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An island lying in the Indian Ocean, between 57° 17′ and 57° 46′ E. long., and 19° 58′ and 20° 32′ S. lat. It is 400 miles east of Madagascar. It comprises an area of 676 square miles.
The Mauritius was discovered by the Portuguese in 1507. They claimed possession of it during nearly the whole of the 16th century. The first who made any settlement in it were the Dutch in 1598, who named it Mauritius, in honour of their Prince Maurice. It was abandoned by them in 1710, and afterwards taken possession of by the French. Mauritius was for a long time during the war a source of great mischief to our merchant vessels and Indiamen, from the facility with which sorties might be made from it upon our traders by French men-of-war and privateers. The British Government determined on an expedition for its capture, which was effected in 1810. The possession of the island was ratified by the Treaty of Paris, 1814.
Mauritius pays 45,000l. per annum to the Imperial Government as military contribution, but this amount is subject to reduction when the garrison is below the standard fixed upon as necessary for the defence of the colony.
Total police force, 849.
Horne, J., Mauritius Botanical Gardens. List of Fibres :-Dracæna species, Cordia mixta, Hibiscus liliflorus, Pandanus utilus, Alpinia magnifica, Sanseviera zebrina, Livistona Mauritiana, Agave Americana, Theobroma cacao, Musa species, Rapolocarpus lucidus, Dracæna Mauritiana, Strelitzia regina, Pterospermum acerifolium, Ficus sp., Ficus p., Musa textilis, Latania aurea, Sanseviera Zeylanica, Ficus sp., Musa paradisiaca, Sagus Ruffia, Colocasia antiquorum, Agave Americana variegata, Sida glutinosa, Musa violacea, Agave Mexicana, Boehmeria nivea, Heliconia gigantea, Sanseviera latifolia, Sanseviera cylindrica, Urania (Ravenala) Madagascariensis, Carludovica palmata, Sterculia species, Hibiscus sp., Guazuma ulmifolia, Fourcroya gigantea, Square fruited Banana, Ficus species, Ixora corylifolia, Melochia liliacefolia, Musa var (Otaheite), Paritium tiliaceum, Caladium species, Morus tartarica, Caladium purpurescens, Malvaviscus arboreus, Sagus saccharifera. 6 Walking Sticks, 2 Bottles Nutmegs, 1 Parcel Red Bark (Cinchona succirubra).
L. de Brugada & E. de Boucherville. Two Specimens of Ramie Fibre (Boehmeria nivea).
Wiehe, Mr. J. 15 samples of Sugar :1. "Rose Belle" (Ceylon Company, Limited), White Vesou Sugar manufactured for Bombay and Australian markets; 2. "Astræa" (Ceylon Company, Limited), White Vesou manufactured for Bombay and Australian markets; 3." Astræa" (Ceylon Company, Limited), White Syrup Sugar for Bombay and Australian markets; 4. "Medine" (Mme. Vve. Koenig), fine White Vesou manufactured for Australian market; 5. "Medine" (Mm. Vve. Kœnig) fine White Syrup manufactured for Australian market; 6. "Constance" (Heirs Pellegrin) fine White Crystallized for Bombay and Australian markets; 7. "Constance" (Messrs. Manes & Co.) finest White Sugar for Australian market; 8. "Constance" (Messrs. Manes and Co.), fine White Syrup for Australian market; 9. "Plaisance" (Messrs. Hart and de Bissy), Brewers Crystal manufactured for Australian market; 10. "Plaisance" (Messrs. Hart and de Bissy) fine Brewers Crystal manufactured for Australian market; 11. Sebastopol " (Mr. E. Montocchio), Raw Sugar, fiue Crystallized for European market; 12. "Hewetson" (Mr. W. Hewetson) Raw Sugar, fine Crystallized, manufactured for European market; 13. "Chamouny" (Mr. N. Tourrette), Raw Sugar, refining quality for European markets; 14. "Walhalla" (Mr. C. de Lannux), Yellow Grocery for Australian market; 15. "Mon Repos" (Mr. Nozaïc), Yellow Sugar for Australian market.
Marie, Mr. François. Sample of Arrow
Foucaud, Mme. Vve. Articles made from Palmiste (Oreodoxa Regia) leaves; pairs Slippers, 1 Cigar Case, 2 small Baskets, 1 large Basket, 10 Napkin Rings.
Kyshe, J., Esq. Two copies Mauritius Almanac 1874 and 1874.
Moco, Mr. S. Photographs: -40 Views of Landscapes in Mauritius; 36 Types of the Chinese, Indian, Malagash, and Mozambique inhabitants of Mauritius.
Situation and Area.
The colony of New Zealand consists of three principal islands, called respectively the North, the Middle, and the South (or Stewart's) Island. There are several small islets (mostly uninhabited) dependent on the colony; the chief of these are the Chatham Isles and the Auckland Isles. Tho entire group lies between 34° and 48° S. lat., and 166° and 179° E. long. The three principal islands extend in length 1,100 miles, but their breadth is extremely variable, ranging from 46 miles to 250 miles; the average being about 140 miles.
It will thus be seen that the total area of New Zealand is somewhat less than Great Britain and Ireland.
