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FEDERAL AND STATE ELECTIONS

HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY

UNITED STATES SENATE
EIGHTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS

SECOND SESSION

ON

S. 480, S. 2750, and S. 2979 BILLS RELATING TO LITERACY TESTS AND VOTER REQUIRE

MENTS IN FEDERAL AND STATE ELECTIONS

MARCH 27, 28; APRIL 5, 6, 10, 11, AND 12, 1962

Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary

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COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY

JAMES 0. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee

ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina

EVERETT MCKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois JOHN L. MCCLELLAN, Arkansas

ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska SAM J. ERVIN, JR., North Carolina

KENNETH B. KEATING, New York JOHN A. CARROLL, Colorado

HIRAM L. FONG, Hawaii
THOMAS J. DODD, Connecticut

HUGH SCOTT, Pennsylvania
PHILIP A. HART, Michigan
EDWARD V. LONG, Missouri

SUBCOMMITTEE ON CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS

SAM J. ERVIN, JR., North Carolina, Chairman OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina

ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska JOHN L. MCCLELLAN, Arkansas

ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin JOHN A. CARROLL, Colorado

KENNETH B. KEATING, New York EDWARD V. LONG, Missouri

WILLIAM A. CREECH, Chief Counsel and Staff Director

II

CONTENTS

Page

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Opening statement of-

Ervin, Hon. Sam J., Jr., U.S. Senator from the State of North Caro-

lina, chairman of the Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights ---

Johnston, Hon. Olin D., U.S. Senator from the State of South Caro-

lina---

Keating, Hon. Kenneth B., U.S. Senator from the State of New

Long, Hon. Edward V., U.S. Senator from the State of Missouri --

Text of bills pending before the subcommittee:

S. 480

S. 2750

S. 2979.-

Analysis of pending bills, prepared by American Law Division, Legislative

Reference Service, Library of Congress:

On S. 480 and S. 2750...

On S. 2979--------

Commerce Department report on S. 2979..

Justice Department report on S. 2979...

Justice Department memorandum on S. 2750...

U.S. Commission on Civil Rights staff memorandum on constitutionality of

| legislation on the subject of literacy as a requirement for voting ------

Statement

Biemiller, Andrew J., director, department of legislation, AFL-CIO,

accompanied by Thomas Harris, associate general counsel. -------

Bloch, Charles J., attorney, Macon, Ga.-------
Case, Hon. Clifford P., U.S. Senator from the State of New Jersey ---
Fulbright, Hon. J. W., U.S. Senator from the State of Arkansas ----
Gallion, Hon. MacDonald, attorney general of Alabama -----------
Goldwater, Hon. Barry, U.S. Senator from the State of Arizona ----
Gray, Hon. Frederick T., member, Commission on Constitutional

Government; former attorney general, State of Virginia ------

Griswold, Erwin, dean, Harvard Law School; Commissioner, U.S.

Commission on Civil Rights; accompanied by Berl Bernhard, staff

director, U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, and William Taylor,

assistant staff director ------

Hartnett, Al, secretary-treasurer, International Union of Electrical,

Radio & Machine Workers (AFL-CIO)---
Hill, Hon. Lister, U.S. Senator from the State of Alabama --
Humphrey, Hon. Hubert H., U.S. Senator from the State of Minne-

sota-----
Javits, Hon. Jacob K., U.S. Senator from the State of New York
Johnson, Hon. Paul B., Lieutenant Governor, State of Mississippi...
Kennedy, Hon. Robert F., Attorney General of the United States...
Kuchel, Hon. Thomas H., U.S. Senator from the State of California
Old, Hon. William, resident judge, Chesterfield County circuit court,

Chester, Va...
Rauh, Joseph, Jr., vice chairman for civil rights and civil liberties of

the Americans for Democratic Action -
Sparkman, Hon. John, U.S. Senator from the State of Alabama
Speiser, Lawrence, director, Washington office, American Civil Liber-

ties Union
Stennis, Hon. John, U.S. Senator from the State of Mississippi...
Talmadge, Hon. Herman E., U.S. Senator from the State of Georgia.

Wilkins, Roy, executive secretary of the National Association for the

Advancement of Colored People, and chairman, Leadership Confer-

ence on Civil Rights --

Wise, Sherwood, president, Mississippi State Bar Association --

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