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sumed as we looked on, with. The understanding of the situaout any serious delay in the tion will not lead to aggressive work, which the hands con- action in support of economic tinued whilst the jaws masti interests on the part either of cated the simple, frugal ration the United States or of the of rice with a little fish. Again, United Kingdom, and in the when we landed from a steamer present temper of the French in Hongkong, in an ordinary people they may be equally Chinese row-boat, we found the trusted to avoid such aggresboat-which was decked over sive enterprise ; whilst, with by a masterpiece of carpentry, the exception of Germany, no or rather joinery-to be the other Power is to-day in a posipermanent home of a family of tion thus to risk disturbing the six, including the owner, his peace of the world. As is, howwife, and four children, the ever, now well understood, the eldest of whom was a girl of present disturbance in the Far about fourteen. The mother East is the natural, though nursed a baby, the eldest girl doubtless unforeseen, outcome of took one

oar and the father German action in Shantung; another, on which an urchin and Germany has given proof about ten years old rested his that, under the guidance of small hands as an apprentice her energetic and apparently learning the stroke. These sometimes rather impatient people paid no rent or taxes Kaiser, she is ready to further beyond, perhaps, a boat-licence, her economic interests and the cost of their food by direct aggression where it must have been a mere trifle. may be considered safe and It is quite possible that they profitable. From this point of were saving money out of their view the Yellow Peril becomes scanty earnings.

a political German Peril, and To cheap labour and an probably the greatest safeindustry with which nothing guard against this special in Europe can compare, the danger lies in the recent deChinese and Japanese add a velopment and display of the marvellous manual dexterity military strength of Japan. and a training of the eye which The Yellow Peril imagined can only become general among by German political wire-pullers the masses of the artisan class is not, we apprehend, of such a as a result of the practice of nature, nor based on such confine handicrafts by successive siderations, as those we have generations; and when all these suggested in the foregoing paraqualities and capacities are graphs. As far as we can follow turned to account in manufac- the German idea, we are asked tures and commerce, organised to believe that an arrogant and on the modern system, the unscrupulous people, ruling the economic Yellow Peril will oceans and disposing of gigantic surely become a serious danger land forces and armaments, will to the older established indus

the civilised world, tries of Europe and America. dealing death and destruction

even

overrun

in their bloody progress. That before Central Europe can be such a picture may really pre- reached European Russia must sent itself to the minds of those be conquered. The feasibility who preached no quarter to of such operations has only the force despatched to Kiaou- to be examined, for the idea Tchou is perhaps just possible, to be at once and definitely though we cannot easily per. rejected. suade ourselves that it is pro An advance through Central bable. In any case, it would

Asia is, if possible, even more not appear difficult to dispose impracticable. On that line of of the dream by a short process advance railways would have of calm reasoning.

to be constructed, and unless As regards an invasion of the subjugation of both Persia Central and Western Europe by and the Caucasus is included the yellow peoples, the experi- in the programme, an enormous ence of the Russo-Japanese war detour would have to be made would appear to establish that it through the

the desert wastes is the wildest chimera. In pre- which surround the Caspian sent circumstances, the advance to the east and north. Even of the yellow races by land is if all these difficulties could by impossible, until they shall any miracle be surmounted, it bave either entirely subjugated would still be necessary to Siberia and obtained full and conquer and occupy the entire unhampered command of the area of Southern Russia before railways and all other com a further advance could be munications, or else have estab- undertaken against South or lished communications suitable Central Europe. The whole for the requirements of modern proposition of the advance of warfare across the deserts on the yellow races

across the the western Chinese frontier, Asiatic continent is manifestly driven the Russians out of too absurd to merit serious conCentral Asia, and thoroughly sideration. All we can say is subdued the Mohammedan that, whilst admitting that the population of the Central statesmen of Western Europe Asiatic Khanates. The diffi- have not always shown great culties encountered by Russia capacity in their dealings with in despatching and maintaining Germany, it is somewhat morarmies on the eastern frontier tifying to note that German of Siberia, although their line politicians should have so low of communications traversed an opinion of their intelligence their own territory, are nothing as to think it possible to imin comparison with what would press them with the yellow be the difficulties of a yellow myth invented to influence army with a line of communi. them. cations through a hostile coun

There still remains the extry, and faced on the Urals by travagant idea that the Japthe full power of Russia, under anese having obtained full conditions the most favourable command of the seas, an inpossible for the Russians. And vasion of Europe might be

attempted by water. It is to come any possibility of a difficult to believe that even clashing of British and Japan. German politicians really hope ese interests in the Far East. to induce us to accept the The consideration of possipossibility of such an under- bilities in the waters of the taking; but if they do, we Pacific leads up to what was need only recall the lesson probably the real point in the of the cost and difficulty of minds of our German friends. maintaining an army of some Shantung is very much nearer 200,000 men brought from over to Japan than is Hongkong, the seas to South Africa; and and the Japanese fleet at the to remember that during the close of the present war is not South African campaign our likely to be immeasurably insea communication was absol- ferior to the German fleet: in utely undisturbed, and that these circumstances we do not we disposed of such a mass see how, unless the status quo of shipping as, whatever may be guaranteed by the new be their progress, will cer- Anglo - Japanese treaty, Gertainly require the efforts of many's retention of Shantung some generations for Japan or can be otherwise than dependChina to acquire. The idea of ent on the goodwill of Japan. invasion by sea may therefore Hinc illæ lacrime. The phanbe dismissed as summarily as

tom of the Yellow Peril was that of invasion by land. We invoked to induce somebody to may, however, admit that kindly undertake to save the should the yellow races ever German chestnuts from the fire. dispose of a fleet, the strength If Germany should be able to of which could in any way find a satisfactory solution of compare with

that of the this problem, it will be due British navy, the advantage solely to the security provided they would enjoy from the for the maintenance of the relative proximity of their base general status quo in the Far to such a possible point of East by the conditions of the attack as Hongkong would new Anglo-Japanese alliance. render our position in that The nature of the Anglopossession extremely precari- Saxon Peril recently adver

