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from the wash of the surrounding hills. The mound is now nearly obliterated by cultivation. We were informed by Mr. Gouzer that it was opened about twenty years ago, when a skeleton was found the thigh-bone of which was as long as his leg, and the skull as large as a half-bushel measure. We dug a little below the surface, and found a few bones, among which was a broken thigh-bone of tbe ordinary size, thus destroying a myth which has been a belief of the credalous of the neighborhood for twenty years, that “there were giants in those days," and that one was buried here.
The next day we visited a point five miles northeast of Waterloo, where there are several groups of mounds. In the woods on Mr. Boyer's farm we found a mound about 12 feet in diameter and 3 feet high, composed entirely of large bowlders. It has been there ever siuce the settlement of the country. On removing the stones and dig. ging beneath, we found that the original soil had never been disturbed, and no remains were found. Near by in a cultivated field was another mound of earth nearly obliterated by cultivation. Excavating it, we found numerous bits of charcoal, and several fragments of pottery, but no human remains. A sort of trench from side to side had been filled with what appeared to be dried swamp muck. Its outlines were quite well defined in the sandy loam of the rest of the mound.
On the adjoining farm of Mr. Taylor, about half a mile distant, were two more mounds. We dug into one of them, finding again charcoal and fragments of pottery, but no human remains. None of these mounds are more than 3 feet high, and generally have a base of from 20 to 30 feet. All through this section many flints and carred implements and ornaments of stone are found by the fariners. Some of them are perforated, and nearly all are of the banded siliceous slate, which seems to have been so highly prized by the mountl-builder. One found in this vicinity and now in my collection is represented in Fig. 2. The boy who found it described it as a " stone bayonet," and his mistake seems quite natural when we look only to the shape of the ornament. It is intended to represent a long-billed aquatic fowl, and was probably worn as a totemic emblem on the head-dress of a prominent chief, to which it was attached by thongs passing through the holes drilled in tbe ends. The tail is unfortunately broken off. Mr. McBride has several in his collection, some of which are fair representations of birds. He has one almost precisely like Fig. 27 in Foster's Prehistoric Races, and has also a fac simile of the implement found at Danville, Ill., represented in Fig. 28 of the same work. I have seen a number of articles carved from this ribboned slate, some of which are shaped like a double-edged battle-ax, but too slight for use. They all have a smooth, regular hole drilled through the center about f of an inch in diameter. I conclude they were carried as emblems of authority in processions on state occasions.
We beard of other mounds in De Kalb County, but had no time to visit them.
In Allen County these remains are not so numerous, and there are none at all in the southern part of the county.
On Cedar Creek, about ten miles north of Fort Wayne, is a group of four mounds, near Stoner's Station, on the Fort Wayne, Jackson and Saginaw Railroad. Two of them are in a line north and south, about 40 feet apart. About fifteen rods east of these are two more, about the same distance apart, on a line nearly east and west. Three of them had been opened years ago, and bones of a number of skeletons found in all. The fourth had never been disturbed, but an excavation disclosed no remains, out many fragments of charcoal aud hard-baked earth. I procured in the vicinity a large stone ax and a spear-head of large white flint, leaf-shaped, and about 5 inches in length, (Fig. 7,) besides a number of smaller flints. These mounds are on the high ground at the junction of Cedar and Willow Creeks. About four miles south of these is a large, irregular-shaped mound, about 50 feet long by 20 in width. It is situated on the farm of Henry Wolford, whose family, being somewhat superstitious, would only permit me to dig a small hole near the center of the mound. About 2 feet from the surface I found an implement (Fig. 31) of ribboned slate, with a perforation near one end, of the class supposed by some to be a weaving shuttle, and by others an implement for gauging cords. Plenty of charcoal was found to a depth of about 4 feet. Below that for a foot the earth was very hard, as if baked, until the original soil was reached. I found no bones in this mound. There is no stream in the immediate vicinity, but a large marsh lies directly east of it.
