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bodies. I found, for example, a lower jaw lying near its right place, but upside down, so that both the upper and the lower teeth pointed down. ward; in another case the thigh-bones lay the wrong way, the knee. pans being turned toward the basin; and, in other instances, the bones were totally separated and mixed up; all tending to show that the graves bad been repeatedly opened for the burial of bodies at different times. Once I even found, upon piercing the bottom-crust of a sepulchre, another lying deeper, which, perhaps, had been forgotten, as the bones therein were somewhat damaged by fire. Plenty of charcoal is found in these tombs, usually of redwood, rarely of pine, and I could not determine any third variety. Sometimes there were also discovered the remains of posts from three to six inches in diameter, and of split boards about two inches in thickness. These are probably the remains of the burned dwelling of the deceased, placed in his grave with all his other property, after the fashion I observed in Chetko last year.
I examined other graves resembling those described at Point Sal. These others are known by the name of Tě-mě-tě-tī. They lie about fourteen miles north of the Point Sal graves, and are situated on the right bank of the Arroyo de los Berros, opposite to the traces of former settlements about seven miles inland. These tombs only differed from those of Kěs-mă-ti in not being lined with the thick burned brick-like crust mentioned above, but with a thin light-colored crust, slightly burned, and not more than a quarter of an inch thick.
To these graves I paid a second visit, hoping to obtain more material, having been there only a very short time at my first visit. But the proprietor of the land disappointed my desires, for he appeared, in spite of my scientific explanations, to be inclined, according to squatterfashion, to prevent, with his rifle, my visit to the land, to which he possessed no title. These were the graves where I found the bronze cup, and a buckle of the same material, which later, I am sorry to say, was unaccountably lost. I had hopes to discover more of such articles, enabling me to trace the connections of these people. The location of this village is rather hidden; it is situated on a small plain between a bluffy elevation on the left bank, and the rather high and wooded right banks of the Los Berros Creek. I could plainly notice the excavations where houses had formerly stood, and particularly the large sweat. . house.
In company with the well-informed and industrious antiquarian, Dr. W. W. Hays, and Judge Venabel, of San Luis Obispo, I explored another aboriginal settlement known by the name of Ni-po-mo. It is situated on the large rancho of like name, about eight miles inland, and distant about a mile and a half from the Nipomo Ranch House, occupied by the hospitable Dana brothers. These graves are also in sandy soil, near a former settlement, the existence of which is well marked by quantities of flint-chips, fragments of tools, bones, and a few shells. Only about three hundred yards from the graves, and nearly in a
straight line with them and one of the houses of Nipomo Ranch, there is a large spring of good water, surrounded by willows. These graves were indicated by an elder-bush, a plant which I always found near the · graves, or in the neighborhood of ancient settlements.
Lastly, I examined the Wă-le-kbe settlements, (Fig. 5.) I hesitated to undertake the trip to these graves, because I only had four days left before the departure of the steamer; and consequently I would only have about six bours remaining for work. But, as I supposed this country offered much of interest to the explorer, I made only the fol. lowing examination :
About twenty-five miles from the mouth of the Santa Maria River the Alamo Creek empties into it, discharging a large amount of water. Following the wide bed of the Santa Maria for about seven miles farther up stream, we reach a smooth elevation, which at this place rises about sixty feet above the bend of the river, and which trends in a curve toward the mountains on the right bank. At the farthest end of this, at a place where a fine view over the whole valley is bad, we find the traces of the ancient village, now known as Wă-le-kbe. A short distance from the former dwellings, on the highest point of the ridge, an excavation marks the spot where once a house stood, probably that of a chief.
I started from San Luis Obispo to visit this place, passing by the remarkable tar-springs, which are situated at about a distance of eighteen miles from the town. Near them I found traces of what had formerly been a large ditch. As before stated, I had not time to make thorough examinations, yet I found that the ditch was still three feet wide, and entered the creek some miles above the tar-springs, on the banks of which creek the said springs are found in different places. Near the road I observed, in the middle of the ditch, an oak-tree, measuring twelve inches in diameter, and which plainly had taken root after the abandon. ment of the ditch; for it was not torn up, as would have been caused by the running water, but was at this place well preserved.
