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of their rightful choice of electors of President and Vice-President, of a governor, and other officers; disgraced the most populous city of the Union; encouraged the enemies of republican government here and everywhere to deride our institutions as a failure, and endangered the peace of the republic by an attempt to defeat the will of the people in the choice of their rulers. .

The events of the past year in New York and the evidence taken by the committee furnish the proof of all these allegations.

Among the most prominent of the frauds committed in the interest of the democratic party in the city and State of New York in connection with the election in November, 1868, are these :

1. Many thousands of aliens fraudulently procured or were furnished with certificates of naturalization illegally or fraudulently issued, by means of which they were enabled to register as voters and voted in violation of law.

2. Many hundreds of certificates of naturalization were granted in the names of fictitious persons, to be used by native-born and naturalized citizens and aliens in falsely registering as voters, and to enable them to rote many times at the election.

3. Many hundreds of persons voted in New York city from two to forty times or more, each under assumed or fictitious names, fraudulently registered for the purpose.

4. Extensive frauds were committed in canvassing tickets, and names of voters were entered on the poll-lists, and democratic tickets counted as if voters representing them voted, when no such persons voted at all.

5. To accomplish these frauds gross neglect of duty and disregard of law so great as to evince a criminal purpose prevailed in some of the courts, while officers and democratic partisans of alınost every grade, either by official influence or otherwise, aided, sanctioned, or knew of and failed to prevent them. The same influences shielded the perpetrators in nearly all cases from detection or arrest, and when arrested they have, through the agency of judicial officers and others charged with the duty of prosecution, escaped all punishment.

6. Through these agencies the democratic electors of President and Vice-President and the democratic candidate for governor of the State of New York were fraudulently elected.

7. And the investigations of the committee show that existing State laws and the mode of enforcing them are wholly inadequate to prevent these frauds, but that Congress has the power to enact laws which, if faithfully executed, will to some extent furnish remedies hereafter.

There is no law of Congress professing to prevent or punish frauds in voting or conducting elections, and the penalties relating to certificates of naturalization are by no means adequate.

CHAPTER II.

1.-NATURALIZATION FRAUDS-GENERAL EVIDENCE OF FRAUD AND

ILLEGALITY IN NATURALIZATIONS.

1.The unusual number naturalized. Prior to the year 1868 naturalizations were effected in State courts in New York city only in the court of common pleas and the superior court. The average number naturalized each year in the common pleas, from

1856 to 1867, inclusive, was 5,252, and in the superior court 3,955,9 or a total annual average of 9,207.

The highest number in any one of these years, in both these courts, prior to 1865, was 16,493, in 1856.

On the 6th of October, 1868, the supreme court commenced the work of naturalization. In the year 1868 these courts, as reported by some of their officers, naturalized as follows: In the common pleas ......

3, 145 Superior court ...

27, 897 Supremell court in October...

10, 070

Total...............................................

41, 112

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Number naturalized October 1..

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10,479 ) Number naturalized October 6.
6,857

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4, 882

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Westlake, a deputy clerk, says, (Evidence, 2022, 2429 :)

A. I present a statement giving the aggregate number of naturalization in that court for the months of January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, and September, and the number naturalized each day from the Ist to the 23d of October, and the aggregate for the month of November and up to the 24th of December, the total being 27.897. The statement is as follows: 1868. Number.

1868.

Number. January..... 84 October 10 ..

1, 653 February .. 100 October 12

1, 856 March..... 105 October 13

1, 868 April

140
October 14

2, 109 May .... 108 October 15

1, 420 June ..... 102 October 16

1, 112 July 140 October 17

840 August...... 195 October 19

1, 026 September .. 632 October 20

1, 004 October 1.. 580 October 21

860 October 2.. 745 October 22

911 October 3..

840
| October 23

1,024 October 5...

1, 425 November.... October 6

1, 721 December ... October 7..

1, 630 October 8..

1, 842
Total.....

27,897 October 9...

1, 760 10 Evidence, 1947, 5104. 11 Evidence, 5104 : Number of persons naturalized in the supreme court of New York city, on the days hereinafter named. 1868.

1868. October 6.. 6 October 16......

721 October 7.. 8 October 17....

633 October 8... 379 October 19.

955 October 9... 668 October 20.

944 October 10... 717 October 21

773 October 12...

October 22

675 October 13.. 901 October 23

587 October 14...

523 October 15...

857
Total ...........

10, 070

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* An attempt is made to account for the great number of naturalizations by saying that the
presidential election induced this, and that aliens did not become naturalized during the war,
because they would be liable to be drafted into the military service. (Evidence, 3350, 2820,
3578, 3519, 2002, 7533.)

The naturalizations in the State courts of the city in 1860 were 13,556, in 1859 only 7,636.
But in the year of the presidential election of 1864 the naturalizations were 12, 171, so that
the liability to military service did not materially diminish naturalization. The war practi-
cally closed in April, 1865, so that three years intervened up to 1868, with an exciting guber-
natorial election in 1866, in which year there were 13,023 naturalizations, and in 1867 there
were 15,476, showing that any omissions during the war were now made up. It is abund-
antly shown that the war reduced the alien population of the city, many of whom enlisted in

the military service, died of disease or casualties, and after the war located elsewhere.

