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beads in great numbers, sickle-shaped ornaments of the abalone (haliotis) shell, and an ornament resembling dentalium, but made of a large clamshell, strewed about their heads.
During my explorations I also diligently searched for caves which might have been inbabited and from which important information might bare been obtained. But in these investigations I did not meet with much success, partly because I had not the time necessary at my disposal, for scarcely had I got to a place where they existed, when my duties demanded my attention and obliged me to give up the exploration. I could, therefore, only designate on my map the place wbich I might, with some degree of certainty, suppose to be a formerly-inhabited cave, so as to facilitate later investigations. Once I was obliged to suspend work at Point Sal for a whole week on account of thick fog. I bad time, however, to searchi in the gorges and rocks, hoping to find ethnological objects. I discovered and opened at that time the graves of Kěs-mă-lī, and not far off the cave, (Figs. 4 and 6.) But I was rather disappointed, when, after clambering through and over almost inaccessible places, I reached the care, and found that it was only eight by four feet wide and eight feet high; and that there were in it only one pestle, with many oyster-shells, bones, and teeth. The floor was formed of stratified brown ash-like soil, in which were the above-mentioned objects. The circular entrance to the cave measured three feet in diameter. On the right-hand side of the entrance was a nicbe which had evidently been worked out of the hard but cracked sandstone, and was large enough for one person to sit comfortably therein. Toward the back part, the cave has also been worked out, so that a person might lie dowu stretched out; that is, I found that I could comfortably occupy these positions, although I am seventy-three inches in height. The whole cave, it appears to me, has been artificially made with a chisel. I did not examine the articles which it contained very closely, and must, therefore, refer to the collection itself. For the same reason, I have not said much about all the other objects of the collection, but refer for more particulars to the following catalogue and to the collection itself.
CATALOGUE OF IMPLEMENTS FOUND IN THE DIFFERENT GRAVES. 1. Cup for preparing paints, together with an egg-shaped grinder, No.
42. Kěs-mă-lī. 2. Mortar for preparing paints; found with red paint in bronze vessel.
Te-me-te-ti. 3. Mortar, soft gray sandstone. Ni-po-mo. 4. Mortar, bard gray sandstone. Nī-po-mo. 5. Mortar, soft gray sandstone. Ni-po-ino. 6. Paint-cup, dark stone, was found, together with the pipe, No. 46.
N.* 'N = Ni-po-mo; K, Kès-mă-lî; T= To-mě-tě-ti; W = Wă-l-kbē
7. Mortar, sandstone, roughly made. K. 8. Mortar, perfect. W. 9. Mortar. N. 10. Cup made of talco-slat?. N. 11. Mortar, from graves at the inouth of San Luis Obispo Creek. (See
map A.) 12. Mortar. N. 13. Mortar. N. 14. Mortar. N. 15. Mortar. T. 16. Mortar. N. 17. Mortar. K. 18. Mortar, repaired with asphaltum. W. 19–22. Mortar-halves, as found protecting skulls, (mostly of females,)
N, K, and T. 23. Pot of magnesian-mica, pear-shaped. W. 24. Pot of magnesian-mica, wide opening. W. 25. Pot of magnesian-mica, globular. N. 26. Pot of magnesian-mica, globular. N. 27. Pot of magnesian-mica, globular. T. 28. Pestle, sandstone. N. 29. Pestle, sandstone. N. 30. Pestle, sandstone. N. 31. Pestle, well worked, found in cave at Point Sal. 32. Pestle, fragment. N. 33. Pestle. N. 34. Pestle. N. 35. Pestle, fragment. 36. Pestle, repaired with asphaltum. T. 37. Pestle. W. 38. Pestle. N. 39. Doubtful, at the shell-heaps. Point Sal. 40. Flesher, (dressing skins.) Point Sal. 41. Whetstone. K. 42. Egg shaped pestle, (to cup No. 1.) K. 43. Egg-shaped pestle. K. 44, 45. Arrow-shaft polisher. N. 46. Pipe. N. 47. Pipe. N. 48. Pipe. N. 49. Amulet, (serpentine.) K. 50. Fossil, vertebra of (?) K. 51. Pot of burut clay. N. 52. Cup of talco-slate. N. 53. Bronze cup. T. 54-66. Skulls. K.
Skull No. 57 supposed to be of a white man, and was found,
with the rest of the bones, among the rubbish of a shell
heap at Point Sal. 67–70. Skulls. N. 71. Skulls. W. 72. Bones. W. 73. Slab, of which the linings of graves, in most cases, consisted. N. 74. Shell-ornaments. N. 75. Teeth, shell-heaps. Point Sal. 76. Cup covered with three shells. T. 77. Glass beads. N. 78. Shell beads, (dentalium-like.) N. 79. Ornament. Point Sal. 80. Plate, (fragment.) N. 81. Plate. N. 82. Plate, (machine-drilled hole.) N. 83. Beads made of shells. K. 84. Bone(-bow ?) shell-heap. Point Sal. 85. Hair, &c. 86. Bill of a bird, found in the mouth of a skeleton. N. 87. Red color, found in a pot. 88. Beads of serpentine and shell. N. 89. Mortar, (ornamental ?) N. 90. Rim of a bowl of serpentine. N. 91. Seed found in a pot. N. 92. Arrow-heads found with skull No. 105, on a temporary camping.
