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Aspect of Public Affairs at the commencement of the year 1850—Im-

provement of Trade and Revenue, and diminution of Pauperism-Con-
tinued Depression of the Agricultural Interest-Parliament is opened by
Commission on 31st January—The Queen's Speech-Debates on the
Address-In the House of Lords, it is moved by the Earl of Essex,
seconded Lord Methuen—The Earl of Stradbroke moves an Amend
ment, setting forth the distressed state of the Agricultural Classes, which
is seconded by the Earl of Desart—The Amendment is supported by the
Duke of Richmond, the Earl of Winchilsea, the Duke of Beaufort and
Lord Stanley ; the Earls of Carlisle, Granville, and Fitzwilliam, the
Marquess of Lansdowne, and Lord Brougham, vindicate the Address,
which is carried by a majority of 49—In the House of Commons, Mr.
C. Villiers moves, and Sir James Duke seconds, a similar Address-Sir
John Trollope moves an Amendment, embodying the complaints of the
Owners and Occupiers of Land, which is seconded by Colonel Chatterton
- The Chancellor of the Exchequer enters into statistical details, showing
the increased Trade and Revenue of the Country, and the Reduction of
Parochial Burdens—The Debate is continued for two nights by adjourn-
ment-Speeches of Mr. H. Herbert, Mr. W. Fagan, Sir John Walsh, Mr.
Grantley Berkeley, the Marquess of Granby, Mr. Christopher, Mr. Robert
Palmer, Mr. Muntz, Mr. Herries, Mr. Labouchere, Mr. Disraeli

, Lord John Russell, and Mr. Cobden-On a Division, the Address is carried by 311 against 192. LOCAL BURDENS ON LAND-Mr. Disraeli moves on the 19th Feb. for a Committee of the whole House, to consider a Revision of Poor-Law Burdens His Speech-He is answered at length by Sir George Grey-The Motion is supported, during a protracted Debate of two nights, by Mr. Seymer, Sir John Tyrrell, Lord John Manners, Mr. Stafford, and Mr. Gladstone, and opposed by Mr. Bright, Mr. Hobhouse, Mr. Wilson, Sir James Graham, and Sir Robert Peel-Ona Division, the Motion is negatived by a Majority of 21 votes. PARLIAMENTARY REFORM -Mr. Hume proposes, on the 28th Feb., a Resolution for the Extension of the Franchise The Motion is seconded by Sir Joshua Walmsley, and advocated by Mr. Feargus O'Connor, Mr. W. P. Wood, Mr. Roebuck, Mr. B. Osborne, and Mr. Locke King—Sir George Grey, Mr. Henry Drummond, and Lord John Russell address the House on the other side-Mr. Hume's proposition is negatived by 242 to 96

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COLONIAL AFFAIRSConstitutional Government for the Colonies—Increasing

public interest in that subject--Development of the views of Government by Lord John Russell, in moving Resolutions in the House of Commons on the 8th of February-His able and comprehensive Speech-Remarks of Sir W. Molesworth, Mr. Gladstone, Mr. Adderley, Mr. F. Scott, Mr. Hume, and other Members. Australian COLONIES Bi-Second Reading

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moved by Lord John Russell, on the 18th of February—Mr. Roebuck criticises the Measure--After a general discussion the Second Reading is carried_Committal of the Bill—Numerous Amendments are moved by Sir W. Molesworth, Mr. Mowatt, Mr. Roebuck, Mr. C. Lushington, Mr. É. Denison, and other Members—The Bill, in its main features, is successfully supported by the Government–Various questions of Colonial Policy mooted in debate-On bringing up the Report Sir W. Molesworth moves the re-committal of the Bill, explaining at some length his views of Colonial Policy–Mr. Gladstone supports the Motion, which is resisted by Mr. Labouchere and Sir George Grey, and is negatived on a Division by 165 against 42–Mr. Gladstone moves the addition of a Clause giving to the Church of England in the Colonies a power of synodical actionInteresting discussion on this Motion—Speeches in favour of the Amendment are made by Mr. A. B. Hope, Mr. W. P. Wood, Mr. Roundell Palmer, Mr. Walpole, and Mr. Adderley, and by Sir George Grey, Mr. Hume, Mr. Roebuck, and the Attorney-General, contra—The Clause is rejected by 187 to 102_On the Third Reading being moved, Mr. Gladstone proposes that the operation of the Bill be suspended until the opinion of the Colonies respecting it can be ascertained—Mr. Roebuck supports the proposition, which, after a full discussion, is negatived by 226 to 128— Other Amendments are rejected, and the Bill is passed—In the House of Lords the Second Reading of the Bill is carried nem. diss.—Motion made by Lord Brougham that the Opponents may be heard by Counsel against the Bill—Opposed by Earl Grey, and negatived by 33 to 25—The Bishop of Oxford moves that the Bill be referred to a Select Committee-His Speech-Earl Grey opposes the Motion, which, after some discussion and a Speech from Lord Stanley, is rejected by 34 to 21–Various Amendments proposed in Committee-Certain Clauses abandoned by Ministers The Amendments made in the Lords are ultimately adopted by the House of Commons. AFFAIRS OF CEYLON -Proceedings of the Select Committee-Substance of the Report - Indignation expressed in the House of Commons at the conduct of Lord Torrington. " WEST INDIAN ISLANDS-Resolution moved by Sir E. F. Buxton, affirming the injustice of exposing the free-grown Sugar to competition with Slave-trading Countries-His Speech-Mr. W. Evans seconds the Motion-Speeches of Mr. Hume, Mr. Mangles, Mr. Grantley Berkeley, Mr. Wilson, Mr. E. H. Stanley, Mr. Hutt, Sir John Pakington, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Mr. Gladstone, and Lord Palmerston—The Resolution of Sir E. F. Buxton is negatived by 275 against 234