At Cedarville, on the Saint Joseph, near the mouth of Cedar Creek, are three mounds about 100 feet apart, situated in a line running northwest, parallel with the general direction of the river at this point. None of them have been opened, but one has been partially removed to mend the road, and charcoal was found mingled with the earth.
Descending the Saint Joseph on the east side, to the farm of Peter Notestine, one of the oldest settlers, we find a circular “fort” in a bend of the river similar to the one in De Kalb County. It has been plowed over for nearly thirty years, but numerous fragments of pottery, flints, and stone implements are yet found in and about its site when newly plowed. Mr. H. J. Rudisill, county auditor, has a large rude pipe of pottery from this place. The bowl and stem are in one piece, and the end of the stem, which is nearly an inch in diameter, has been flattened by the fingers while plastic for a mouthpiece.
Still farther down the river, on the west side, opposite Antrup's Mill, is a semicircular “fort” with its ends on the river-bank. It is about 600 feet in arc. The earth-work is yet about 2 feet in height, with a Well-defined ditch on the outside. Very large trees which stood on the cmbankment have fallen and gone to decay. We found in the earth
which had been upturned by a fallen tree a fragment from the neck of a vessel, with square indentations on the surface, and a flint, flat on one side and regularly chipped to a concave surface on the other. Still farther down the river, at the mouth of Breckinridge Creek, is a single mound, which has not been opened, except a slight excavation, which developed the customary lumps of charcoal. This point is about four miles north of Fort Wayne, and is the most southerly point in the county at which mounds or earth-works are known to exist.
Still, on the ridges, implements and ornaments of the “stone age" and fragments of pottery are often found in many parts of the county, and many of these articles bave a beauty of design and a polish unknown to the Indians who were found here on the advent of the whites. Some of the flints are beveled, and others seem to bare been cut in a winding form, probably for the same purpose as the beveled ones—to give a rotary morement to the weapon. They are of every variety of flints or cherts, and one I possess is a beautifully veined agate. Professor Foster criticises Longfellow's lines
There the ancient arrow-maker
Made his arrow-beads of sandstone· and says, “ Sandstone was never used by the mound-builders as a mate
rial for arrow-heads." I have in my collection a broken arrow-bead chipped from sandstone, which proves that Longfellow was right and his critic wrong.
Some of the stone ornaments are of a material not found in this local. ity, except in a worked form. The ribboned siliceous slate seemed to have been held in special estimation, and I have part of one which I presume to have been an emblem of authority. It differs from any I have seen figured. It is of a reddish-veined slate, and had two perfo. rations for the handle, but is broken through both holes, the interme. diate piece being lost. The holes are about g of an inch in diameter, regularly drilled.
I send you with this rude drawings of other implements and weapons in my collection, which I have selected as types of the relics of the stone age found in this vicinity, and which I hope may prore of interest. They are all from this county, except those noted as from De Kalb. They are drawn the exact size of the originals, and the flaking and chipping represented as exactly as my artistic skill, or rather want of it, will permit.
ANTIQUITIES OF JACKSON COUNTY, TENNESSEE.
By Rev. Joshua HAILE, OF GAINESBOROUGH, TENN.
[Communicated by James W. McHenry, of Nashville.] There is a mound in this county, on the field of Mr. Philip M. Ray, about forty yards in diameter and nearly 8 feet high, though lower at
present by several feet than it was forty years ago. This mound has been only imperfectly examined, and nothing found beyond a vessel or two made of clay and slightly burned. No bodies have yet been found in the mound or around it.