ground, as remarked in the text. 93. Ear-ornaments. N. 94. Shell ornaments. K. 95. Seed found in a pot. N. 96. Abalone ornaments. N. 97. Abalone found in excavity of brains. N. 98. Crystals of quartz. N. 99. Shell ornaments, (dentalium-like.) N. 100. Cave results. 101. Bead of shell, finely finished and carved. K. 102. Shell ornaments. 103. Wall of grave. K. 104. Skull, animal, found on shell-Leap. Point Sal. 105. Skull found on temporary camping-ground, as mentioned in text,
with arrow-heads, No. 92. 106. Spear-heads and arrow-points. N. 107, 108. Lance-heads. 109. Knives, as found especially on temporary camping-grounds. 110. Ornaments of serpentine. N. 111. Stone blade. N.
112. Pestle, on shell-heaps. Point Sal. 113. Black paint, (?) found in pots, and often strewn about the skulls. 114. Knives, arrow-heads, &c., as found on surface near mouth of Santa
Maria River and other places, with indications of a formerly.
permanent camp. 115. Red paint. 116. Coin.
REMARK.—The name of the grave was attached to the article when exhumed, and the place described when it was found on the surface.
ACCOUNT OF THE BURIAL OF AN INDIAN SQUAW, SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY,
CALIFORNIA, MAY, 1874,
The body, cleanly washed, was dressed in its best clothing. Outside of the clothing, and confining it to the body, was a bandage, apparently a sheet, torn in balf. The feet were covered and bound together, the arms confined to the side, and the face covered by a bandage. The body thus prepared was laid upon the ground, while the men of the party dug the grave. While the grave was being dug, an old squaw danced slowly once round the body, singing in a wailing tone, then seated herself at its head, and continued her singing and wailing, sometimes breaking off and addressing the corpse, at the same time patting its head with her hand. The grave being completed, the body was lowered into it, its head toward the south. The personal effects of the deceased were placed beside her. These consisted of a bundle of bed-clothing, several small bundles of calico, various tin cups and pans, a table-knife and spoon, a frying-pan, and, lastly, a small quantity of live ashes was thrown in and the grave filled up. A fire was then lighted on top of the grave, the squaw who acted as chief mourner gathering the sticks. She also threw on the pile a number of platter-shaped dishes or baskets of plaited grass, which were burned. When the fire had burned itself out, the squaw above mentioned advanced and broke an oya, or water-cooler, on the grave, by violently dashing it on the ground. The party then dispersed.
A day or two afterward the house in which the woman died was purposely burned. The dishes and oya that were destroyed showed signs of long use, but were still perfectly serviceable. During the burial, no signs of emotion were shown by any of the party, either men or women, except by the squaw alluded to."
ANCIENT MOUNDS OF MERCER COUNTY, ILLINOIS.
By TYLER MCWHORTER, or ALEDO, ILL. It may be approximately estimated that there are more than a thou. sand mounds in this county, yet persons who have not directed their attention to the subject would not suppose half that number to exist. These mounds are generally not such as to attract very special observation, not being of the larger size, the principal groups are very much flattened down by time, and seem to relate to a more remote antiquity tban such as are more conspicuous.
These mounds are all located in the portion of the county bordering on the Mississippi River. This fact, that the western mounds are universally found on lands adjoining the rivers, suggests tbe inference that the race who erected them procured their subsistence mainly from the water, or that the bottom-lands of the rivers constituted their principal hunting-grounds.
The largest group of mounds in this county is found in Eliza Town. ship (township 15 north, range 5 west,) on high timbered land, about a mile or so back of the Mississippi bluffs. In this group may be found orer two hundred mounds within the distance of a mile. This group seems to be of great antiquity, and is quite flattened down by the elements--only rising a few feet above the general level. Probably successive forests have grown and passed away siuce they were constructed. Only a few have been opened, and these revealed only beds of ashes and a few stones. But what seems strange, traces of ashes are often found mixed with the earth of which the mounds are composed.
In the immediate vicinity are also found obscure lines of old embankments that seem to relate to the same age as the mounds.
On the bottom-lands of the Mississippi, not far from the foot of the bluff, in the same township, are found a few mounds of a very distinct character. They rise up with quite an abrupt elevation, and are manifestly of a much more recent date. Presuming that the more ancient mounds, in the high timbered lands, at some former time had the same abrupt elevation as these, it manifestly must have required many years to reduce them by atmospheric action to their present flattened condition. From this apparent difference in the antiquity of the mounds, it is evident that the race or races who erected them continued to inhabit this country for a considerable length of time. In these more recent mounds human bones have been found with the usual accompaniment of asbes and stones. Also, in one of them a stick of wood was found, about eight inches in diameter, in a horizontal situation, a little to one side of the center of the mound; it was in quite a sound condition,
As no depressions of ground are ever found in the immediate vicinity of mounds, it is often difficult to conjecture where the earth was obtained of which they were constructed; but there is a circumstance in connection with the more recent mounds that seems to have a bearing