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of the Board of Control. Dis- than Lord Palmerston's, beraeli had now, like Pitt, to do cause it ensured the possession the very thing which a few by the Council of a larger weeks ago he had condemned, amount of knowledge and a and he did it with great skill. larger amount of independence. In introducing his Government When the House met after the of India (No. 2) Bill, he said Easter recess Lord Russell sugthat the House of Commons by gested that, owing to the great agreeing to Lord Palmerston's and decided objections urged Bill had declared by an over against many of the provisions whelming majority that the of the measure, the House government of India should be should proceed by resolution. transferred from the East India The Chancellor of the ExCompany to her Majesty, and chequer agreed to the suggesit was in deference to this con- tion, and “as the noble Lord viction that he introduced the possesses in the House an new measure. The Government authority which no one has now proposed in the first in- more honourably earned or more stance that there should be a deservedly exercised, I must high officer of State--a Minister say it would be more agreeable of the Crown-who should oo- to me if he would propose cupy the rank and fulfil the the Resolution.” But Lord duties of a Secretary of State. John Russell was not prepared The new Secretary of State to relieve Government of all was to be President of the responsibility, and he conCouncil of India. The new sidered that “the framing and Council was to consist of eigh- proposing these Resolutions teen members, half being nomin- was a duty which ought proated by the Crown, the other perly to remain in the hands half to be elected-five by the of her Majesty's Government." citizens of London, Manchester, Ou the 30th of April the first Liverpool, Glasgow, and Bel- resolution—"That it is expefast, four by the holders of dient to transfer the Govern£1000 East India stock, regis- ment of India to the Crown” tered proprietors of £2000 cap- — was carried. Before the ital stock of an Indian railway House met to discuss the or of any public work, and second resolution, Lord Ellenthose who had held her Ma- borough had resigned, owing to jesty's commission or the com- the strong indignation excited mission of the Government of by the publication of the secret India for ten years resident in dispatch censuring Lord CanEngland, or who had been in ning for his Oudh proclamathe Civil Service of her Ma- tion. Three objections were jesty in India or in the Civil raised to the dispatch-first, Service of the Government that it prematurely condemned of India for ten years. The Lord Canning; secondly, that system of election was far its terms were unfitting, even too complicated and elaborate, supposing the Proclamation deand it wrecked the Bill. It served condemnation; thirdly, was, however, a better Bill it was detrimental to the

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authority of the Governor- trading to the East Indies ”— General. Lord Russell, in the merchants with the sentiments course of the debate in the and abilities of great statesmen, House, remarked: “It was whose servants founded an Emno doubt a very fine piece of pire which they governed with writing, and may rank with firmness and equity. On the many passages from our class- 1st of November 1858 a royal ics, but was it fitting that the proclamation issued throughout Government should hurl these all India declared the direct sarcasms at a man placed in sovereignty of Queen Victoria the position of the Governor- over all territories whether diGeneral ?” Lord Stanley, who rectly administered or through had made a tour through India, native princes. In 1876 the became President of the Board direct sovereignty was emphaof Control. After many nights sised by her Majesty assuming of debate upon resolutions, the the title of Empress of India. House got weary of an acad- It is a matter of regret that emic discussion as to what the the Act which empowered her Bill ought to be, and seeing Majesty to make such addition that there was no hope of com- to her style and title as to her ing to any practical decision may seem fit, did not at the with regard to the proposed same time place beyond the constituency, it determined to pale of discussion the right drop the proceeding by resolu- of the Governor-General to the tion, and leave was granted to title of Viceroy. At present bring in a new bill. On the the Governor-General of India 24th of June the second read- is neither by the warrant of ing of the East India (No. 3) appointment under Our Royal Bill was moved by Lord Stan- Sign Manual nor by any Act ley and carried after a short of Parliament recognised as discussion in the House of Viceroy. In the Proclamation Commons. On the 8th of July by the Queen in Council, Visthe Bill, as amended (and it count Canning was appointed was considerably amended), was “our first Viceroy and Goverread the third time. The Bill nor - General,” and his sucwent through its various stages cossors, Elgin, Lawrence, and in the House of Lords with Mayo, were gazetted “Viceroy comparatively little discussion and Governor - General”; but and a few unimportant amend- since then the title Viceroy has ments. On the 2nd of August not been used in the Gazette. the Royal assent was given to The title of Viceroy should be the measure by which the gov- distinctly recognised. As Government of the territories and ernor-General in Council, the all powers vested in or exer- Governor-General is supreme cised by the Company in head of an executive departtrust for her Majestyshall ment; as Viceroy he should be cease to be vested in or exer- in the eyes of the native princised by the Company. So cos the direct representative of ended the rule of the “Com- the King and the unmistakable pany of Merchant Adventurers ruler of the Empire.

