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The copy of the Constitution of the United States is believed to be strictly accurate in text and punctuation, which, it is understood, can be said of only one other copy in print that in the work known as Hickey's Constitution. The statement of the differences between it and the Rebel Constitution has been made with extreme care. The common index to the two instruments shows, at a glance, wherein they differ, and will be found both interesting and convenient-the whole chapter possessing special value to large classes of persons.
In presenting the facts upon each subject of legislation, the general plan has been : first, to state the result reached, with the final votes; and, then, such proceedings, in the intermediate stages, as are of adequate importance, or necessary to explain the position of Members. This preparation involved constant selection, concerning which there may be differences of opinion-some thinking that too much detail on one subject is given; others, too little of another. In all cases the rule stated, governed. As far as it has been possible to obtain the Rebel legislation on the same or corresponding subjects, it has been added, with such of their orders and proclamations as were connected with them. A comparison of the two, and the dates of enactment or issue, will prove of service in dispelling delusions and correcting general miscon
Besides the legislation proper, the volume contains, in a classified form, all the Messages, Proclamations, Orders, Correspondence, and Addresses of the President; the Diplomacy of the Secretary of State; valuable letters and papers from the Secretaries of the Treasury, of War, of the Navy, of the Interior, and from the Postmaster General; Opinions of the Attorney General upon commanding public questions; those of the Orders of Commanding Officers which are within the scope of the work; the Decisions of the Courts; and such other data as properly belong therein-the whole forming a multitudinous mass of facts, to any one of which the classification adopted, and the copious index appended, will, it is hoped, make it easy to refer.
The votes by Yeas and Nays have been carefully compared with the Official Journals of Congress. In preparing these lists, the names of those persons have, for comparison's sake, been italicised, who were elected by, or were at the time generally. co-operating with, the Democratic party. All others are in roman.
Under "Our Foreign Relations" will be found much of permanent value, as well as of current interest and dispute.
The chapter on the "Conspiracy of Disunion" contains several very interesting documents, chief of which are the extract from U. S. Senator Maclay's journal of 1789, recording, probably, the first threat of disunion uttered in Congress, and upon a subject which remained a matter of complaint in some quarters down to the period of Secession; and the Minutes of the Proceedings of the Police Commissioners of Baltimore in 1861, one of the most flagrant as well as one of the latest outbursts of treason. Other portions of this chapter will richly bear examination. I greatly regret that want of space has required the omission of many other facts, gathered from our political history, tending to reveal the true character of this foul conspiracy rainst Liberty, this crime against humanity.
The lists of the organization of the Rebel "Provisional" and "Permanent" Government have been made up from every accessible source, and, though not complete, are more nearly so than any other yet published north of the Potomac, and as nearly so as present facilities afford. They are the result of careful and extensive examination. As a matter of interest, the names of those of the conspirators who were once members of the Congress of the Union have been put in italic.
This work was undertaken a few months ago without a realizing sense of the labor it involved. I can scarcely hope to have escaped errors, both of omission and commission, but have striven to make it fair, impartial, and truthful. It deals with the most momentous events of this Century, which will be studied while civil Government exists. I trust that the volume will be of service to those consulting it, and that its general effect will be to help strengthen the purpose of the American people to mair. tai their Unity, their Freedom, and their Power.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
I have revised the entire work, and corrected every error ascertained. Appendix has expanded greatly beyond the original design. Much of the matter in it is quite inaccessible, and the delays and uncertainties of procuring it led almost insensibly to an enlargement, and also somewhat disturbed the methodical arrangement elsewhere preserved. The historic papers of the South Carolina Convention, as now printed, are from official copies, and differ very suggestively from current versions, in numerous material points. The votes on Secession Ordinances, and subsequently on the Extinction of Slavery, in several of the rebellious States, form a pleasing contrast.
The copious chapter on "The Church and the Rebellion " has been gathered with great care, and will serve to show their mutual relations and influence, as well as the singularly diverse views which have prevailed in Church courts. The contributions from the Bureau of Military Justice illustrate the practical working of the Emancipation policy, and will amply justify attention. To the action of the last session of Congress, and the record of the Presidential canvass which preceded it—of the result of which an official tabular statement is furnished-every student of American politics will have constaut occasion to refer. On the great unsettled question of Reconstruction, the full record is presented.
It would be improper, in issuing this enlarged, and it is hoped improved edition, not to express my thanks for the kind reception given the first by the Press and the Public.
PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION.
I have revised every page in the volume, and made a number of corrections. I have not yet found an important error of statement; but this edition has the advantage of being the most accurate. As the book has stood the test of eighteen years' criticism, it may be safe to assume that every statement of fact in it is now secure against assault.
The principal change is the insertion, in place of the first report of Mr. Lincoln's speech at Gettysburg, November 19, 1863, of the authentic and revised report of it made by himself. As this has become an American classic, I have substituted the one copy of it for the other.
The reception given to this book in its various editions by the intelligent public, both in this country and in Europe, has been such as to call for an expression of acknowledgment from me.
