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our territories in the East Privy Councillors who "at the ought to be placed under other same time were possessed of control than that of the com- great and distinguished offices pany of merchants in Leaden- with large emoluments and hall Street, but the change little labour would no doubt ought to be made with as be found to accept of their little violence as possible; it duties without any additional ought to be made by the con- reward.” The jealousy of the viction of the Company, and King and the suspicion of the not by violence. In this the country as to the increase of Company agreed with him.” the power of the Prime MinPitt desired, like his father, ister were disarmed by the to place the whole government Commissioners being appointed of India under the control of by the Crown and holding the Crown; but when in op- office during pleasure. The position he had gauged the authority which the Govpower of chartered rights. ernment had of seeing all Fox still commanded a major papers sent to and from India ity in the House, and Pitt's was transferred to the Board. Bill was rejected. Every The Commissioners were further student of English history empowered to call upon the knows the story of the elec- Court of Directors to prepare tion of 1784, and Pitt's despatches on any subject, to triumph and return to power. be submitted for their revision On the 13th of August he and alteration, and on their again introduced his first East failure within fourteen days to India Bill, slightly modified, write them themselves. All and obtained a decisive ma- high political matters were jority, 271 to 60, in its favour. placed in a Secret Committee Never was a bill framed which of the Court, limited to three 80 well concealed, by vague members (in practice to two, and ambiguous language, its the Chairman and Deputy real aim. It was said to be Chairman), who alone comdrafted by Dundas, and that municated upon them to the able Scottish lawyer displayed Board. When the Chancellor all the worldly sagacity of the of the Exchequer and one of race. The Company were con- the principal Secretaries of ciliated by being allowed to State were absent, the senior keep their trade privileges, of the five presided. In and by the Court of Directors early times the Commissionhaving their powers continued ers did sit as a Board, and merely subject to the revision in a letter to Lord Cornof a Board of Commissioners wallis, of July 1787, Dundas for the Affairs of India. It says: “Mr Pitt is a real was to be an ideal Board, active member of the Board, consisting of certain members and makes himself thoroughly of the Privy Council. The master of the business.” But Commissioners were to have the Board soon became the no salary and no patronage. shadow of a Board, and Pitt stated in his speech that practically ceased to exist.

patent "etonae med in the embera samo to-n

By the Act of 1793, which of our Indian Empire, the confirmed the Company in happiness of the people, were, their privileges for twenty as Sir John Kaye pointed out, years, the Board was made less dependent upon the will to consist of certain members of a deliberate body, a large of the Privy Council (of whom majority of whom had studied the two principal Secretaries India, “than upon the caprice of State and the Chancellor of a single man, who may be of the Exchequer were to be gone to-morrow-who may prethree), and two other members. side over the India Board and The first named in the letters govern India for a fortnight, patent constituting the Board and then be suddenly deposed was to be the President. A by some gust of party caprice, salary was to be paid by the by the mistaken tactics of an Company to certain of the inexperienced party leader, or Commissioners. An India the neglect of an inefficient Office was created by the whipper in.'” Commissioners being author- Pitt's Bill of 1784 placed the ised to appoint secretaries, East India Company in a and enjoined to “enter their subordinate position with reproceedings in proper books.” gard to its governing powers, The President was from 1811 but it did not touch its coma member of the Cabinet and mercial privileges. In 1813 practically Minister for India, the second great Charter Act as from 1841 he was the only was passed, granting all existpaid member of the Board. The ing rights, powers, and priviPresident acted entirely on his leges to the Company for a own responsibility, but, as the term of twenty years. But, law declared that two members owing to the jealous outcry were competent to transact raised in Bristol, Glasgow, and the business of the Board, it Liverpool, the East India was thought advisable to ob- Company were deprived of the tain for the document record- privilege of the exclusive trade ing the Board's decision the with India, “without which signature of one of the ex not a rood of land in India officio members. The ex officio would have owned the rule of members were the Lord Presi- Great Britain.” The Ministry, dent of the Council, the Lord not wishing to hazard the Privy Seal, the First Lord of diminution of a revenue so the Treasury, the principal valuable and so easily realised Secretaries of State, and the as the duty upon tea paid by Chancellor of the Exchequer. the Company, allowed them to The law gave the President retain their China monopoly. the power to override the In 1833 they were not only deCourt of Directors if he chose prived of the China monopoly to exercise it. The stability but also prohibited from trad

pracum 1841 bona Board. Enim leges to twenty.

