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I beg further to request that you will furnish me, as soon as possible, with the address of the persons you select, with such information as you may be able to give relative to their special qualifications for the duties that will be imposed upon them.

I am, with great consideration, yours very respectfully,
(Signed) A. I. GOSHORN,

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EXHIBITIONS-THEIR ORIGIN AND PROGRESS.

EXHIBITIONS-THEIR ORIGIN AND PROGRESS.

Progress is the law of life, and Exhibitions, at once the outcome and the forebears of that very progress, have experienced its influence and in turn have reäcted on it. The noble conception of the Prince Consort, so daring in its originality, and so comprehensive in its detail, was yet found capable of extension. Breaking down as it did old barriers of exclusiveness, and calling the nations into a common bond of brotherhood, it was in the very nature of the design to extend its borders, and the experiences of 1851 were utilised by its lamented author for the realisation of 1862.

True it is that the dreams of a universal kindred have not been realised, and that the kindly words of Jules Janin, "Battle-plains are behind us; "there remain before us but the fields of labour," have not been fulfilled. Equally true is it that the Arts of War have marched pari passu with those of Peace, have been tested by other standards than the adjudication of juries, and been subjected to ruder strains than the competition of rival manufacturers.

But all this would have arrived without a Congress of the Nations, and is beside the great question of Art progress, a progress so marked in its development, and so rapid in its strides that it would seem as if a century and not five lustres had passed away since a stone was thrown by a strong and brave hand into the ocean of time, the circles enlarging till they have embraced every branch of human industry, every scheme of modern thought, and have drawn within their span every nation upon the earth that lays claim to rank above the savage.

Prior to 1851, of local exhibitions there had been many; it is not our purpose, however, to refer their origin, as has been ingeniously done, to "the days of Ahasuerus" and the Book of Esther, when "in the third year of his reign. he showed the riches of his glorious kingdom and the honour of his "excellent majesty many days, even an hundred and fourscore days," the normal six months, it may be noted, of all International Exhibitions.

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At this display in "Shushan, the palace," some five hundred and twenty-one years before the birth of Our Lord, were shown "white, green, and blue hangings, "fastened with cords of fine linen and purple to silver rings and pillars of "marble; the beds were of gold and silver, upon a pavement of red and blue, "and white and black marble, and the vessels of gold, the "vessels being diverse one from another." This diversity in "the vessels of gold" is not only a proof of the perfection to which the Industrial Arts had attained, but also lends a colour to the idea that this collection to a large extent was International, for Ahasuerus (said by some to be identical with Artaxerxes), as we are told, "reigned, from India even unto Ethiopia, over an hundred and seven and twenty provinces," and the gold and silver work would point to India, as the purple would suggest the Tyrian dye, and the "fine linen" the Egyptian "byssus." Later on, when Tyre, Sidon, and Carthage became the marts of the world and the foci of Commerce, an everchanging series of industrial marvels must, in commercial phrase, have been constantly "on view," for Tyre, says the prophet Isaiah, “is a mart "of nations. . . . . whose merchants are princes, whose traffickers are the "honourable of the earth," and the prophet Ezekiel bears witness to the extent of her commerce, in the words "Fine linen with broidered works from Egypt, was that which thou spreadest forth to be thy sail." When the last of her rivals had disappeared, and Carthage had been blotted out, Imperial Rome, the centre of civilization and the repository of art, held her public Exhibitions, in which were garnered together the spoils of war and the triumphs of peace, trophies of art borne by the conqueror from their Grecian homes, and luxuries ingathered from every clime where the Roman Legions had set foot or the Standard S.P.Q.R. had been planted,—

Fine webs like woven mist, wrought in the dawn,

Long ere the dew had left the sunniest lawn,

Gold cloth so wrought that nought of gold seemed there,

But rather sunlight over blossoms fair;

Gems too they showed wrought by the hidden fire

That eats the world; and from the unquiet sea
Pearls worth the ransom of an argosy-

Apelles and Protogenes, Lysippus and Endius, Pheidias and Praxiteles, were beyond doubt present in their works at these displays, for we are told by Suetonius that Caligula proposed to substitute his head for that of the Olympic Zeus by Pheidias, whilst Pliny states that Claudius actually cut out the head of Alexander from a picture by Apelles, giving in exchange his image.

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