Action of Conventions in South Carolina, Geor-
gia, Mississippi, Florida, Louisiana, Alabama,
Arkansas, Texas, North Carolina, Tennessee,
Virginia, Kentucky, and Missouri-Insurrec-
tionary Proceedings in the State of Maryland
-Inter-State Commissioners-Organization of
a "Southern Congress," and Provisional Gov-
ernment-Address of South Carolina to the
Slaveholding States, her Declaration of Inde-
pendence, and Debates on them-Speech of
Alexander H. Stephens before the Georgia Legis-
lature, Nov. 14, 1860-Extracts from Addresses
by A. II. Stephens, July, 1859, and Jan., 1861;
James H. Hammond, October, 1858; and R. M.
T. Hunter, 1860-Extract from the Appeal for
Recognition, by Yancey, Rost, and Mann, and
Earl Russell's Reply-Seizure and Surrender of
Public Property, from November 4, 1860, to March
4, 1861-Changes in President Buchanan's Cab-
inet-Correspondence between President Buch-
anan and the South Carolina "Commission-
ers"-Demand for Surrender of Fort Sumter-
Report on the Transfer of Arms to the South
in 1859 and 1860-Davis's Bill for the Sale of
Government Arms to the States-How the Tel-
egraph aided Secession-Intrigues for a Pacific
Republic-Mayor Wood's Message Recommend-
ing that New York be made a Free City-" Per-
sonal Liberty" Laws.
PROCEEDINGS OF THE GOVERNMENT IN RE-
LATION TO THE ACTION OF THE INSUR-
Names of the Senators and Representatives of
the Thirty-Sixth Congress, Second Session-
President Buchanan's Last Annual Message-
Attorney General Black's Opinion on the Powers
of the President-The House Committee of
Thirty-Three and their Proposition for Adjust-
ment, together with abstracts of all other propo-
sitions, and votes thereon-Votes on Resolutions
respecting the "Personal Liberty" Laws, the
Union, Major Anderson's Course, Coercion, Non-
Interference with Slavery, and on the Bill to
Suppress Insurrection, and to provide for the
Collection of Customs-Report of Committee
upon the Danger of the Capital, and Vote upon
Branch's Resolution to withdraw Troops from
the District of Columbia, with Secretary Holt's
Report-Disposition of the Navy, and Vote of
Censure upon Secretary Toucey-Propositions
in Congress by Mason, Hunter, Clingman, Craige,
and others-Settlement of the Question of Sla-
very in the Teritories.
THE CONSTITUTION .......................
Constitution of the United States-Points of
Difference between It and the "Confederate"
Constitution, with an Index to both-Speech of
Alexander II. Stephens, expounding the "Con-
ADMINISTRATION OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN-
tilities against the United States, and Why-
The "War Power" called out-Call for 75,000
Men, and all subsequent Calls arranged in
Chronological Order-National Legislation on
Military Affairs-"Confederate" Legislation
and Proclamations and Orders-The Thirty-
Seventh Congress-President's Message of July,
1861, December, 1861, and December, 1862-The
Thirty-Eighth Congress-Annual Message, 1863
-Amnesty Proclamation, and Circular of the
Attorney General-Proclamations concerning
the Blockade, Non-Intercourse with States in Re-
bellion, and declaring Boundaries of the Re-
THE AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE........
The Seward-Lyons Treaty-Vote in the Senate
upon bill to give it effect-Action of the "Con-
federate" Congress on Slave Trade-Jefferson
Davis's Veto thereof-Intercepted Despatch
from Judah P. Benjamin to L. Q. C. Lamar.
ARREST OF CITIZENS, THE WRIT OF HABEAS
CORPUS, AND SUPPRESSION OF NEWS-
REPEAL OF THE FUGITIVE SLAVE LAWS, "CON-
TRABANDS," AND KINDRED SUBJECTS.... 234
Votes on the Passage of the Acts of 1793 and
1850-Repealing Movements in the Thirty-
Second, Thirty-Third, Thirty-Seventh, and
Thirty-Eighth Congresses-Census Report rela-
ting to the Escape of Fugitive Slaves from 1850
to 1860-The New Article of War-Employment
of Slaves in Government Dock-Yards, &c.-Re-
cognition of Hayti and Liberin-Robert Small-
Proposed Removal of the Disqualification of
Color in Carrying the Mails-Negro Suffrage in
the District of Columbia and Montana Territory
-Exclusion of Colored Persons from Rail-cars-
Colored Persons as Witnesses-Repeal of Laws
regulating the Coastwise Slave Trade-Orders
and Letters concerning "Contrabands," by
Gens. McClellan and Butler, and Secretary
Cameron-Fremont's Proclamation of Eman-
cipation, and Correspondence with the President
thereupon-"Contrabands" in the District of
Columbia-Gen. Burnside's Proclamation in
North Carolina-Orders and Proclamations by
Gens. Halleck, Buell, Hooker, McDowell, Double-
day and others-General Instructions by the
President concerning "Contrabands"-Gens.
