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eign travel could teach this lesson so clearly as it will spectacle. It will delight their eyes as nothing else be taught to the average American by the plain fact has ever done. It will teach them the nature and value that all this stately splendor was thought worth get- of art as nothing else could do. And it will affirm ting and worth paying for by hard-headed American and increase their faith in those democratic institubusiness men, and for a merely temporary purpose. tions which once more, in a new field, have proved One constantly hears expressions of regret that build themselves capable of a magnificent, an unrivaled ings and sculptures so costly and beautiful should be achievement. destined to last for a few months only. But, in truth, their transitory character will vastly augment their mis
Liberty, Law, and Order. sionary power. Even the most ignorant may dimly understand that it is worth while to take pains and Good citizens are often grievously perplexed by the spend money upon a result which is to be for all time; contemplation of those situations in life where opposbut at Chicago they will be told that this is worth ing opinions or interests are brought into sharp conwhile even for a result of almost ephemeral duration. Aict, and where the thoughtful man finds a certain
But it is not merely the untraveled American, wholly amount of justice on both sides, and therefore hesitates ignorant and neglectful of art, whom the exhibition will as to the side to which he will give his sympathies. profit and instruct. Cultivated Americans think well We speak now of those cases where the good citizen of their fellow-countrymen in many directions. But as is an onlooker merely, not where he is necessarily a a nation we have as yet too little faith in our artistic capa- participator in the struggle on one side or the other, bilities,- too little respect for the American artist, too lit. for then he is quicker to make up his mind. If the tle belief that the nascent love of the public for art is conflict is between the Indian and the grizzly, there is genuine, vital, and strong. The Columbian Exhibition apt to be a finer balancing of motives and rights than will prove to the most doubting and critical spirit that if the grizzly happen to be in pursuit of the citizen American art exists, that it is capable of great things, himself. and that it can do great things in a way distinctively its The only way we know of whereby these doubts own. Had Chicago equaled Paris, it would be greatly and anxieties can be quickly resolved into definite to our credit; but it has surpassed Paris. Had it pro- views is by a firm grip upon a few definite principles. duced a beautiful exhibition in imitation of the Paris These are the days of special sympathy with the poor Exhibition, it would again be much; but it has conceived and with the so-called - and sometimes narrowly soan entirely different ideal, and carried it out on entirely called — “working-classes,”— the days of new or renovel lines. We shall have an exhibition more dignified, newed theories and experiments as to the relation of beautiful, and truly artistic than any the world has seen; labor and capital. This is the present phase of the and it will be entirely our own, in general idea and in eighteenth-century revolution. Never was so much every detail of its execution. It will convince all cul- said or written and thought on these subjects. Meantivated Americans, we repeat, of the vitality and vigor time, while some are thinking, others are acting; theand independence of American art; and, we believe, its ories are being put into practice, and in the process effect upon the vast public which will view it will con. heads are being broken, and dynamite is destroying vince them of the genuineness of the nascent American property and life. love of art.
Shall we not, then, says the doubting citizen, symOf course the learning of these great lessons will pathize with “organized labor,” and with reasoned quickly react for good upon the American artist, open- discontent, even if these lead in extreme cases to selfing to him wider fields, creating for him a more sym- inflicted misery and brutal bloodshed? Oh, yes; sympathetic public, exalting him to nobler ambitions, in- pathy is right, if this does not bring infirmity of purspiring him to more strenuous efforts, deepening and pose, and that sofiness of attitude which encourages strengthening his self-respect and his respect for art as violence and crime. Yes, sympathize wherever syma valued factor in the life of the nation. So wisely have pathy may be justly due; but cling to the solid rock of the architectural types for the chief buildings been individual liberty, of obedience to law, and the preserchosen that, we believe, they will do much to deter- vation of the peace! And do so for the very reaso: mine the lines of our architectural work in the future; that in this world it will take so long to straighten and, at all events, no artist who visits Chicago can things out in a way satisfactory to all. The readjustfail to learn the great lesson that in harmony and fra- ment of interests, the experimenting with new ecoternity of effort lies our best hope of a noble artistic nomical and governmental devices, will be such a slow development.