Whilst admitting SO tised by the Berlin dealers in much, we may take comfort “perils” has not been clearly from the consideration that explained by the advertisers, very many years must elapse but it must be either of an before any such fleet can be economic or of a political charbuilt

up

in the Pacific as could acter, and we are probably endanger our supremacy even fairly correct in assuming in Hongkong; and, in any that it is supposed by these case, we may assume with con- philanthropists to be specially siderable confidence that the dangerous to Germany. If we renewal and strengthening of could believe in the probability the Anglo - Japanese alliance of the establishment of has removed for a long time Customs Union embracing the

ous.

а

our

Own

our

British Empire and the United the acceptance of arbitration States, we could understand in all international difficulties. that the situation which would However ardently to be desired thus be created might, in spite is the advent of such a peaceof the remarkable business enforcing understanding, we aptitude and plodding industry cannot anticipate its realisation of the German people, be one in the early future; and should of considerable danger to Ger- it be realised hereafter, we are man economic interests; but at a loss to see how it could the hopes of our most sanguine prejudice the interests of any tariff reformers are likely for non - aggressive community. many a long day to be limited The idea of an Anglo-Saxon to the establishment of a tariff Peril is, then, manifestly abagreement between the com- surd, and we are inclined to ponent parts of

believe that its authors must Empire. It is impossible to speedily recognise the fact, even forecast the future of our rela- if they have not already done tions with

American so, and, consequently, that we cousins, but the idea of their are not likely to hear much entering a Customs Union on

more about it. terms satisfying the require The “Perils,” Tatar, Yellow, ments of our inter-Imperial and Anglo-Saxon, have been trade does not seem for the examined in turn, and the conpresent to be within the range clusion is that none of them, of practical politics. Failing except the first, bas any imsuch a

very improbable ar- portance, or is likely to affect rangement, we are strongly of the political interests of peaceopinion that Germany is very loving communities who do not well able to hold her own in seek to further their material any form of international trade interests or gratify their amcompetition. If, then, we are bition at the expense of their to treat the suggested Peril as neighbours. With regard to a serious question, we must

must the Tatar Peril, we can only look for some political danger. repeat our opinion that, if cirOur idea is that no alliance or cumstances do not curb the international arrangement of aggressively ambitious policy any kind could be so certainly of Russia, it may some day conducive to the preservation become a serious danger; and of universal peace as a firm in such an event, and agreement between the Anglo- especially in view of the checks Saxon peoples on either side of imposed on Russia in the East the Atlantic to act together as by the Anglo-Japanese alliance, an international police, bound its first effects would necessarily to put an immediate stop to all be felt by Germany. wanton aggression, and to force

ΚΥΡΙΟΣ. .

more

VOL. CLXXVIII.—NO. MLXXX.

2 R

A STUDY OF THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR.

BY CHASSEUR.

X.—THE BATTLE OF MUKDEN.

(WITH MAP.)

WE left the Russian army able to possess themselves of quietly settling itself back into as complete information with its dug-outs, and awaiting such regard to their enemy as the further developments as the Japanese were able to obtain, season and the Japanese might we have always been ready have in store for it. But al- to allow; but even after this though the rank and file moved allowance we think, with reback into the warm welcome gard to the premises to the of their underground intrench- great battle of Mukden, that ments, yet there are certain Japanese sympathisers have evidences which show that, in been a little inclined to overspite of all the various reports estimate the excellence of the to the contrary, Kuropatkin Japanese General Staff to the was preparing, if not again belittlement of their beaten to undertake the initiative enemy. For instance, we are himself, at least to receive a confidently informed by some Japanese attack. We find expert military writers that mentioned, both in Lord Kuropatkin had no knowledge Brooke's interesting work and of the whereabouts of General also in various telegrams to Nogi's army. Another milithe 'Novoe Vremya,' that the tary writer has told us at Russian generalissimo late in great length that this Port February ordered his hospitals Arthur force was successfully to be prepared to receive screened by a division of 70,000 casualties over and cavalry from all intercourse above those already incurred with the outer world while it at Hei - kou - tai. Japanese was preparing to push forsympathisers, who in this ward to Hsin-min-ting. We country throughout the war ourselves are inclined to think have always been anxious to that the Japanese plans as put the very best complexion they developed were mystifyon everything that emanated ing enough, and that their from Tokio and the Japanese dispositions, as they brought General Staff, have told us them to bear upon their enemy that Kuropatkin and his staff at Mukden, were scientific and were totally blind and unin- conclusive enough without credformed as to the various iting them with supernatural preparations which the Jap- energies or powers. That Kuanese were making to open ropatkin knew where Nogi's the campaign in the spring. army was by the middle of That the Russians were not February is definitely proven

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