1 The Act of 1793 was the first of those comprehensive Acts which, from the extended duration of the grant, and the specific detail of the provisions for the constitution of the Company and for the scheme of their government in India, came to be denominated the Charter Acts for India.

ing, and so ceased to have a Courts, whether created by local title to the name by which authority or established by they were incorporated by Royal Charter, but with cerQueen Elizabeth's Charter- tain necessary reservations at“The Governor and Company taching to the royal prerogative of Merchants of London trad. and the privilege of Parliament, ing into the East Indies." The letter drafted by James The Company surrendered their Mill communicating to the claims, territorial and financial, Government of India the priviand all their commercial prop- lege which had been bestowed erty, to the Government of upon it, combines compreIndia, and they were thence- hensive and elevated views forward to hold that property with so much circumspection as trustees of the Crown. The and dignity, that it must ever third great Charter Act of be shown as a model of what a 1833, which deprived the Com- State paper ought to be. The pany of its commercial privi- East India Company wrotem leges, made important changes

“In contemplating the extent of in the form of the Government legislative power thus conferred imof India. The bounds of the mediately on our supreme Govern. Empire, whose foundation ment, and in the second instance on Clive had laid in the groves o

ourselves, in considering that on the

use of this power the difference beof Plassy, had extended north

tween the worst and the best of ward to the borders of the Governments mainly depends, — in Punjab, and the title Governor- reflecting how many millions of men General of Bengal in Council may, by the manner in which it shall no longer indicated an execu

in the present instance be exercised,

be rendered happy or miserable, in tive body that governed the adverting to the countless variety of greater portion of a vast con interests to be studied and of diffitinent. The Act provided that culties to be overcome, in the execu“the superintendence, direc

tion of this mighty trust, we own

that we feel oppressed by the weight tion, and control of the whole

of responsibility under which we are civil and military government conjointly laid. Whatever means or of all the said territories and efforts can be employed on the occarevenues in India shall be and

uhond sion-whatever can be effected by

free and active discussion, or by prois hereby vested in a Governor

found and conscientious deliberation General and Councillors, to be - wbatever aids can be derived from styled the Governor-General of extrinsic counsel or intelligence, all India in Council.” It also

at the utmost will be barely com

mensurate with the magnitude of the bestowed on the Supreme

sphere to be occupied, and of the Governing body a great consti service to be performed. We feel tutional privilege. A power of confident that to this undertaking legislation was now for the first your best thoughts and care will be time exclusively vested in the inmediately and perseveringly ap

plied ; and we invite the full, the Governor-General in Council, constant, and the early communicaand this power was to embrace tion of your sentiments in relation to the whole of the Empire, in- it. On our part, we can venture to cluding all persons, British,

affirm that no endeavour shall be

wanting in promoting your views Foreign, or Native, all places

and perfecting your plans. Others, and all things, as well as all also, who are in a situation, by ad

vice or exertion, to assist in the from holding any place, office, work, will contribute to it, we hope, or appointment by reason of to the extent of their power. And we trust that, by the blessing of his religion, place of birth, deDivine Providence on our united scent, or colour. The Royal labours, the just and beneficent in Proclamation in 1858 renewed tentions of this country, in delegat. the pledge, which is the base. ing to our hands the legislative as well as the executive administration

rook of the constitution of our of the mightiest, the most important. Indian Empire, and the most interesting of its trans- The Charter Act of 1833 marine possessions, will be happily allowed the East India Comaccomplished.”

