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DIGEST OF REGULATIONS FOR FOREIGN EXHIBITORS AND COMMISSIONS, ISSUED BY UNITED STATES CENTENNIAL COMMISSION, GOVERNING THE FREE
IMPORTATION OF GOODS.
FIRST.-No duty, customs fees or charges are required on any importation of exhibits, and a new form of entry will be employed in all cases, at the port where such goods are received.
SECOND. The sole ports of entry at which importations for exhibition can be made free of duty are:-New York; Boston; Portland, Maine; Burlington, Vermont; Suspension Bridge, New York; Detroit, Port Huron, Michigan; Chicago; Philadelphia; Baltimore; Norfolk ; New Orleans; and San Francisco.
THIRD.-All articles assigned for exhibition must be accompanied by an invoice or schedule of the numbers, character, and commercial value of each shipment, which statement must have been previously attested before either a consul of the United States or a civil magistrate of the country in which such articles have been produced, or from which they are shipped to the United States. Such verified bill of contents and values must be in triplicate, one copy for the collector of customs at the port of entry; one for the duly authorised agent of Exhibitor, or for the British Executive, and one for the collector of the port of Philadelphia; the agent, in all cases, must be recognised by the Director-General of the Exhibition, and who will, by virtue of his authority, verify the goods and make entry; and all packages and enclosures containing goods for such Exhibition must be conspicuously marked accordingly.
FOURTH.-All goods arriving so marked and represented, either at the time of the arrival or at any time while remaining in the custody of the collector of customs at the port of arrival, will on general order, when entered at said port, be delivered without examination to such recognised agent or agents of the Exhibitor, to be by him or them forwarded by bonded line of transportation to Philadelphia, there to be delivered to the custody of the collector of that port.
FIFTH.-Entry for warehouse will be made for all such transported packages on arrival at the port of Philadelphia, and original entry of all goods for exhibition coming direct to Philadelphia. This entry having been made, the goods will be retained in the custody of the collector until the Exhibition building, or some building suitable for safe custody, erected by the Executive of the Exhibition, be ready to receive them.
SIXTH.-Separate records of all packages received by the collector at Philadelphia will be made by the store keeper at that port, to contain the owner's name, the agents, the country from which shipped, the date of shipping, the name of vessel, the date of arrival, the description and value of goods, and the specific marks and numbers of packages. [Blank forms prepared to contain these particulars will be forwarded to Exhibitors in due course.] SEVENTH.-When the Exhibition building or warehouse for secure custody shall be ready, descriptive permits in duplicate will be issued by the collector to the storekeeper of port; one copy to be preserved by storekeeper the other to be delivered with goods to a proper officer of customs stationed at Exhibition building or warehouse, and all packages shall be opened in presence of an officer of customs, who will verify contents from such descriptive permit.
EIGHTH.-In case of receipt of packages by the collector of Philadelphia, imperfectly described or verified, or in regard to which information shall have been received questioning the good faith of the persons forwarding the same, the collector may direct an examination, and if in conference with the Director-General the goods are found not to have been forwarded in good faith for exhibition, they will be charged with duty according to their value and classification, and held by collector, subject to appeal to the Secretary of the Treasury, to await proper claim and payment of duty by the owners.
NINTH. All charges for transportation, cartage, an' freight accruing on goods arriving for exhibition will be required to be paid by owner or his agent at the time of their delivery to the custody of the collector of customs at Philadelphia, before the permit is issued for their delivery to the Exhibition building. No fee for entry, permit, or other official act, and no duties will be charged against any such goods until after their withdrawal from Exhibition for sale at its close or during its continuance.
TENTH.-All articles received and entered at Exhibition may be withdrawn for sale or delivery at any time, consistently with the regulations of the Exhibition, on payment of the duties in force at the time of importation and on verification by an officer of the Appraiser's Department of the port of Philadelphia. On payment of said duty, without any other fee or expense, the owner or agent shall receive a permit for removal from the Exhibition.