By the Act of 1858 one of of votes at a Council.” The her Majesty's Principal Secret- second proviso, which was inaries of State exercises all serted after grave discussion in powers and duties which were the House of Commons, is the exercised by the Company or more important one, that “exthe Board of Control. A cept for preventing or repelling Council was established, called actual invasion of her Majesty's the Council of India, which Indian possessions, or under was not to be a mere consulta- other sudden and urgent necestive body, but “shall, under the sity, the revenues of India shall Direction of the Secretary of not, without the consent of State, conduct the Business both Houses of Parliament, be transacted in the United King- applicable to defray the exdom in relation to the Govern- penses of any military operation ment of India and the corre- carried out beyond the external spondence with India.” All frontiers of such possessions by correspondence was, however, her Majesty's Forces charged to be in the name of the upon such revenues.” The Secretary of State. The spirit, if not the letter, of this Secretary of State is ad- provision was broken when, in dressed in name by the Indian 1878, the very day after ParliaGovernment, and signs all the ment was adjourned, the Indian despatches from the India Government received orders to Office. The Secretary of State send native troops to Malta. sits and votes as President of No man acquainted with the Council of India, and ap- Indian affairs would like to points a Vice-President. He see a more active interference has the power, subject to the ex- on the part of the House of ceptions which will be mentioned Commons with the details of immediately, to decide ques- administration; but much tions on which members differ, danger lieth in the Governbut any dissentient member ment of India or the Secretary may require his opinion to be of State being allowed to evade placed on record -a privilege Acts which Parliament has which has proved of consider. passed on the recommendation able service. The Secretary of of Committees of both Houses, State is bound to give reasons, which sat for long periods of except in urgent cases, for any time and took the evidence of exercise of his veto. The Act as many Indian experts as of 1858 contains two provisions were available whenever the which to a certain degree limit time came round, at intervals the power of the Secretary of of twenty years, for renewing State: “No grant or appropri- the East India Company's lease ation of any part of the Indian of government. If the Acts Revenues or of any other have grown obsolete let them property coming into the pos- be repealed, but they cannot session of the Secretary of be evaded without far-reaching State in Council by virtue of disturbance. this Act shall be made without The Counoil of India was the concurrence of a majority created to supply the knowauthority of the Governor- trading to the East Indies ”— General. Lord Russell, in the merchants with the sentiments course of the debate in the and abilities of great statesmen, House, remarked: “It was whose servants founded an Emno doubt a very fine piece of pire which they governed with writing, and may rank with firmness and equity. On the many passages from our class- 1st of November 1858 a royal ics, but was it fitting that the proclamation issued throughout Government should hurl these all India declared the direct sarcasms at a man placed in sovereignty of Queen Victoria the position of the Governor- over all territories whether diGeneral?” Lord Stanley, who rectly administered or through had made a tour through India, native princes. In 1876 the became President of the Board direct sovereignty was emphaof Control. After many nights sised by her Majesty assuming of debate upon resolutions, the the title of Empress of India. House got weary of an acad. It is a matter of regret that emic discussion as to what the the Act which empowered her Bill ought to be, and seeing Majesty to make such addition that there was no hope of com- to her style and title as to her ing to any practical decision may seem fit, did not at the with regard to the proposed same time place beyond the constituency, it determined to pale of discussion the right drop the proceeding by resolu- of the Governor-General to the tion, and leave was granted to title of Viceroy. At present bring in