There are graves and a mound on my place, which have been carefully examined. The mound is near the middle of a valley, on the east side of Flynn's Creek, about one hundred and twenty yards from the stream. It is about forty yards in diameter and at the present time over 6 feet above the general surface of the land. Surrounding the base of this mound were placed loose, rough stones, forming a wall of 4 or 5 feet high. I have made excavations into this mound, and in different parts of it found that it is entirely filled in every part with graves just as close to one another as they could be placed. They are found at the present time from 18 inches to 2 feet below the surface, where there are no washings; this seems to be their usual depth. The graves are not confined to the mound, for the surrounding valley, containing fifty acres or more, is filled with them as close as they can be placed. These graves are generally in an east-and-west direction, and sometimes facing the southeast, and occasionally, where the rock interfered with the position, they are found without regard to direction, compactness seeming to have been the leading idea. A great many of these graves have been opened. They vary from 18 inches to 54 feet in length, and skulls, with the jaw-bones still fastened to them, have been found ; also ribs and leg.bones ; in short, all the solid bones of the human body, with little sign of decay.
The manner of burying seemed to be as follows: The graves vary in width from 10 to 18 inches; the coffins consist of slates, at the bottom of the grave, closely fitted together; then slate set upon the sides and at the ends, all of the same height, of about 15 or 18 inches. These slates are generally in their rough condition, and the bodies seem to have been deposited, and then one or two slates or other stones, smoothly dressed or polished, laid over them. The stones are closely fitted together where two are used, and, from the compactness, seem to have been united with cement. The lid rests on the upright stones, and generally projects over the sides 3 or 4 inches. When these graves are opened, they are found dry within, and generally contain some toys, consisting of small jugs, crocks, skillets, or other small vessels, made of clay, with the image of a man, eagle, or some other bird, evidently stamped on them while in a soft state. The vessels vary in size from the capacity of a pint to that of a gallon. They have been burned slightly, but in no case have any been found glazed. There is at this time one of these vessels or jugs, at T. L. Settle's, in Gainesborough. Some of them have legs and handles.
These graves were first discovered about fifty years ago, when the valley as well as the mound were covered with a dense forest, composed of trees of a large size. A violent storm blew over some of the large trees, apturning the roots, and thus uncovered the graves
Contiguous to what may be called the valley of graves, on the west side of Flynn's Creek, is a low bluff, in which is a hole large enough to take in at its mouth an ordinary-sized barrel. This hole is the entrance to a cave under the hill, which has been explored to the distance of about 300 feet. This cave is high enough to allow walking in it erect, is .quite roomy, and perfectly dry. In it was found, in 1863, a chest or box, made of black-walnut plank 14 inches thick. It was about 2 feet long, 12 inches wide, and 16 inches deep, with a well-formed lid of the same wood. It was decayed on the outside with dry-rot to the depth of about 1 inch, and in some places the finger could be pushed through the wood; in other places the material was sound inside, and showed that the chest had been neatly dressed with a plane or some other tool, and lined with cloth or some fine, soft substance. In it were found wrapped up, in about three yards of large-checked gingham, a part of which was still sound, about twenty surgical instruments, consisting of a crooked knife, a crooked scissors, a lancet, and other articles of which I did not know the name. These instruments were not badly rusted, and in some places still quite bright; they were made of fine steel, finely polished, with handles of tortoise-shell. Dr. U. T. Brown, who has since died, took charge of them, and perhaps his family has some of them still.
On the hill, some 200 yards high, which joins this valley, is found a pile of loose, rough stones, 5 or 6 feet high. It has not been opened, and therefore no information is to be given as to its contents.
On the top of another bill, which joins the mound in P. M. Ray's field, about the same distance and height from the mound, is a similar pile of loose stones, which has not been examined.
ANTIQUITIES OF PERRY COUNTY, OHIO.
By W. ANDERSON, OF BROWNSVILLE, OHIO.
I send to the Institution some specimens of antiquities from Perry County, Ohio. The mound from which they were obtained is 6 feet high, with a diameter of 25 feet. I found nothing until I reached the original surface of the ground, where there were ashes and charcoal. Two feet beneath these was the skeleton. The relics were deposited near its head. Around the neck was a string of beads of sea-shells. Near its right hand was found a plano-convex stone with holes in it. There were also a large number of arrow-heads and stone axes with and with. out grooves.
The skeleton was in a poor state of preservation. I saved a few bones. Around the skeleton was a quantity of ash-colored soil like that of decomposed bark. I send a specimen of each.