Phelps and Butler on Arming Negroes-Pro-
posed Congressional Censure of Gen. Halleck's
Order No. 3-Prohibition of Slavery in the Ter-
ritories-Amendments to the Constitution, pro-
posed in the Thirty-Eighth Congress, First Ses-
sion-Resolutions on Slavery in the States, in the
same Congress-Bureau of Freedmen's Affairs.
LEGISLATION, ORDERS, PROCLAMATIONS AND
PROPOSITIONS, RELATIVE TO THE WAR,
AND TO PEACE".
The Enrollment Acts of 1863 and 1864, with the
votes upon all their leading Features and Char-
acteristics-Resolutions relative to the Enroll-
ment-Orders of the War Department enforcing
the Draft of 1862-Gen. McClellan's Recommen-
dation of a Draft in 1861-Colored Soldiers and
their Pay-Opinion of Attorney General Bates
respecting the pay of Rev. S. Harrison, colored
Chaplain of the 54th Mass. Regiment-Rules
and Orders for the Protection of Colored Sol-
diers, and the President's Speech thereon-Use
of Colored Men in the "Confederate" Military
Service-Negro Enlistment Act of the Tennes-
see Rebel Legislature-"Confederate" Legisla-
tion upon the Treatment of captured Colored
Troops and their Officers-Homesteads for Sol-
diers-Unemployed Generals-Resolutions upon
the Objects and Prosecution of the War, in the
Thirty-seventh and Thirty-Eighth Congresses-
"Peace" Propositions in the same-Correspond-
ence between the President and Fernando Wood
-The Niagara Falls Conference and Correspond-
ence-Peace Propositions in the Rebel Congress
-Correspondence between Governor Vance and
Jefferson Davis-Reported Statement of Davis
MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS AND SPEECHES OF
Response to a Serenade, July, 1863-Speech at
the Philadelphia Fair, June 16, 1864-Letters to
Horace Greeley, to the Springfield Mass Conven-
tion, to Col. A. G. Hodges, of Kentucky, and
to the Grant Meeting in New York, June, 1864.
OUR FOREIGN RELATIONS.........
The Trent Affair-Monarchical Intrigues in Cen-
tral and South America-Alleged Foreign En-
listments-Foreign Mediation, being Letters
from Secretary Seward to Governor Hicks and
M. Drouyn de l'Huys, and from Lord Lyons to
Earl Russell, with his Views on those of New
York Democrats respecting Foreign Mediation-
The French in Mexico-Congressional Action
thereon-The Arguelles Case.
Summary of Financial Legislation from Decem-
ber, 1860, to June 30, 1864-Special War Income
Tax, and Votes thereon-The Legal Tender"
Question--Loan Bill of 1864-National Currency
Acts--Internal Revenue Acts-Proposed Tax
on Slaves-Tariff Acts of 1862 and 1864-Taxes
in Insurrectionary Dist icts-The Public Credit
in 1860 and 1861-Statements of Public Debt
from June 30, 1860, to June 30, 1864-"Confed-
erate" Finances, with their Tax, Funding, and
The President's Views on Colonization-Incom-
patibility of Civil and Military Office-Fishing
Bounties-Acts to Prohibit Polygamy; declaring
certain Persons Ineligible to Office; and to Pun-
ish Conspiracy-Letters of Marque-Enabling
Act for Nebraska-Admission of West Virginia
-Opinions of Attorney General Bates on Citizen-
ship, and on the Pay of Colored Soldiers--Me-
Clellan's Letters Recommending a Political
Policy in the Conduct of the War, and Fa-
voring Woodward's Election in Pennsylvania-
Proposed Censure of President Lincoln and Ex-
President Buchanan-Censure of Representa-
tives Long and Harris.
THE CONSPIRACY OF DISUNION.....
Threats of Dissolution in the First Congress,
1789-Prophetic Utterances of Jackson, Benton,
and Clay-Southern Disunion Congressional
Caucus in 1835-Early Hopes of the Rebels-Ex-
President Pierce's Letter to Jefferson Davis,
1860 The Disunion Programme-Letter of D.
L. Yulee, January 7, 1861-Douglas's Last
Words-Progress of the Conspiracy in Maryland
-Minutes of the Baltimore Police Commission-
ers during "the Reign of Terror "-Report to
the Baltimore Councils on Expenditure of the
$500,000 appropriated for Ordnance Purposes—-
Legislative Action thereon, and other Proceed-
ings by the Maryland Legislature of 1861-Sun-
dry Rebel Items.
The National Union Convention and Letters of
Acceptance by President Lincoln and Andrew
Johnson-The Cleveland Convention, and the
Letters of Acceptance of Fremont and Coch-
rane-Col. Cochrane's Address to his Regiment,
November 13, 1861.
Democratic National Convention-Numerous
Letters, Orders, and Documents on Politics,
Peace, Slavery, the Draft, Negro Soldiers, Elec
tions, &c.-Holt's Report on Secret Orders-The
Church and the Rebellion-Second Session
Thirty-Eighth Congress, and of Second Rebel
Congress President Lincoln's Last Papers and
Death-Presidential Vote of 1864.