FOREIGN POLICY-Affairs of Greece-Measures taken by Admiral Parker in

the Piræus–Opinions in this Country on the Question-On the 4th of February Lord Stanley requires an Explanation from Ministers—Answer of the Marquess of Lansdowne_Observations of the Earl of AberdeenIn the House of Commons, Mr. M. Gibson and Mr. Disraeli address questions to the Government, which are answered by Lord Palmerston-Further Discussions in both Houses on the subject from time to time-Lord Stanley gives notice of a formal Motion in the House of Lords—The French Ambassador suddenly leaves London on the 15th of May-Inquiries and Explanations in Parliament respecting this occurrence-After some postponements, at the request of Ministers, the Debate on Lord Stanley's Motion on the Affairs of Greece takes place on the 18th of June-Able and eloquent Speech of Lord Stanley-He is answered by the Marquess of Lansdowne-Speeches of Lord Aberdeen, Lord Beaumont, Viscount Canning, the Earl of Hardwicke, Lord Brougham, and other

Peers—On a Division, Lord Stanley's Resolution is carried against the Government by a Majority of 37—In the House of Commons, Mr. Roebuck questions Lord John Russell respecting the position of MinistersStatement of Lord John Russell-Mr. Roebuck gives notice of a Resolution. vindicating the Foreign Policy of the Government–The Debate commences on the 24th of June, and is continued for four nights by adjournment-Eloquent and brilliant Speeches on both sides-Powerful defence of his Policy by Lord Palmerston, and interesting Speech of Sir Robert Peel, being the last Speech by him before his lamented DeathSummary of the leading Speeches for and against Ministers, including those of Mr. Roebuck, Sir F. Thesiger, Mr. W. P. Wood, Sir James Graham, Sir John Walsh, Mr. Sidney Herbert, Mr. Gladstone, Mr. Cockburn, Mr. Walpole, Mr. Cobden, Lord John Russell

, and Mr. Disraeli – The Division gives a Majority of 46 in favour of Government. AFFAIRS OF HUNGARY_Lord Dudley Stuart moves for Papers relating to the extradition of Hungarian Refugees from Turkey-Explanation given by Lord Palmerston-Remarks made by various Members on the subjectAfrican Slave Trade Suppression_Mr. Hutt moves an Address to the Crown in favour of discontinuing the Squadron on the coast of Africa, Mr. Baillie seconds the Motion, which is supported by Mr. Grantley Berkeley, Mr. Anstey, Lord Harry Vane, Mr. Gladstone, and Lord Robert Grosvenor, and opposed by Mr. W. Evans, Mr. Labouchere, Mr. Cardwell, Sir G. Pechell, and Lord John Russell - On a Division, the Motion is negatived by 232 to 154



AFFAIRS OF IRELAND—Statement of Lord John Russell respecting Irish

Distress, and the proposed mode of dealing with the distressed Unions and repayments of Advances—After some debate, the Ministerial Resolutions are agreed to-Bill founded thereon brought in and passed. EXTENSION OF THE Irish PARLIAMENTARY FRANCHISE–Origin and progress of the Measure-Bill brought in by the Secretary for Ireland Its general features-Debate on the Second Reading-Remarks of Mr. Napier, Mr. Hume, Mr. Reynolds, Mr. M. J. O'Connell, Mr. Bright, and other Members The Bill is read a Second Time nem. con.—It encounters a good deal of opposition in Committee—Various Amendments proposed, but, with slight exceptions, rejected— The proposition to reduce the Standard of Franchise according to rating from 8. to 51. is defeated by 142 to 90—On the Third Reading being moved, an animated opposition is manifested, but it is carried by 254 to 186In the House of Lords the Earl of Desart proposes to raise the Standard of Franchise from 81. to 151.—Speeches of the Bishop of Down, Lords Stanley, Wharncliffe, Mountcashell, and Brougham, the Earls of Shrewsbury and Carlisle, Earl Fitzwilliam, and the Marquess of Lansdowne—The Amendment is carried against Ministers by 72 to 50% Lord Stanley then proposes and carries an Amendment affecting the Registration Clauses, by a majority of 16–On the Amendments coming down to the House of Commons for consideration, Lord John Russell moves the House to accede to a 121. Franchise as a compromise, and to reject the Registration Amendment–The House after a debate adopts that course—The Lords eventually consent to the alteration fixing the Franchise at 121. and to restore the Registration Clauses as before-The Bill passed. ABOLITION OF THE LORD LIEUTENANCY OF IRELAND—Lord John Russell moves to introduce a Bill for that purpose—His SpeechRemarks of Mr. Grattan, Mr. Grogan, Mr. Fagan, Mr. Reynolds, Mr. B. Osborne, and other Members Leave given-Debate on the Second Reading -Several Irish and other Members vehemently oppose the Bill—The