process; there will always be so many apparent causes We shall not speak of the great effect this exhibition of discontent, that, unless by general consent these will have in increasing the respect of foreigners for the matters are arranged by peaceful methods, perpetual people of the United States. This seems to us a very war, secret and bloody plots, infamous assassinations, minor point in comparison with the effect it will have will make life on this planet, to say the least, even upon ourselves. Its national will be of far more vital much more unpleasing than it now is. Violence and importance than its international effect. What we crime, committed in no matter what honest name, are an. chiefly wish to lay stress upon is its claim upon Ameri- archy; and anarchy, in a free country, must be stamped cans as a very beautiful spectacle, and, still more forci- out like the plague,- with the discrimination and the bly, its claim upon Americans as a very instructive remorselessness of justice.
"The Numerical Strength of the Confederate Army.” script Act was passed in April, 1862, two months
after the fall of Donelson. The old regiments were
rapidly filled up, new ones were formed, and through. N THE CENTURY March I an
out the South the greatest activity prevailed. By
1. A SOUTHERN VIEW OF THE QUESTION.
I need a The Numerical Strength for the confederatie time berge supplies of mens began por poulein, belongtis
Army,” in which the author, Mr. A. B. Casselman, ex- by the blockade-runners, and others were manufactured presses the opinion that it would not be difficult to in the newly established workshops of the South. prove that the total number of men enrolled in the Con- The Southern armies were largely increased in nunfederate army from the beginning to the close of the bers and efficiency, and, had the South retained all the war was not far from 1,500,000. He bases this opinion territory that she held in 1861, her armies might have upon the number of troops which, according to his come somewhat nearer than they actually did to the estimate, North Carolina furnished to the Confederacy, figures claimed by Mr. Casselman for 1861 and 1862, his supposition being that North Carolina furnished one viz., 850,000. But it must not be forgotten that before tenth of the strength of the Confederate army. That the passage of the Conscript Act the western Conthis estimate of Mr. Casselman is far too high is easy federate armies had been forced back to the borders to see, if certain facts are taken into consideration. I of Alabama and Mississippi; that the larger portion purpose stating these facts and the conclusions to be of Tennessee was in the grasp of the Union armies, drawn from them.
and that before the month of May the city of New OrThe total population of the eleven States that se- leans, containing more than a third of the white popoceded was 9,100,789, of which 5,446,919 were white lation of Louisiana, was also under Federal control. A and 3,653,870 were colored. But West Virginia, as is large part of Northern and Eastern Virginia, containing well known, seceded from Old Virginia and from the several of the large towns of the State, was also occiConfederacy. The population of West Virginia at that pied by the forces of the Union early in May. The time was 376,488, which, being deducted from the popu. Kentucky campaign of Bragg and Kirby Smith relation of the eleven seceded States, leaves 8,724,301 as covered a part of Middle Tennessee, but at least one the total population of those States. As the white pop- third of the State was in Federal possession during 1862, ulation of West Virginia was at that time about 361, and three fourths of it after the summer of 1863. Early 000, the total white population of the Confederate in 1863 the larger part of Arkansas was occupied by States was 5,085,919. Now North Carolina's white the Federal armies. The first Conscript Act was passed population was 629,942. Only two other States of the April 16, 1862. This embraced all the white men in Confederacy had so large a white population as North the Confederacy between the ages of eighteen and Carolina. These were Tennessee and Virginia, the thirty-five. On September 27 of the same year all former having 826,722 white inhabitants, and the latter white men between the ages of thirty-five and forty. 686,299 (after deducting the white population of West five were placed in the military service for three years. Virginia).
