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inclosed in mounds, images, pottery, also the contents of ancient shell beds found on the sea-coast and bays, often deeply covered with earth and overgrown with trees; human remains, or implements of human manufacture, bearing the marks of tools or of subjection to fire, found in caves, beneath deposits of stony material formed by droppings from the roof; similar articles in salt-licks, likewise in deposits of sand and gravel, or such as evidently belonging to the drift period. Among other desiderata mentioned are the names of tribes, geographical position, number of individuals, physical constitution, such as stature, proportion of limbs, facial angle, color of skin, hair, and eyes; inscriptions, dress, food, dwellings, arts, trades, religion, government, social life, ceremonies, mode of warfare, medicine, literature, method of dividing time, history, &c. These directions also include a list of words most important to be used in forming the vocabulary of a language. The pamphlet consists of thirty-four pages, and is distributed gratuitously to all who are desirous of aiding investigations of this character. No. 3 is a vocabulary of the principal words of which the equivalents are desired in the languages of the American Indians. It has been prepared with great care by Mr. Gibbs after the usual models, presenting in parallel columns the words selected in English, French, Spanish, and Latin, leaving a blank column to be filled by the required equivalents in the dialect of any given tribe. It forms a pamphlet of eighteen pages, including two hundred and eleven different words, and is printed on letter paper, for convenience in filling up the blanks. No. 4, the Chinook Jargon, is a collection of phrases made up from various languages, Indian and civilized, and constitutes the sole medium of communication with the Indian tribes of the northwest. In 1853 the Smithsonian Institution published a brief dictionary of this language, from a French manuscript presented by Dr. B. R. Mitchell and edited by Professor W. W. Turner. The article was in great demand, and the edition was soon exhausted. Mr. Gibbs, having paid particular attention to the Jargon during his long residence in Washington Territory, kindly offered to prepare a new edition with corrections and additions. This offer was readily accepted, and the dictionary has been published during the past year. The vocabulary of the Chinook contains words of two dialects, the Chinook proper and the Clatsop, and perhaps also of the Wakiakum. The nation or rather family to which the generic name Chinook has been applied, formerly inhabited both banks of the Columbia river from its mouth to the Grand Dalles, a distance of about one hundred and seventy miles, and was, as is usual among the sedentary Indians of the west, broken up into numerous bands. Mr. Hale, in his Ethnography of the United States Exploring Expedition, has divided these into the Upper and Lower Chinook. The present vocabulary' belongs to those nearest the mouth of the river, of which there were five principal bands. The language of the bands further up the river departs more and more widely from the Chinook proper; indeed, so much so that the lower Indians could not have understood the upper ones without an interpreter. This vocabulary is not as full as could be wished, and the only reason for publishing it in its present condition is that the Indians speaking the language are so nearly extinct that no better digest is likely to be made in future. In regard to the 5th article of the above series, the Monograph of Bats of North America, it may be stated that the mammalia of this continent have been studied and described generally by Audubon, Bachman, and also by Professor Baird of this Institution. These authors, however, have not included in their descriptions the cheiroptera, or bats. To supply this deficiency, Dr. Allen, of Philadelphia, has given his attention for several years to the careful study of the specimens of this animal in the principal museums of this country, and has presented the result of his labors to the Institution in the form of the monograph above mentioned. In this a detailed description is given of each of the genera and species with wood-cut figures of the skulls, heads, ears, and tails of such species as require this mode of illustration. The wood-cuts of this paper have been completed and the manuscript is now in the hands of the printer. I may mention that the Institution is indebted to Mr. Figaniere, Portugese minister, for a very graphic account of an immense assemblage of bats which had been colonized for years in the upper part of a mansion house which he had purchased in Maryland. This account will be republished in the appendix to this report, as well as in the paper of Dr. Allen just described.
Reports.-The annual reports to Congress are printed at the expense of the government as public documents, with the exception of the wood-cuts, the cost of which is paid by the Institution. Previous to 1853 the reports were principally confined to an exposition of the operations of the Institution, and were published in pamphlet form; but since that date an appendix has been added to each report, which, with the other matter, has increased the size to that of a volume of four hundred and fifty pages. These reports now form a series of ten
volumes, beginning with that of 1853, and in order that this series might contain a history of the Institution from the beginning, the will of Smithson, the enactments of Congress in regard to it, and the several reports of the Secretary, previous to 1853, were republished in the appendix to that volume. The report for 1862 contains, in the appendix, a eulogy on the late Senator Pearce, by Professor Bache; a course of lectures on Polarized Light, by F. A. P. Barnard, late president of the University of Mississippi; a course of lectures on Ethnology, by Professor Daniel Wilson, of the University of Toronto ; an introduction to a course of lectures on the Study of High Antiquity, by A. Morlot, of Switzerland, translated for the Institution by the author ; an account of the Articles on Archaelogy, published by the Smithsonian Institution, copied from the “Natural History Review,” of England ; a history of the French Academy of Sciences; eulogies on Von Buch and Thenard, a continuation of the series of memoirs of distinguished members of the French Academy, translated by C. A. Alexander, esq.; a Memoir of Isidore St. Hilaire, by Quatrefages, translated by a lady; a prize Memoir on the Catalytic Force, by T. L. Phipson; on Atoms, by Sir John Herschel; Classification of Books, by J. P. Lesley; Account of Human Remains from Patagonia, and Prize Questions of Scientific Societies. Of this report the usual number of 10,000 copies was printed, of which 4,000 copies were given to the Institution, to be distributed in accordance with the following rules: 1. To all the meteorological observers who send records of the weather to the Institution. 2. To the collaborators of the Institution. 3. To donors to the museum and library. 4. To colleges and other educational establishments. 5. To public libraries, and literary and scientific societies. 6. To teachers, or individuals who are engaged in special studies, and who make direct application for them. Owing to the many changes which have taken place in the residence and occupation of the correspondents of the Institution since the commencement of the war, it has not been thought advisable to send the reports to all whose names are on the record of distribution, but in most cases to wait until direct application is made by letter or otherwise for a copy of the work. Whenever a report is sent to any address a separate announcement is made of the fact enclosing a blank receipt to be signed and returned to the Institution.
