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have led to frequent confusion, James III. had ridden from so difficult would it have been Edinburgh to put himself at the to establish the identity of any head of the forces, but with knight riding into the lists or him he had brought the deleading his contingent in the tested Thomas Cochrane and King's army.

his crew_“fiddlers and brickLet two points be recorded layers," as the haughty Angus to the credit of Garter and the called them. Upon this CochHerald's College. They struck rane, a builder or architect, the arms of France off the James had bestowed the earlshield of the British Sovereign dom of Mar, vacated by the when these had ceased to rep- suspicious death of the King's resent any real power or pro- own brother in a dungeon of perty, and they have consist- Craigmillar. ently and wisely refused to The barons were furious. listen to meddlesome persons Even with the English in who desire to see the modern possession of Berwick and arms of our Colonies incorpor- menacing a descent upon the ated with those of the three capital, the Scottish lords realms. 1

would not march with the The importance of the coat low-born Cochrane. Angus, as of arms was enhanced in feudal Warden, summoned them to and semi-feudal times by reason meet in the Kirk of Lauder, that it usually fixed the colours where Lord Gray bitterly of a knight's liveries—no mean likened them to the assembly consideration when the King's of mice who determined that, army was made up by the in the common interest, a bell personal following of his barons must be hung round the cat's and knights. Medieval history neck. The difficulty was to becomes very picturesque read- find a volunteer for that deliing from the frequent allusions cate operation. “I WILL BELL by chroniclers to the dress of THE CAT!” growled the soldiers.

Warden; and as he spoke Take, as an example, the there was a loud knocking at memorable scene at “lousie the church door. Douglas of Lauder" in 1479, when Archi- Lochleven, looking out, beheld bald Douglas, fifth Earl of the upstart Earl of Mar, with Angus, earned that name of his following of three hundred, “Bell-the-cat” by which he is all dressed in the livery of the best remembered. The bale- earldom—white doublets with fires had been flying from black bands (derived from the height to height, from tower to white shield and “sable pale of tower, along the Border, sum- Mar”). Cochrane himself, says moning barons and geomen to Lindsay of Pitscottie, was the accustomed task of national gorgeously attired in a riding defence. Dreamy, intellectual coat of black velvet, a heavy gold chain round his neck “to with mottoes — “Death to the awaillour (value) of 500 tylants !” “Peace and Plenty!” crowns," and a baldrick of silk “One Man one Vote!” and so and gold across his shoulder. on, according to the nature He wore a gold-mounted hunt- and temper of the occasion. ing-horn, too, set with a large “Standards,” says Boutell, beryl. “This Couchrane was “appear to have been used so proud in his consait that he solely for the purpose of discontit no lord to be marrow play, and to add to the splen[equal] to him, thairfor he dour of military gatherings raschit [rushed] rudlie at the and royal pageants”; whereas kirk dore.” He claimed admit- the banner of a sovereign or tance as Earl of Mar to the knight was not meant for mere assembly of his peers. Angus ostentation, but was of serious strode down the aisle, and bade purpose. It bore only the his kinsman admit the fellow. recognised arms of its owner, The door was then flung to and and marked his presence and barred in the faces of his position in the army or in the followers. Angus wrenched field. It served the same purthe gold chain from his victim's pose in battle as was done until neck. “A rope would fit it recently by the colours of a better!" quoth he. Lochleven regiment under a system of tore off the gay horn, saying, field tactics now obsolete. A “Hunter of mischief he hath trace of the ancient practice been too long!”

1 In a former number of “Maga' (September 1897) I pointed out how such a proceeding would be equally inconsistent with right heraldic practice and historical fact.

survives in our Highland regi“My lords !” cried Coch- ments, where the piper attached rane, “is this mows (acting) or to each company displays on earnest?“Hard earnest," the banner of his pipes the shouted the Warden, “and so arms of his captain. you will find it.” Before the The standard became fashionsummer sun had set, Cochrane able in the reign of Edward III., and half-a-dozen of his fellows but did not displace the banner. dangled limp and lourd in their It seems at first to have been a gay coats over the parapet of voluntary emblem of knightLauder Bridge.