ELEVENTH.-All goods to be returned to Great Britain will be verified by the customs officer in charge of Exhibition, re-enclosed, duly marked and forwarded, under permit of collector, to any port desired; or they may be exported direct from Philadelphia.
PHILADELPHIA EXHIBITION.—SYSTEM OF AWARDS.
FIRST.—Awards shall be based upon written reports attested by the signatures of their authors. SECOND.-Two hundred judges shall be appointed to make such reports, one half of whom shall be foreigners and one half citizens of the United States. They will be selected for their known qualifications and character, and will be experts in departments to which they will be respectively assigned. The foreign members of this body will be appointed by the Commission of each country and in conformity with the distribution and allotment to each, which will be hereafter announced. The Judges from the United States will be appointed by the Centennial Commission.
THIRD.-The sum of one thousand dollars will be paid to each commissioned Judge for personal expenses. FOURTH.-Reports and awards shall be based upon inherent and comparative merit. The elements of merit shall be held to include consideration relating to originality, invention, discovery, utility, quality, skill, work manship, fitness for the purposes intended, adaptation to public wants, economy and cost.
FIFTH. Each report will be delivered to the Centennial Commission as soon as completed, for final award and publication.
SIXTH.-Awards will be finally decreed by the United States Centennial Commission, in compliance with the Act of Congress, and will consist of a diploma with a uniform Bronze Medal and a special report of the Judges on the subject of the award.
SEVENTH.-Each Exhibitor will have the right to reproduce and publish the report awarded to him, but the U.S. Centennial Commission reserves the right to publish and dispose of all reports in the manner it thinks best for public information, and also to embody and distribute the reports as records of the Exhibition.
THE SELECTION AND APPOINTMENT OF JUDGES.
REPORT OF HON. N. M. BECKWITH, COMMISSIONER FROM NEW York.
At a regular meeting of the Executive Committee of the United States Centennial Commission, held at Philadelphia, October 13th, 1875, Mr. Beckwith, Commissioner from New York, (United States CommissionerGeneral at the International Exhibition at Paris, 1867,) presented the following report upon the selection and appointment of judges. It was carefully considered and unanimously approved.
Honourable D. J. Morrell,
Chairman of the Executive Committee.
In compliance with the request of the Executive Committee, I beg leave to present for consideration the following suggestions relating to the selection and appointment of judges, in conformity with the method of awards decreed by the Centennial Commission.
This method, in many respects, differs radically from the systems hitherto tried in International Exhibitions, and although the subject is familiar to you, I shall be pardoned, I hope, for briefly indicating the broad differences.
Awards have heretofore been generally made by an International Jury of about 600 members.
The appointment of jurors to countries has been tried on various bases, but was usually made on the basis of the relative space occupied by the products of each country respectively, in the Exhibition.
The Great Jury was divided into numerous small juries, who examined the products and prepared lists of the names of persons whom they proposed for awards, and the proposals thus made were confirmed or rejected by higher juries.
The awards consisted chiefly of medals of different values, gold, silver, &c.
This system brought together a numerous and incongruous assembly, including unavoidably many individuals unqualified for the work.
The basis of representation was apparently fair, but its results were delusive.
A few countries nearest the Exhibition, whose products could be collected and exposed at the smallest proportional expense, occupied large spaces; the numerous remote countries filled smaller spaces.
The number of jurors allotted to the smaller spaces, when distributed, left them without jurors on most classes, and in the remainder with only a minority, which, in voting on awards, had no weight, and the awards were thus in effect decreed by the few contiguous countries whose products filled the largest spaces. Written reports on the products were not usually made by juries, and if made were not generally published, consequently no person outside of the jury was informed on what ground awards were made.
The medals, when distributed, were as silent as the verdicts; moral responsibility for the decisions attached to no one, and the awards thus made conveyed as little useful information, and carried as little weight as anonymous work usually carries.