On February 11, 1864, the Conscript Act was further Mr. Casselman states that Major John W. Moore, extended to embrace all white men between the ages late of the 3d North Carolina Battalion, made an esti- of seventeen and fifty. By this time almost the entire mate that his State furnished to the Confederacy 150,- State of Tennessee was occupied by the Federal armies. 000 men ; but admits that Major Moore, after the most Surely it will not be claimed that every man or boy careful investigation, changed his estimate to 125,000. capable of bearing arms throughout all this lost terNow if we take the highest estimate for North Caro- ritory was enrolled in the Confederate armies. The lina, as Mr. Casselman prefers, and assume that each eleven seceded States furnished to the Union 54.000 of the other Confederate States furnished troops in the white troops, of whom 31,000 were furnished by the same ratio, we will find the total number of troops raised State of Tennessee. Of course they should be deducted by the eleven Confederate States to be 1,211,000. from the aggregate of the Confederate armies. Making
But there are some things to be considered which all proper allowances, the South lost the services of Mr. Casselman seems to have lost sight of entirely. more than 200,000 men, who otherwise might have During 1861 it was impossible for the Confederacy to been enrolled in her armies. One million men is thereput large armies into the field, because arms were not fore a liberal estimate for the total enrollment in the to be had. Of more than 300,000 enrolled, many thou- Confederate armies, counted at the very highest fig. sands were in camps of instruction waiting for arms. ures. But in reality 125,000 men is a liberal estimate The result was that in the early spring of 1862 the for the number of troops furnished by North Carolina. Confederate armies were so greatly outnumbered that On this basis, making the same calculations and allow. they could do nothing but retire before the Union ances as before, the Confederacy could not have brought armies as they advanced. Had the other Union gen- into the field, from first to last, including all sorts of erals possessed Grant's energy, and been untram- troops, much more than 800,000 men. meled by their Government, the Confederacy might Mr. Casselman says that the people of the border have been crushed early in 1862. But when the fall of slave States — Kentucky, Maryland, and Missoun Donelson came like a thunderclap, the Confederacy“were not unevenly divided, and gave about an equal was aroused to prompt and energetic action. The Con- number of men to each army." If Mr. Casselman will
give this assertion careful thought, he will be convinced this same conviction that made such heroes of the boys that it is not borne out by the facts. Maryland gave of the Virginia Military Institute at New Market in 34,000 men to the Union armies, Kentucky 51,000, May, 1864, and of the mere striplings of fifteen and sixand Missouri 100,000. Maryland was too firmly held teen years of age at Honey Hill in South Carolina on by the Federal armies to furnish any considerable November 30 of the same year. number of men to the cause of the South. The same Our Northern brethren need not wonder that heavy is true, for the greater part of the war, of Kentucky odds were required to crush the South. The record and Missouri. While there were earnest Southern of the race to which they and we belong proves that sympathizers in Kentucky and Missouri, the great under like circumstances it would take as heavy odds mass of the people in those States stood firmly on the to conquer them. side of the Union. General Albert Sidney Johnston, Macon, Ga.
Joseph T. Derry. in a letter to Mr. Davis written in March, 1862, says
11. MR. CASSELMAN'S REJOINDER. that no enthusiasm for the Confederacy, but hostility, was manifested during his stay in Kentucky: hence In my original paper I alluded to the well-known but few Kentuckians joined his standard. We have fact that the records of the Confederate army are so inthe testimony of Union and Confederate officers for complete that it is impossible to state exactly, or even the statement that the Bragg and Kirby Smith expe- to estimate very closely, its total strength; which, howdition did not add more than a brigade to the Con- ever, I expressed the opinion was not very far from federate strength. Search the published records of the 1,500,000. I alluded also to the fact, equally well undercomposition of the respective armies, and it is easy to stood, and specifically referred to by General Grant in see how greatly the number of Union regiments from his “Memoirs,” that Confederate historians have althose States exceeded the number of Confederate regi- ways understated its strength,— a fact which is further ments. There was never a possibility of enforcing shown, I think, by Mr. Derry's article. In the absence the Conscript Act in those States, and but very little of sufficient available data for a close estimate, I should chance after February, 1862, for any of their citizens not now add further argument but for the reason that who desired so to do, to enlist in the armies of the the subject plainly deserves more attention than it has Confederacy. As to Maryland, there was exceedingly ever received, and hence any discussion which serves to small opportunity for such a thing even in 1861. I bring into prominence the salient facts must result, cannot find from the records that these three States fur- eventually, in benefit to the cause of historical truth. nished even as high as 60,000 men to the Confederacy. Mr. Derry estimates that the total strength of that