Evidence, 6311, 3741, 6952.

See this report, Chapter VI, note to page –

Judge McCunn testifies that “the men who went into the army from the city were princi-
pally foreigners.” Evidence, 6953.

The naturalizations of 1868 should have been reduced in consequence of this.

The war, as shown by immigration statistics, diminished emigration from April, 1861, to
April, 1865, and aliens arriving since it closed were not entitled to naturalization in 1868.

The alien emigrants arriving at New York in 1860 were 105, 162 ; in 1861, only 65,539;
in 1862, only 76,306. For the four years of 1857 to 1860 inclusive, the yearly average was
111,711, while the yearly average for three years, 1861 to 1863 inclusive, was only 99,569,
and of those who did arrive and remain in New York many were withdrawn by the war.
Of these emigrants only a small proportion remained in the State of New York, and still
Jess in the city, and of ihose in the city many were women and children. The statistics of
emigration for several years are as follows:
Teble showing the numbers and nativities of alien emigrants who arrived at the port of New

York from May 5, 1847, to January 1, 1867.

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In the supreme court only one judge, George G. Barnard, heard appli. cations for naturalization; in each of the other courts more than one

Table showing the number and nativities of alien emigrants, &c.—Continued.

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Germany..
England.
Scotland
France ......
Switzerland.
Holland .....
Wales. .....
Norway
Sweden ...
Italy .......
Belgium.....
Spain .......
West Indies..
Denmark .....
Poland
Sardinia...
South America...
Portugal ...
Nova Scotia
Russia .....
Canada .....
Mexico ...
Sicily .....
China .....
East Indies..
Greece .....
Turkey ....

Annual totals . ..........

1.859

785 398 646

11 102 169 148 111 205

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253
146
344

228

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234 416 493 114 164 138 45

469 142 426 163 30

495 80

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Table showing the numbers and nativities of alien emigrants, &c.—Continued.

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Germany...
England ..
Scotland ..
France......
Switzerland.
Holland..
Wales......
Norway ...
Sweden ...
Italy
Belgium.....
Spain .......
West Indies.
Denmark ....
Poland.
Sardinia....
South America ...
Portugal.
Nova Scotia..
Russia .....
Canada ...
Mexico ..
Sicily .....
China
East Indies...
Greece .....
Turkey ....
Arabia
Africa......
Australia ..
Japan...
Central America....
Unknown ............

2. 004

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judge exercised the jurisdiction, though in 1868 in the superior court it was mainly done by Judge John H. McCunn.13 The highest number naturalized in one day in the superior court was, October 14, 2,109; and in the supreme court, by a single judge in one day, October 19, was 955. From October 8 to 23, inclusive, this judge ordered a daily average of over 718 certificates of citizenship.

How far these figures give the full number of certificates granted will be considered hereafter. 14

2.—Number naturalized each day. If there were no other evidence to stamp with infâmy, fraud, and illegality a portion of these naturalizations, the great number issued by a single judge in one day would be quite sufficient. In 1844 a judge in Louisiana was impeached and removed from office for malfeasance in granting certificates of naturalization. The select committee of the House of Representatives investigating the charges in a report say: "It further appears that nearly 400 of these certificates were issued in one day. It seems to your committee impossible that this could have been legally done.915

But this impossibility is greatly increased when the number reaches 955—a number inconsistent with either honesty of purpose or legality in practice. 16

13 Evidence, 3420. Meeks, a clerk, says: Judce McCann did the greatest part of it: Judge Garvin the next. These two judges were naturalizing; Judge Jones and Judge Barbour assisted. They were holding term, and when they got out of court they came over to assist ; but the bulk of it was done by Judges Garvin and McCund. Judge Barbour did some, bat not much. Judge Morrell did none. He was in Europe from June until the 3d of November, See Evidence, 3573. Evidence, 7643, 7673, 2429, showing 840 papers missing for one day. Sec Evidence, 2168,

4130

15 U. S. Senate documents, 2d sess. 28th Cong., vol. 9, 1844–45; doc. No. 173, p. 148.

16 In Kings county, Brooklyn, the number of naturalizations were only procured from one court. But with the extensive practice there they did not reach so large a daily number as in New York city. The statement for one court is as follows:

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Statement of the whole number of persons naturalized in the county clerk's office from the 23d day of September,

1856, to the 31st day of December, 1868, in Kings county.
........ 1, 667 | 1864...

722 1957.. 293 | 1865...

483 984 1866

2, 328 1867....

2, 436 1, 159 1868.

3, 246

144

47

151

1962. 1813...

Total ...

13,841

181

28 24 74

143 157 145

Wkole number naturalized from the 1st day of October to the 31st day of October, 1868. October 1

1 October 19.... October 2

October 20 Oetober 3

October 21 October 5

October 22 October 6

55 October 23 October 7

217 October 24 Oetober 8.

147 October 26 Oetober 9

130 October 27 October 10

42 October 28 October 12

187 October 29 Oetober 13

207 October 30 October 14

October 31 October 15

207 Oetober 16 ...

107

Total .... Detober 17

55 Evidence, 5102.

2, 613

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