Medals, at best, are enigmas. They express nothing exactly and definitely relative to the products exhibited ; their allegorical designs doubtless have a meaning in the mind of the artist who makes them, but allegorical designs are primitive and feeble language, and the medal of to-day is no more than its predecessor, a school-boy token,-verdicts upon products determined by majority votes of juries in which the producing countries are often represented by useless minorities,-awards based upon anonymous reports, or reports never published, and final decisions announced and recorded in the vague and mystic language of medals, have not proved satisfactory to producers nor to the public. As regards the diffusion of reliable and useful information, International Exhibitions have not come fully up to expectations and to the promise implied in the great labour and great expenses which they involved, and the wide-spread dissatisfaction which has uniformly followed the close of jury-work, affords in itself strong evidence that the system is not well adapted to the purposes of International Exhibitions.
The method of awards adopted by the Centennial Commission differs from preceding systems. It dispenses with the International Jury and substitutes a body of 200 judges, one-half foreign, chosen individually for their high qualifications.
It dispenses, also, with the system of awards by graduated medals, and requires of the judges written reports on the inherent and comparative merits of each product thought worthy of an award, setting forth the properties and qualities, presenting the considerations forming the ground of the award, and avouching each report by the signature of their authors.
The professional judgment and moral responsibility of the judges being thus involved, assures the integrity of their reports. As awards to exhibitors, such reports will be more valuable than medals, in proportion to the greater amount of reliable information which they convey to the public. Their collected re-publication, as handbooks, will form valuable guides for all classes to the most advanced products of every country, and, last and least, the sales of them can hardly fail to return to the Commission a good portion of their cost.
The success of this method obviously depends on the judicious selection of the judges, and to this point I desire to call particular attention.
In this connection it may be remarked that the best judges of products are not usually found among their producers, but among their consumers.
To select a wine, for example, of particular character, one would not apply to wine-growers, but to dealers and consumers. On the merits of an engine you would prefer the opinion of the engineer who uses it, to that of the engineer who invented or made it. The sugars and coffees of Brazil, Cuba, Java, &c., are best judged in the great markets of consumption. In brief, the food products of the world find their most accurate appreciations, as regards their inherent qualities and comparative merits, in the great consuming markets, where similar products from all regions are gathered, and the practical judgment of the using and consuming public is pronounced, from which there is no appeal.
The principle in this applies not only to raw products, but in a general sense to manufacturers and to industrial products of all kinds in general use.
In this view of the subject, the method of awards adopted by the Centennial Commission presents the great advantage that it is judicial rather than representative, and the Commission is perfect free to select judges from the best sources, regardless of localities.
The men to seek for are those who, by their ability, education, character, and experience are fittest for the work, and they will be less difficult to find than to obtain, being generally employed, and frequently connected with large industries, important works, and the higher institutions to which their superior qualifications have led them.
Freedom to choose our judges from the best sources, cannot fail to produce good results if the selection be made upon proper investigation, with suitable care and without favour.
The announcements of this method of awards has been received in foreign countries, as far as heard from, with expressions of distinct approbation, and there can be no doubt that they will select and bring to us their hundred judges, who will be distinguished by their reliable and solid qualifications, and it is incumbent on us to select a body of men of character, able and expert in their respective callings, and equal in attainments and experience to our foreign co-operatives, with whom our own will be intimately associated.
I need hardly add that the useful results and success of our Exhibition and the public satisfaction which it should produce, as well as the reputation of this Commission, as practical and sensible men, depend largely on the selection of our judges, and finally upon their organisation and work.
New York, October 9th, 1875.
N. M. BECKWITH.
A suitable Committee was thereupon appointed to propose the method of proceeding to select the judges.
COPY OF LETTER FROM MR. GOSHORN ADDRESSED to COLONEL H. B. SANDFORD, R.A., AS TO THE NUMBER OF JUDGES FOR GREAT BRITAIN.
United States Centennial Commission,
They should be citizens of the United Kingdom, possessing a diversity of qualifications, and especially fitted, by knowledge and experience, to judge of and report on the several subjects in the Departments to which they will be assigned.
The Judges will assemble on the 24th day of May 1876, at 12 o'clock noon, in the Hall of the Judges, and remain in continuous session until the important duties confided to them have been discharged.
You are requested to appoint and accredit persons as Judges in the following Groups of the classification, and subjects of a kindred nature.