“ The principal ex-Confederate historians . army could not have been much above 800,000. This who held high civil or military rank in the Confeder. is a gain of 200,000 over the figures of A. H. Stephens. ate government” were as high-minded and honorable But in this estimate he excludes altogether all of the men as any that this world can boast, and would not troops furnished by four Southern States - West Vir. stoop to misrepresent facts. Their estimate of Confed- ginia, Kentucky, Missouri, and Maryland. He seeks to erate strength (viz., about 700,000 men) comes much justify this by asserting that the number of Confederate nearer the mark than the excessive estimates made by troops from those States did not more than equal the 54,some writers on the other side. The Confederate armies 000 Union troops from the other Southern States, 31,reached their maximum effective strength for the field 000 of whom were from East Tennessee; and that "the during 1862. After that year there was a steady decline great mass of the people of those States were firmly on in their numbers, and all the efforts of the Confederate the side of the Union.” Other Southern writers likegovernment to fill up their depleted ranks were un- wise assume that the border slave States furnished only availing. Adjutant-General S. Cooper says that for a few thousand troops to the Confederate army,- far the last two years of the war the active force present less than to the Union army: an assumption which is in the field was nearly one half less than the returns certainly contrary to the fact, as I shall undertake to called for. As to the incompleteness of Confederate show. muster-rolls, is not this mainly due to losses of official In the Senate of the United States at this time, West papers that must have occurred on the sudden collapse Virginia is represented by two ex-Confederate soldiers; of the Confederacy? But the rolls in possession of the Missouri is represented by an ex-Confederate soldier officers in the field, on which depended the necessary and an ex-member of the Confederate Senate; Kenknowledge of the condition of their commands, were tucky, by an ex-Confederate soldier. Thus, five of the correct, and the official reports of Confederate strength eight United States senators from those States are exin the several battles of the war, as made by their Confederates. Not one of the eight was a Union sol. commanders, can be relied upon as accurate.
dier, nor otherwise distinctively identified as a Unionist. The thought that one is standing between his loved It is remarkable, therefore, that ex-Confederates should home and war's desolation will nerve even a timid heart, be thus preferred for offices of trust and honor, if, as and make strong a feeble arm. What wonder then that Mr. Derry contends, “ the great mass of the people of brave men fired by such a conviction should so often those States were firmly on the side of the Union.” have proved more than a match for superior numbers Four fifths of the people of those States were of South. of men equally as brave, but without the same convic- ern birth. Socially and politically their sympathies were tion of ruin threatening their homes and loved ones? all with the South, with which they were likewise idenIt was the conviction that on them depended the very tified in their material interests, in the institution of slaexistence of Southern civilization, and the salvation of very. Whatever cause existed to justify the South in the their homes from utter ruin, that caused the thousands war affected the border slave States as well as those of of raw recruits in the Seven Days' Battles around Rich- the interior. They had a slave population of 427,000, mond to rival the valor of seasoned veterans. It was representing a value of two hundred million dollars. In
1861 the governors of Kentucky and Missouri both at Two of Mr. Derry's arguments appear to be inconheart favored secession; the latter renounced his office, sistent. In one he assumes, what I concede, that the left his State, and gave his personal services to the Con- Confederate army was composed in a great measure federacy; and subsequently the Confederate Congress of conscripts, whose service in that army, therefore, admitted both of those States as members of the Confed- was involuntary. But on the other hand he contends eracy, to which, with their slaves, they would certainly that this army was inspired by such lofty convictions now belong, had the South succeeded. Politically, of duty that, under this inspiration, they “often have these States constitute, at this time, parts of the “Solid proved more than a match for superior numbers of men South,” the same as Georgia and Virginia, and for the equally as brave, but without the same conviction same reason,- because of the race question, growing of ruin threatening their homes and loved ones." I out of the freeing and enfranchisement of their slaves. regret that Mr. Derry has repeated an argument, which It is indeed true that in the beginning the people of is not uncommon with Southern writers, in which he the border States strongly opposed secession; but the sets up this comparison which seeks to disparage the same was also true of Virginia, North Carolina, and patriotism and sense of duty of the Union army. I other Southern States.
