Bark, Swamp Gum, and Peppermint Tree,-furnish a hard close-grained, and strong timber. Pine is very durable, and is employed for boat-building and for house-fittings, &c. Blackwood makes excellent billiard tables and furniture, naves and spokes, cask staves, &c. Myrtle is valuable for house-fittings. SWALL Gum yields the finest palings and other split-stuff in the world. Sassafras affords timber for house-fittings bench screws, &c. Celery-topped Pine is chiefly used for masts and ships' spars. In addition to these, Silver Wattle is used for wood staves and treenails. Mallets, sheaves of blocks, and turnery are manufacture-i from Iron Wood, while the Native Cherry is used for tool handles, gun stocks, &c. for engraving purposes, while Pink Wood and Native Pear are suitable for turnery. Native Box have both a pleasant odour, that of the latter being fleeting.
White Wood is a fit wood
"Bark is largely exported to England and New Zealand for tanning purposes. The price of ground tark varies from 41. to 67. per ton at the ports. During the year 1874 about 4,870 tons were exported, valued si 22,1237. Hops also are largely cultivated. In 1874, 819,145 pounds weight were exported, valesi at 42,2841.
"The principal animals are the kangaroo, wallaby, opossums, and bandicoots, the skins of which are a avail for tanning purposes, the fur being highly valuable as rugs, &c. The devil and Tasmanian tiger ar formidable beasts, and used to make great havoc amongst the flocks. The tiger is a low long-bodied anima' with powerful forequarters, and a dog-like head, weighing sometimes from 60 lbs. to 70 lbs. The dev though not so large, is more hideous in appearance than the tiger.
"Of birds, 171 species have been observed, but of these only 20 species are supposed to be peculiar t Tasmania. The notes of many of the birds are very musical, the most remarkable being the reed warbler, ta tones of which approach those of the nightingale, the black and white magpie, and the butcher bird. I. principal edible birds are varieties of quail, duck, snipe, golden plover, and pigeons.
"There are many species of freshwater fish, the most valuable being the cucumber grayling. Amongst :estuary fish, those most appreciated as edible are the sole, whiting, gar-fish, and rock-cod. The best of L deep sea fish are the trumpeter and king-fish. During the last ten years the salmon trout and brown trout, in
tench and perch, have been established in many of the rivers and lakes. Salmon and salmon trout are supposed to have succeeded, as young salmonoids have during the last four years been seen.
"The chief industries are brewing, milling, jam making, fellmongering, tanning, and coopering. Most of the beer is excellent, and is fully appreciated in the other colonies. In 1874 ale to the quantity of 22,900 gallons was exported. The quantity of jam exported in the same year was 2,648,012 lbs., and 179,762 bushels of fruit valued together at 120,0277. Tasmanian leather is excellent, all varieties from kip to kangaroo being supplied of such quality that a great falling-off in the importation of inferior leather from European ports has taken place; and in 1874, 15,5137. worth was exported from Hobart Town.
"The exhibits from Tasmania will be found interesting in elucidating the vast natural resources and industrial progress of the colony." (Extracted from the Official Record.)
There is one remarkable feature distinguishing Tasmania from all other countries, whose statistics have been compared with hers, which ought not to be passed by unnoticed, namely, the small mortality among children, particularly those under one year of age. Taking an average of five years the following results have been arrived at. Out of 100 infants born, there died within the first year in Tasmania, 945; in N. S. Wales, 957; in Queensland, 11.07; in Victoria, 11-86; in S. Australia, 14-24; the number in England being about 16; in Scotland about 124. The percentage of deaths of children under 5 years was— Tasmania, 2008; N. S Wales. 42.14; Victoria, 45-50; Queenslamd, 46.33; S. Australia, 54-17. The proportion of children under 5 who died to 1,000 children of the same age living was-in Victoria (10 years), about 521; in England and Wales (30 years), about 67; in Tasmania, less than 27. Thus it appears that the mortality of children under 5 years of age in Tasmania is little more than half that of the least healthy of the Australian Colonies. It is also considerably under that of New Zealand, which, as regards the general death rate, is the most healthy of all the Australasian group.-(Nowell, Statistician.)
TASMANIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION AT
NOTES. The letter P before the name signifies a Prizeholder for the same Exhibit in the Victorian Exhibition, 1875. * This star denotes that the Exhibitor presents the objects to the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia.
P.* British and Tasmanian Charcoal Iron Company (Limited), T. H. Lempriere, Manager, 56, Queen Street, Melbourne. 1. Iron Ore from Ilfracombe on the River Tamar, a block.
2. Earthen Brown Hematite.
3. Iron Ore and Crystallised Brown Hematite.
4. Oxides of Iron from Anderson's Creek, Western Tasmania.
Groom, Frederick, Harefield.
5. Coal from Harefield, St. Mary's near Fingal.
Hammond, W., Hobart Town.
6. Bismuth from Mount Ramsey.
8. Iron Ore, calcined and uncalcined.
9. Iron Ore, from Bruny Island.
20. Oxide of Iron and Asbestos in Ser- ! pentine Rock.
* Kermode, W. A., Mona Vale.
21. Salt, from Saltpan Plains, Mona Vale estate.
P. Lyell & Gowan, 46, Elizabeth Street, Melbourne (Australasian Slate Company, Limited).
22. Slate from the Piper's River, on the North-east Coast, in the County of Lewisham, about 15 miles east of George Town.
23. Tin Ore and Ingots, from the Don Tin Mining Company, Mount Bischoff.
24. Marble Limestone, Black, Blue, and White, from the River Don.
25. Coal from the River Don. P. Mount Bischoff Tin Mining Company.
26. Tin in Ingots (a ton), from Mount Bischoff.
* Rayner, E., Bridgewater.
27. Limestone, with large Fossils.
* Smart, Dr., Hobart Town.
28. Gold in Quartz, from the City of Hobart Mine Fingal.
P. Smith, James, Launceston.
29. Bismuth from Mount Ramsey. * Stanhope Company, Tasmania. 30. Tin Ore.
Strachan, R., Cambridge.
31. Salt, from Salt Works, Cambridge.
P. Archer, W. H. D., Longford. 32. Wheat.
33. English Barley.
P. Creswell, C. F., Hobart Town.
40. Oats (black) (Black Tartarian). 41. Oats (Norway).
42. Oats (Poland). 43. Rye.
44. Tares (Golden Spring). 45. Horse Beans.
46. Grey Peas.
47. Peas (Blue and White). 48. Red Dutch Clover.
49. Meadow Soft Grass Seed.
50. Perennial Red Clover Seed. 51. Sanfoin Seed.
52. Lucerne Seed.
56. Cocksfoot Grass Seed.
58. Evergreen Perennial Ryegrass Seed. 59. Seed of the Blue Gum (Eucalyptus globulus).
60. Seed of the Stringy Bark (Eucalypta obliqua).
61. Seed of the Blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon).
62. Forest Trees, 24 Varieties. 63. Ryegrass Seed.
64. Clover Seed (white).
P. Dalgety, Moore & Co., Launceston. 65. Wheat (Brown Velvet).
66. Wheat (Silver Drop).
CL. 600. 620, 624.
67. Wheat (Purple Straw).
75. Silver Wattle Seed (Acacia dealbata).
P. Harrap, Alfred, Launceston.
76. Wheat, Boucher's Velvet.
P. Hogarth, D., Launceston.
77. Wheat, Winter (Braemar Velvet.) P. Hull, Hugh, M., Hobart Town. 78. Cubes of the following Woods of Tasmania :-Blue Gum (Eucalyptus globulus); Stringy Bark (Eucalyptus obliqua);
Huon Pine (Dacydium Franklinii); Peppermint Gum (Eucalyptus viminalis);
Curly Gum (Eucalyptus); † She-oak (Casuarina quadrivalis); † He-oak (Casuarina stricta); Honeysuckle (Banksia Aus tralis); King William Pine; † Oyster Bay Pine; (Callitries Australis); Swamp Gum (Eucalyptus); Myrtle (Fagus Cuninghami); † Musk (Eurybia argophylla); Box (Bursaria); Tea Tree (Leptos-permum).
† Polished so as to show their value for veneers.
Cl. 600. 601.