hood, and consisted of a long, There may be remarked here narrow flag, tapering either the complete change in modern to a point or a swallow - tail, usage of the terms “banner” usually having the cross of the and “standard.” What is now national saint next the hoist, known as the Royal Standard with heraldic and other devices, is what used to be a banner badges, and mottoes on the of arms — the King's arms. fly. In Henry VIII.'s reign In the minds of most people the length of the standard was banners are associated with fixed in proportion to the Oddfellows' fêtes and trades' owner's degree, eight to nine demonstrations, where they yards being prescribed for the fulfil the function of what used Sovereign, graduated through to be technically known as various ranks, down to four standards, bearing devices not yards for a simple knight. strictly heraldic and painted Four such standards have

described by tohned sundry cofmotto-Esperr heen figured and Southesk rin aniile the Percy, moveate

ance en I have not be its present

been figured and described by the crescent and fetterlockthe late Earl of Southeskpin and sundry other devices ; the ‘Proceedings of the Society while the Percy motto-Esperof Antiquaries of Scotland'ance en Dieu-is repeated four (1901-2, pp. 246-280) :

times. I have not been able to (1) The standard of Keith, trace this standard to its present Earl Marischal, carried at resting - place. It is not at Flodden by Black John Skirv- Alnwick or Syon: is it at Peting of Plewland, brought back worth, whither so many Percy to Edinburgh after the great pictures and relics have drifted, day of Scotland's dolour, and including the spurs of Harry now preserved in the Advocate's Hotspur ? Library. It bears only the This Percy standard is an Keith crest, a hart's head, re- ensign of melancholy, having peated thrice, with the legend been displayed by Henry Percy VERITAS VINCIT—a vaunt which “the unthrifty,” 6th Earl of it was not the destiny of the Northumberland (1527 - 1537), gallant Keith to fulfil on that most forlorn of all figures in fatal 9th September 1513. The his long, illustrious line. While standard is the subject of plate passing his minority in the xlvi in the catalogue of the household of Cardinal Wolsey, Heraldic Exhibition held at he lost his heart to lovely Anne Edinburgh in 1892.

Boleyn, and came near losing (2) The Huntly standard, his head in consequence. For taken in the same battle by the King already had cast Sir William Molyneux from unclean eyes upon this matchthe Earl of Huntly, and dis- less beauty, and the Cardinal played, until the middle of last received instructions to warn century, in the parish church the young lord of what had of Sefton. Grievous to relate, been marked as royal prey. it has since disappeared, but a Peroy stoutly refused to give water - colour drawing of it up his suit. “I have gone soe remains at Croxteth, showing farre,” said he, “before soe many a scarlet flag, charged with a worthy wittnesses, that I knowe variety of emblems and heraldic not how to discharge meselfe figures, and with the legend and my conscience.” Clame tot! which Lord South “Well, then,” quoth my esk interpreted — “ Summon Lord Cardinall, “I will send all !”

for your father out of the (3) The Percy standard, north, and he and wee shall figured in Woodward and Bout- take such order; and in the ell's "Treatise on Heraldry' (ii. meane season I chardge thee 649, fig. 100) as having the red that thou resort no more into cross of St George at the hoist; her company as thou wilt abye the azure lion of Louvaine on the King's indignation.” 1 the fly, with the Percy badge, Percy's father, “the Mag