have tried in vain to comprehend how brave and hon. The census of 1860 shows that the three States, Mis- orable men of the South can insist upon such a comsouri, Kentucky, and Maryland, had white males of mili- parison. Let us consider a few facts touching the tary age - i. e., between 18 and 45— to the number of question of the patriotism of the Confederate army. 516,000. Allowing for the youths who attained to the It is an undoubted fact that tens of thousands of the military age from 1861 to 1864 inclusive, the number men in that army had opposed, and voted against, sewould reach nearly 600,000. Of these, 180,000 served cession, and in their hearts believed it to be wrong. in the Union army. There were, therefore, fully 400,000 The State of North Carolina, for instance, never adopted Southern men of military age in those three States, an ordinance of secession by direct popular vote. It who were not in the Union army, as against 180,000 was once submitted to the people of that State, who who were. In the year 1861, most of the important voted against it; although it is true that when the war military operations were those in the border States; was fairly begun they were well united in its support. and throughout the war they were overrun or infested In 1863 and 1864 six regiments of United States by partizan troops, so that the war spirit was more in- troops, organized for service against the Indians, were tense in those States than elsewhere.
composed entirely of Confederate prisoners, who thus These facts, when fairly considered, leave room for returned to an allegiance which in their hearts they only one of two conclusions: either those States fur. had never wholly forsaken. nished, at the lowest calculation, as many men to the In the great battles which decided the war, “ the Southern as to the Northern army, or else the men thought of loved ones at home " wrought no greater whose sympathies and interests were with the South, effect with one army than with the other ; and a main those States, were greatly wanting in military spirit, jority of the troops on either side were not natives of and were without the courage to fight for their convic- the State on whose soil the battle was fought. The tions. The latter conclusion I do not entertain. On the Southern troops displayed as magnificent courage on contrary, I doubt not the truth of the famous declara- the soil of Pennsylvania, at Gettysburg, as they ever tion of a Kentucky senator, that “ Kentucky has its did in Virginia ; and why should they not? quota full on both sides.” And the same was doubtless Putting aside this argument as to the comparative true, at least so far as the South was concerned, of all devotion of the opposing armies, let us turn again to the border slave States. The fact that there are no the legitimate argument of figures. complete records of the Southern troops proves no- The State of North Carolina furnished, in the year thing, and is not a fair or legitimate argument. 1861, forty-two regiments of Confederate volunteers,
Mr. Derry, after having excluded from his estimate the minimum number in a regiment, according to the all the troops from four Southern States, deducts from regulations, being one thousand. Moore's roster premy estimate the further number of 200,000 upon the serves the names of over 32,000 of those who enlisted assertion that in certain portions of Virginia, Tennes- in that year; but allowing for the numerous admitted see, and in the city of New Orleans, which early in deficiencies in the rolls, the number doubtless exceeded 1862 were occupied by the Union forces, the Confed- 40,000. In that first year, after the war had fairly be erate government could not enforce the conscript gun, the South displayed a zeal and enthusiasm in the laws. In this statement he makes little or no allow. conflict beyond that which was then shown in the North. ance for volunteers, but seems to assume that none Counting the troops from the border States, who were served in the Confederate army except the conscripts. all or nearly all volunteers, and who enlisted early in Virginia and Tennessee were in great part the battle the war, the forty-two regiments of North Carolina grounds of the war, and they were overrun and occu- troops constituted perhaps less than a tenth part of pied in turn by both armies. The men in those States, the Confederate army for that first year. The act of more than those of any other, were compelled to serve the Confederate Congress of August 8, 1861, author. on one side or the other, and they did so to the last ized a call for 400,000 volunteers; and without doubt man, as everybody knows. To assert that 200,000 men, the army for that year comprised over 400 regiments principally of Virginia and Tennessee, either from and upward of 400,000 men,-- all volunteers. cowardice or want of convictions, looked idly on at Before the end of 1862, under the conscript laws then the heroic struggle that was being waged upon the soil in force, the North Carolina contingent had more than of those States, taking no part on either side, is so doubled. Moore's roster preserves the names of about manifestly unreasonable, and the accusation is so new, 85,000 men who were enrolled in the years 1861 and that it seems scarcely necessary to deny it.