Debate is adjourned, and important Speeches are delivered by Sir Robert Peel, Sir George Grey, Mr. Sheil, Mr. Disraeli, Sir R. Inglis, and other leading Members—The Second Reading is carried by a majority of 225, but the measure is ultimately thrown over to the following Session. CONFLICT AT CASTLE WELLAN—Lord Stanley brings forward a Motion in the House of Lords demanding an investigation into this affair, and arraigning the Irish Policy of the Government–His Speech-The Earl of Clarendon defends his own Administration at great length-Speeches of the Earl of Roden, Earl of Winchilsea, Lord Brougham, and other Peers—The Motion for Papers is acceded to without opposition

[95 CHAPTER V. FINANCE—The Budget is introduced by the Chancellor of the Exchequer on

the 15th of March-Favourable condition of the Public Revenue Effects of reduced Taxation on necessaries of life-Proposed reduction of the Stamp Duties and repeal of the Brick Tax-Reception of the BudgetRemarks of Mr. Hume, the Marquess of Granby, Mr. Newdegate, Mr. Henry Drummond, Mr. Bankes, and other Members—Progress of the Financial Arrangements—Difficulty found in adjusting the details of Stamp DutiesDefeat of the Government on an Amendment moved by Sir H. Willoughby -Two Bills withdrawn in succession-Mr. Mullings suggests alterations which are mainly adopted— The Stamp Duties Reduction and Brick Duties Repeal Bills are ultimately passed—Various Motions in favour of Retrenchment and reduction of Taxation-Mr. Henley gives notice of a Motion for reduction of Official Salaries—Lord John Russell anticipates the Motion by proposing the appointment of a Select Committee for the same object --Speech of Lord John Russell on that occasion-Mr. Disraeli moves an Amendment—Speeches of Mr. Hume, Mr. Henley, Lord H. Vane, Mr. Cockburn, Mr. Herries, Mr. Bright, Mr. H. Drummond, and the Chancellor of the Exchequer-Lord J. Russell's Motion is carried by a majority of 91.Mr. Horsman moves that the inquiry be extended to Ecclesiastical Incomes—The Motion is opposed by Sir George Grey, and rejected by 208 to 95. MOTIONS IN FAVOUR OF RETRENCHMENT-Mr. Cobden moves Resolutions on the 8th of March pledging the House to reduction of Expenditure-He is answered by Mr. Labouchere—Speeches of Mr. Spooner, Mr. Hume, Mr. Herries, Mr. M. Gibson, Mr. Henley, and Lord John Russell-Majority of 183 against Mr. Cobden's Resolutions—Mr. Henry Drummond, on the 13th of March, brings forward another Motion in favour of Economy-His Resolution is seconded by Mr. Cayley, supported by Mr. Newdegate, Mr. Stafford, Lord John Manners, Mr. Bennett, and other Agricultural Members, and opposed by Mr. F. Maule, Sir Robert Peel, Mr. Labouchere, Mr. Bright, and Lord John Russell-The Motion is negatived by 190 to 156. REPEAL OF THE WINDOW Duty_Moved by Lord Duncan-His Speech-Answer of the Chancellor of the Exchequer-Speeches of Sir G. Pechell, Sir Benjamin Hall, Lord Dudley Stuart, and Mr. Hume, in favour of the Motion, which is rejected by a narrow majority of 80 against 77Motion of Mr. Cayley z for Repeal of the Malt Tax-His Speech-Mr. Christopher seconds the Motion—The Chancellor of the Exchequer opposes it--Speeches of Mr. Henry Drummond, Mr. Bass, Mr. M. Gibson, Mr. Spooner, Mr. Hodges, Mr. J. Wilson, Mr. Disraeli, and Lord John Russell-The Motion is lost by 247 against 123.


this Measure—The Bishop of London introduces a Bill for creating a new tribunal in lieu of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council on Church

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