On account of the large amount of printing required by the government in consequence of the war, the public printing office has been taxed to its utmost power ; documents not required for immediate use have been delayed, and among others the report of the Institution for 1862 is still not quite completed. It is expected, however, that it will be ready for distribution in the course of a few weeks. The number of copies of the report ordered to be printed by Congress has varied in different years, and consequently in the increasing demand some of the volumes have been entirely exhausted. It may be a matter of consideration whether a new edition of the report for 1856, and perhaps for other years, might not be reprinted. To prevent the future exhaustion of the supply of the reports, Congress authorized the stereotyping of the last volume and the printing at any time, from the plates, of the whole or any part of its contents.
In view of the great cost of paper and the space required for storage, it has been thought advisable to stereotype the Contributions and Miscellaneous Collections, and to strike off only as many copies of each article as are required for immediate distribution. By the adoption of this plan, the ability to supply, to any extent, copies of works published hereafter will always exist, while no more need be printed than are actually required.
Ethnology.—From the first, the Institution has given considerable attention to the various branches of ethnology. Besides the additions to Indian archaelogy which are to be found in the several volumes of its Contributions to Knowledge, it has published several papers on languages. In the report for 1860, a list of original manuscripts was given relating to the languages of the northwest coast of America, which had been received through the assistance of Mr. Alexander S. Taylor, of Monterey, California.
Several of these were copied at the expense of the Institution, with the intention of securing their preservation and subsequent publication. It has also been stated that a number of these manuscripts had been presented to Mr. J. G. Shea, of New York, to be published in a series which he has established under the title of “Library of American Linguistics.” By presenting these to Mr. Shea for publication and purchasing from him for distribution to learned societies a number of copies, encouragement has been given to a laudable enterprize, undertaken solely to promote a favorite branch of learning, and with but little comparative expense to the Smithsonian fund. I regret, however, to state that the diminution of the effective income of the Institution will prevent further appropriations at present for this purpose. The following is a list of the works of Mr. Shca's series, of which the Institution has aided the publication by purchasing copies for distribution:
1. Grammar of the Mutsun language, spoken at the mission of San Juan Bautista, Alta California ; by Father Felipe Arroyo de la Cuesta.
2. Vocabulary of the language of San Antonio mission, California, by Father Bonaventure Sitjar.
3. Grammar and dictionary of the Yakama language, by Rev. Mie. Cles. Paudosy.
4. Vocabulary or Phrase Book of the Mutsun language, of Alta California, by Rev. Father Felipe Arroyo de la Cuesta.
5. Graminar of the Pima or Névome, a language of Sonora, from a manuscript of the XVIII century.
The first of these, the Mutsun grammar, was described in the last report. The second, the vocabulary of the native inhabitants of the San Antonio, or Sextapay, mission; it was printed from a manu. script forwarded to the Institution by Alexander S. Taylor, of California. The mission of San Antonio de Padua was founded in 1771, in the Sierra of Santa Lucia, twenty-five leagues southwest of Monterey; the authors of this vocabulary being the first missionaries. The tribe is sometimes known as Tatché, or Telanté, though Mr. Taylor calls it Sextapay. It is gradually disappearing; not more than fifty Indians still remain, although it is said they were, at one time, so numerous that the dialects spoken by them amounted to twenty.
The third is the grammar and dictionary of the Yakamas, a people inhabiting the region of the Yakama river-a stream rising in the Cascade range of mountains, and emptying into the Columbia abovethe junction of the Snake river. The name signifies the “stony ground,” in allusion to the rocky character of the country. The author of the grammar, Father Pandosy, was for many years a resident among these Indians, and became well acquainted with their language. In the destruction of the buildings of the mission by fire, during the Indian war in Washington Territory, the original of the grammar was lost, and the translation, published by Mr. Shea, which was made some time previously, alone remained. It is to be regretted that a more extended dictionary than the one now published was also de. stroyed at the same time.
The fourth article is a vocabulary of the same language, of which the grammar constitutes the first of this series, and is by the same author; the words are given in the Mutsun and Spanish languages.
The fifth, the grammar of the Pima, with a vocabulary in the same language and in Spanish, was obtained in Toledo, Spain, and trans.