From its healthy and salubrious climate, from its great extent of coast line, and from its position with regard to the neighbouring continent of Australia, New Zealand is often called "the Great Britain of the Southern Hemisphere." The temperature is, however, much more equable than in the British Isles. While the summers are as cool as those of England, the winters are as warm as those of Italy. The mean annual temperature at Auckland is nearly the same as at Rome; at Wellington, nearly the same as at Milan; at Dunedin, nearly the same as at London. The official reports of the Medical Department show that whereas the annual mortality from all diseases out of every 1,000 British soldiers quartered in the United Kingdom was 16, it was only five out of every 1,000 in the troops quartered for more than 25 years in New Zealand.
New Zealand was discovered in 1642 by the Dutch navigator, Tasman, who, however, did not land upon its shores. In 1769 it was first visited by Captain Cook, who in that year, and during subsequent voyages, explored its coasts. The country subsequently became a resort for whalers and traders, chiefly from Australia, as well as a field for the labours of the Missionary Societies. In 1840, the native chiefs ceded the sovereignty of New Zealand to the British Crown by the Treaty of Waitangi, and the islands were erected into a British colony.
The aborigines, called Maoris, are a remarkable people-a branch of the Polynesian race. According to their own traditions, their forefathers came about 600 years, or 20 generations ago, from Hawaiki, which was probably Hawaii in the Sandwich Islands, or Savaii, in the Navigator or Samoa group. They are divided into about 20 different clans, analogous to those of the Highlands of Scotland. There have been two Maori wars; the first lasted from 1845 until 1848; the second lasted from 1860, with little intermission, until 1870. But fully half the clans have always been friendly to the English; and many of them have fought on the side of the Colonial Government against their own countrymen. Permanent tranquillity appears to have been established in 1871 throughout the country. It was estimated, on 1st June 1874, that the Maoris (including half-castes) amounted to 46,016, all of whom dwell in the North Island, with the exception of 2,608 scattered over the other islands.
The control of native affairs, and the entire responsibility of dealing with questions of native Government were transferred in 1863 from the Imperial to the Colonial Government. In 1864, the seat of the general Government was removed from Auckland to Wellington, on account of the central position of the latter city.
1. Parapara Iron and Coal Company, Nelson.-Block of coal taken from a 3-foot seam. A fair specimen of the general quality of the field. The coal occurs in a rugged mountain range on the north bank of the Aorere River, and is tapped by a drift or tunnel in the side of the hill between 800 and 900 ft. above the level of the sea. By actual survey the field has been proved of considerable extent, and, in the drift alluded to above, five seams have been cut, varying in thickness from 18 in. to 3 ft., out of which 6 ft. of workable coal is found. It is unsurpassed in the colonies for gas purposes, is an excellent household coal, and very superior for steam use.
2. Kennedy Brothers, Nelson.-Block of coal from the Brunner Mine, situated on the Grey River Neilson, seven miles from the port of Greymouth. The seam now being worked is of a uniform thickness of 16 ft., all pure clean coal, and has been worked on a small scale during the past 12 years. The output for the year ending July 1875 was 20,000 tons. A railway is being constructed by the Government to connect the mine with the port, and harbour improvements whereby a larger class of vessels than at present will be enabled to enter are in progress. The Company can now produce 2,000 tons per week. Present price free on board at Greymouth is 15s. per ton. The small quantity of this coal hitherto obtainable in the New Zealand and Australian markets has been eagerly bought up for gasworks and iron foundries, who generally pay for it from 10 to 20 per cent. more than for any other coal. Engineers of local steamers esteem it 20 per cent. better than the best New South Wales coal for steam purposes.
3. Kennedy Brothers, Nelson.-Coke, made from No. 2. Value, 31. per ton.
4. Albion Coal Company, Nelson.-Block of coal, from Ngakawau, Seam 10 feet thick, ascends from the sea level to 1,400 in Mr. Frederic Range, 20 miles North of Westport with which the Mine is connected by Railway.
5. Nelson Committee.-Block of coal from Coalbrook Dale, Mount Rochfort, Nelson. Two seams of 8 ft. and 18 in. respectively, at an elevation of 2,200 feet above the sea level. Estimated area of field, 12 square miles.
6. Nelson Committee.-Block of coal from Reefton, Nelson. 7. Alexander W. Reid, Canterbury.—Altered brown coal from Kowai Pass, 3 ft. seam. Area of field, 108 acres. Value at pit's mouth, 17. The pit is 6 miles from a railway, and 50 miles from port of shipment.
8. Dr. Hector, C.M.G., F.R.S., Director of the Geological Survey of New Zealand.
TYPE SPECIMENS ILLUSTRATING THE CLASSIFICATION OF NEW ZEALAND COALS.
A. BITUMINOUS COAL (caking): Specimen from Brunner Mine, Nelson. Much jointed, homogeneous, tender, and friable; lustre pitch-like, glistening, often iridescent; colour black, with a purple hue; powder brownish; cakes strongly; the best variety forming a vitreous coke with brilliant metallic lustre. Average evaporative power of several samples, 7 lbs. of boiling water converted into steam for each pound of X