pany another lease of twenty The Charter Act of 1833 not years. When that time elapsed only vested a power of legis- a great effort was made to delature in the Governor-General prive the Company of their in Council over the whole of remaining governing powers ; India, but it also enlarged the but it was determined after control of the Supreme Governo much controversy that they ment over the other Presi- should continue to exercise dencies. The chief government them, not for any stated time, was placed in the hands of the but until Parliament should Governor - General and three otherwise ordain. The Court Councillors, of whom the of Directors was, however, deCommander-in-Chief of the prived of its valued privilege Company's forces in India was of nominating to the Indian to be one, and to have pre- Civil Service, and the appointcedence next to the Governor- ments were thrown open to General. Pitt's East India competition. A clause in the Bill gave the Governor-General Act of 1853 made a most ima casting vote, but an Act was portant constitutional change passed in 1786 which em- by adding a quasi- representapowered the Governor-General tive element to the Legislative in extraordinary cases to act Council. To the Governorwithout the concurrence of General, the Commander-inthe Council, inasmuch as such Chief, and the other members power would tend greatly “to of the executive Council, four the strength and security of members chosen from the the British possessions in India, Civil Service to represent the and give energy, vigour, and several Governments of Bengal, despatch to the measures and Madras, Bombay, and the proceedings of the executive newly - created Presidency of government.” Neither the Agra, and the Chief Justice of power of legislature nor the Bengal and a puisne Judge, control over the other Presid- were added. Two years after encies was the greatest im- the passing of the Charter, provement effected by the one of the ablest of statesCharter Act of 1833. It was men that ever governed the clause which enacted that the Indian Empire opened the no native of India, or any doors of the Council to the native - born subject of his public and permitted the deMajesty, should be disabled bates to be published, and brought it under the power of our prestige, and was one of public opinion. The Marquis the primary causes of the reof Dalhousie was vigorously volt of a mercenary army. It criticised for his strenuous was her Majesty's Government struggle that freedom and pub- who were answerable for that licity should be granted to the policy of annexation which, to Indian legislators. But his the Hindu people, seemed irresagacious and far-seeing mind concilable with that respect no doubt perceived that the lease for native feelings, laws, and of the Company would not be usages which must always be extended, and that the Govern- the cardinal principle of British ment of India must some day rule in India. The Sepoy Rebe directly vested in a Secre- volt revealed in a lurid light tary of State only answerable the inherent defect of the to Parliament. And in order “double government,” and it to provide adequate protection could no longer be allowed to for the people of India against continue. On the 12th of the ignorance, the indiscretions, February 1858 Lord Palmerand the errors of Parliament, ston moved for leave to bring he desired to create an in- in a Bill for the better Governdependent legislative body. ment of India, and on the 18th Strong as he was, he may of February the second reading have felt that no Governor was carried by a division of General could withstand the 318 to 173. The Bill proposed undue interference of the Min- that for the purposes of the ister for India and of Parlia Government of India a Council ment unless he was supported shall be established, to consist by some constitutional body of a president and eight other

When the news of the wild members, to be styled “The fanatic outbreak in 1857 reached President and Council for the England, and the stories of the affairs of India.” The Council massacres became widely known, was too small for the work of all classes were affected with government, and too weak for horror.. They were ignorant, independence. The entire power not in a mood to discriminate, of nomination was vested in and a verdict of condemnation the Crown, in other words in was passed on the East India the Minister, and the form Company. History will have of business was to be deterto revise the verdict. The mined by the Minister and his Court of Directors were at- Council, in other words by the tacked for measures they never Minister. The day after the originated and some they even second reading of the Bill, opposed. It was Sir John Palmerston's Government was Hobhouse (Lord Broughton), overthrown on the question of President of the Board of Con- the Conspiracy to Murder Bill, trol, who boasted with regard and Lord Derby became Premier to the first Afghan War that with Disraeli as Chancellor of he “alone did it.” But the the Exchequer, and the able disastrous retreat of the British but imperious and impetuous troops from Kabul damaged Lord Ellenborough as President

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