a new bill. On the the Governor-General of India 24th of June the second read- is neither by the warrant of ing of the East India (No. 3) appointment under Our Royal Bill was moved by Lord Stan- Sign Manual nor by any Act ley and carried after a short of Parliament recognised as discussion in the House of Viceroy. In the Proclamation Commons. On the 8th of July by the Queen in Council, Visthe Bill, as amended (and it count Canning was appointed was considerably amended), was "our first Viceroy and Goverread the third time. The Bill nor - General,” and his sucwent through its various stages cossors, Elgin, Lawrence, and in the House of Lords with Mayo, were gazetted “Viceroy comparatively little discussion and Governor - General”; but and a few unimportant amend- since then the title Viceroy has ments. On the 2nd of August not been used in the Gazette. the Royal assent was given to The title of Viceroy should be the measure by which the gov- distinctly recognised. As Government of the territories and ernor-General in Council, the all powers vested in or exer- Governor-General is supreme cised by the Company “in head of an executive departtrust for her Majestyshall ment; as Viceroy he should be coase to be vested in or exer- in the eyes of the native princised by the Company. So ces the direct representative of ended the rule of the “Com- the King and the unmistakable pany of Merchant Adventurers ruler of the Empire.

By the Act of 1858 one of of votes at a Council.” The her Majesty's Principal Secret- second proviso, which was inaries of State exercises all serted after grave discussion in powers and duties which were the House of Commons, is the exercised by the Company or more important one, that “exthe Board of Control. A cept for preventing or repelling Council was established, called actual invasion of her Majesty's the Council of India, which Indian possessions, or under was not to be a mere consulta- other sudden and urgent necestive body, but “shall, under the sity, the revenues of India shall Direction of the Secretary of not, without the consent of State, conduct the Business both Houses of Parliament, be transacted in the United King- applicable to defray the exdom in relation to the Govern- penses of any military operation ment of India and the corre- carried out beyond the external spondence with India.” All frontiers of such possessions by correspondence was, however, her Majesty's Forces charged to be in the name of the upon such revenues.” The Secretary of State. The spirit, if not the letter, of this Secretary of State is ad- provision was broken when, in dressed in name by the Indian 1878, the very day after ParliaGovernment, and signs all the ment was adjourned, the Indian despatches from the India Government received orders to Office. The Secretary of State send native troops to Malta. sits and votes as President of No man acquainted with the Council of India, and ap- Indian affairs would like to points a Vice-President. He see a more active interference has the power, subject to the ex- on the part of the House of ceptions which will be mentioned Commons with the details of immediately, to decide ques- administration; but much tions on which members differ, danger lieth in the Governbut any dissentient member ment of India or the Secretary may require his opinion to be of State being allowed to evade placed on record--a privilege Acts which Parliament has which has proved of consider. passed on the recommendation able service. The Secretary of of Committees of both Houses, State is bound to give reasons, which sat for long periods of except in urgent cases, for any time and took the evidence of exercise of his veto. The Act as many Indian experts as of 1858 contains two provisions were available whenever the which to a certain degree limit time came round, at intervals the power of the Secretary of of twenty years, for renewing State: “No grant or appropri. the East India Company's lease ation of any part of the Indian of government. If the Acts Revenues or of any other have grown obsolete let them property coming into the pos- be repealed, but they cannot session of the Secretary of be evaded without far-reaching State in Council by virtue of disturbance. this Act shall be made without The Counoil of India was the concurrence of a majority created to supply the know

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