I also visited Ostion rancho, (sometimes called Ranchito,) at wbich place there are extensive beds of oyster-shells, and also some other species of shells, among which are prominently Tapes. At one place, about fifty yards from the right bank of the Arroyo Grande, the shells are closely packed and bound together with coarse sand, forming quite an extensive bluff. I collected a few specimens, which I presented to the California Academy of Sciences.
At the place where Alamo Creek empties into the Santa Maria River, on its left bank, I found several earth-works, and they appeared to me to have been built on this level but elevated spot, the entrance of the valley, for defensive purposes. During my hasty examination I could not discover any place where a house might have been, nor any graves, but nevertheless I incline to the belief that near this place had been an important settlement; for Alamo Creek has better drinking-water than the Santa Maria River, and its width and the adjoining country form
quite a picturesque landscape, which, together with the excellent hunting. ground, is really most inviting for a settlement. Probably, on closer examination, the remains of a settlement might be found in the plain on the right bank, where the elder-bushes give welcome shade to man and beast. I have no doubt that the banks of Alamo Creek and the sur. rounding country will yet yield many remains of former settlements, as also the banks of the Santa Maria River and its tributaries, where, besides the settlement of Wă-le-kħe, which I explored, there are two others, kuown to the ever-roving Vaqueros.
With regard to the general cbaracter of the domestic utensils, arms, and ornaments which I found in examining about three hundred skeletons in the graves of Kěs-ină-lī, Te-mě-te-ti, Nī-po-mō, and Wă-le-khē, they all resemble each other very closely, seeming to show that their possessors all belonged to the same tribe. First of all, the large cookingpots attract attention. They consist of globular or pear-shaped bodies, hollowed out of magnesian mica. The circular opening, having a small and narrow rim, measures only five inches in diameter in a pot with a diameter of eighteen inches. Near the edge of the opening, this vessel is only a quarter of an inch thick, but its thickness increases in a very regular manner toward the bottom, where it measures about one and a quarter inches. Made of the same material, I found other pots of a different shape, namely, very wide across the opening, and narrowing toward the bottom. With these I have also now in my possession many different sizes of sandstone mortars, of a general semiglobular shape, varying from three inches in diameter and one inch and a half in height to sixteen inches in diameter and thirteen inches in height, all external measurements, with pestles of the same material to correspond. There were, further, quite an assortment of cups, measuring from one and a quarter to six inches in diameter, neatly worked out of serpentine, and polished. The smallest of these was inclosed, as in a doubly.covered dish, by three shells, and contained paint, traces of which, by the way, were found in all these cups, from which we may suppose that they were not used for holding food.
Neither spoons nor knives were found in these graves. I got, however, three beautiful serpentine pipes, shaped like cigar-holders, much stronger than, but similar in shape to, those found in Oregon. Not many weapons were picked up here, only a few arrow and spear heads; these, however, were mostly of exquisite workmanship. A spear-head of obsidian, five and a half inches long, was the only object I found of this material; another lance-point of chalcedony, nine and a half inches long and one and a quarter inches wide, was beautifully shaped and carefully made.
A remarkable object is a bronze cup which was found at Tě-mě-te-tī. It was filled with red paint, and contained also the pretty paint-cup in. closed in the three shells mentioned before. I also found in the same grave, a Spanish coin of the last century, and a bronze buckle,
which latter was lost. The bronze cup, the coin, and a pot of burnt, coarse, sandy clay which was found at Ni-po-mō, and also a few remains of corroded iron knives, found in the three graves, tell us of the last days of the existence of these people at a time when they evidently hail hc!d intercourse with the advancing missionaries, who, almost everywhere in America, were the pioneers of civilization.
Most of the objects were found perfect; and those which were not, had been broken by the pressure and shifting of the soil, as could easily be seen from their position. It is, therefore, certain that the bulk of the property buried with a person was not purposely broken nor destroyed, the same thing being true of my investigations in Oregon. I even found mortars and pestles which had been repaired and cemented with asphaltum. The richer occupants of the graves had shell and glass