i From Sir Roger Twisden's MS., published in Nott's “Life of Wyatt,' p. 442,

note,

nificent Earl," hastened from seven peers to try Queen Anne the north ; the lovers were upon a disgraceful charge. separated, and the young lord Her uncle, the Duke of Norwas wedded forthwith to Lady folk, was President of the Court, Mary Talbot, daughter of the and flinched not from carrying Earl of Shrewsbury. Among the bloody farce to its preall the dismal records of this arranged conclusion. But shameful reign, there occurs no Northumberland could not sit more ghastly outrage upon it out. When Anne rose to humanity than this action of defend herself, he quailed bethe Ogre King. Percy never fore her proud glance, hastily got over it: his married life left the Court, “compelled by was one continual wrangle sudden illness," as the Venetian with a jealous woman. At ambassador charitably states, last, in one of their quarrels, and so escaped the awful ordeal he bade her hold her peace, for of condemning to the scaffold she was no wife of his, in that the only woman he ever loved. “having been betrothed to He lingered out a few miserAnne Boleyn, any subsequent able years : racked by disease, marriage was illegal.” The robbed of all his property by Countess was but too well & dishonourable trick of the pleased to hear of anything King's, and deserted by his that might rid her of a hus- wife, he died in June 1537, band she hated : she laid the aged only five - and - thirty. matter before her father, Richard Layton, describing his Shrewsbury, and Northumber- deathbed to Secretary Cromland (he had succeeded to the well, wrote—“this iij wekes he earldom in 1527) was sum- hade no money but by borowmoned before the Council to yng, as his servauntes declarede explain matters. Now Henry to me.” VIII. had not waited until the Nevertheless, even this illslow process of ecclesiastical starred earl had his brief hour law should rid him of poor of splendour and display. As Katherine of Aragon : the Warden of the East and Middle divorce was not completed Marches, he managed to conuntil May 1533, whereas in sign to a violent death quite a November or January preced- respectable number of his ing he had secretly married fellow-creatures. Thus, at his Anne Boleyn, wherefore North- first Wardenry Court held at umberland stood in jeopardy Alnwick in January 1528, he of the penalty for high treason was able to report to the CarHe had no nerve for the fruit. dinal that he had beheaded less sacrifice : moreover, Anne nine and hanged five men for had not remained faithful to march-treason. A little later, him; he saved his head by he wrote that “all the Scots of denying his mistress upon the Tyvidale that came to my Holy Sacrament. Three years hands, I put them to death later he was specially named saving three,” and asked inby the King as one of twenty- structions as to these last. The standard was probably present shortened state. No displayed in a notable raid knight in his senses would have which this earl made into Scot- gone into single or any other land in December 1532, at the combat with four yards of silk head of 2500 men, in reporting hanging upon his lance! Anwhich he declares that “thankes other tradition makes the flag be to God we did not leave one to be Percy's banner captured pele, gentleman's howse or at Otterbourne; but this also grange unburnt or undestroyed, is impossible, first, because it is and so reculed to England. ... not a knight's banner, but a Such a roode fraid] hath not standard ; second, because it been seene in winter this two bears, besides a lion, the cross hundrede years.”

of St Andrew next the hoist, (4) Lastly, there is the famous and, on the fly, the Douglas Cavers standard, still in the heart and stars and the Douglas possession of E. Palmer Doug- motto Jamais arrière (written las, Esq. of Cavers—that flag Jamais arreyre). of sage green silk to which Again, a third story, which tradition assigns a higher an- was accepted, I believe, till tiquity than any of the others. lately as the true version by Bishop Percy of Dromore, visit the family of Cavers, identifies ing Cavers in 1744, notes that the flag as the Douglas stand“the family of Douglas of ard carried at Otterbourne by Cavers, Hereditary Sheriffs of Archibald Douglas, founder of Teviotdale, have long had in the line of Cavers. There are their possession an old standard, at least two objections fatal to which they believe to be the this tradition. First, the lion very pennon won from Hotspur was no part of the bearings of by the Earl of Douglas, to the Otterbourne Earl of Dougwhom their ancestor was stand- las, and the lion is conspicuous ard-bearer in the expedition [to among the devices on this Otterbourne in 1388].” On the standard; second, Archibald face of it, this cannot be the Douglas, first of Cavers, was truth. Without questioning the second illegitimate son of Froissart's word for it that the Earl; his father was only Douglas did encounter Hotspur thirty when he fell at Otterin single combat before the bourne, therefore Archibald gates of Newcastle, that he did cannot have been of an age to capture the pennon from his act as standard-bearer in that adversary's lance, and that it battle. was to recover that pennon It has remained for Lord that Percy followed Douglas to Southesk to clear up the Otterbourne, it is clear that mystery of the Cavers flag, this flag is not that pennon. and to assign it to a date A pennon was a small pointed nearly seventy years later than or forked affair, like that on that of Otterbourne. When the weapon of a modern lancer, the house of Douglas, already whereas the Cavers flag re- powerful, divided into two mains twelve feet long in its branches — the Red Douglas

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