1862. But this roster omits thousands of names; the
actual number, therefore, must have been almost the men of the South, whose courage and honor have 100,000. And what reason is there to doubt these never been called in question, can sanction the efforts figures, when, after 40,000 volunteers had enlisted from which some have made to juggle with this question, or that State, the Confederate government called for all to disparage the patriotism and courage of the brave who remained between the ages of eighteen and thirty- men who opposed them. five years? These figures indicate, unmistakably, a Con
A.B. Casselman. federate army of more than 800,000 men, before the
“ The Century's " American Artists Series. war was half over, and before that army had met its first great defeat. In the last two years of the war, all know what heroic measures were adopted to fill the It is hard to realize the change which has taken place ranks of that army: how regiments were organized of in American art during the last fifteen years. In 1877 stripling boys and aged men; and how the “ slaves,” the principal exhibition of the country, the National the “free negroes,” and “ other free persons of color” Academy of Design, admitted three works which, alwere conscripted under the act of February 17, 1864, though different in style, were each equally revolutionfor the performance of “ auxiliary military duty.” ary: “The Dowager," by William M. Chase; “A Brit
The eleven States had, in 1860, a free colored popula- tany Woman,” by Alden Weir; and“Revery," by Wyatt tion of 132,660. Of these there were probably 25,000 Eaton. The first of these bore the stamp of Munich, males of military age. In 1864, owing to contraction of the last two that of Paris. Each was the work of an the Confederate lines, the number was less. This item American who, unknown in our art circles, had been in itself, therefore, is insignificant. But the fact that the long enough abroad to assimilate the newest art moveConfederate Congress enacted a law to conscript the few ments of Europe. This was the beginning of the change. scattering free colored men of the South, as well as the In 1877 Wyatt Eaton had been studying art for eleven slaves, serves to illustrate the desperate measures that years: the first five in New York as a student of the were employed to utilize the services of every human National Academy of Design, and as a pupil of the late being within the Southern territory who was capable J. O. Eaton, who had befriended him when, a lad of of carrying a gun or digging a trench.
eighteen, he had left his native village on the shores of Mr. Derry's estimate takes, as the basis of his calcu- Lake Champlain for New York; later, from 1872 to lation, 125,000 as the number of troops furnished by 1876, as a pupil of Gérôme at L'École des Beaux Arts, North Carolina. But that is the lowest possible esti. Paris. During this period he painted the“ Revery” and mate for the troops of that State. I am certain it is too “ Harvester at Rest," both of which were exhibited at low, even if the estimate of 150,000 is too high.
the Salon, the latter being now in Smith College, After a careful review of Mr. Derry's article, I think Northampton, Mass. it will be seen that upon the whole it confirms my main Some of his first work after his return home was done conclusions, in which, however, I do not assume to have for this magazine, including a series of remarkable been exact. It shows that, starting with the lowest basis portraits of Bryant, Emerson, Longfellow, Whittier, of calculation, excluding all the troops of four Southern and Holmes, for which these gentlemen gave him sit. States, and then deducting 200,000 more upon an as- tings, and which were engraved by Cole. These were sumption which seems to impeach the courage and man. perhaps as remarkable for their engraving as for their hood of a large proportion of the men of the South, it drawing, and were a veritable new departure in magstill leaves, according to his figures, an army of “not azine work. He also made a drawing from life of Dr. much more than 800,000.”
J. G. Holland. This, it seems to me, concedes much of what I claim. In 1877 Wyatt Eaton, with Walter Shirlaw, Augustus If impartial investigators shall ever be able fairly to St. Gaudens, and Helena de Kay Gilder, founded the count all the Confederate troops, without such mani. Society of American Artists, of which Mr. Eaton was festly unreasonable deductions, I still think it will be the first secretary and Mr. Shirlaw the first president. found that the number was not very far from 1,500,000. Although Wyatt Eaton is an accomplished landscapeIn any close estimate, due allowance must be made for painter and a brilliant painter of the nude, he is known the 54,000 Union troops from the seceding States. principally by his portraits. Among those who have sat
One thing seems clear. The statements cominonly to him are the Right Rev. Horatio Potter, Mr. Roswell made by leading Southern writers, that the Confeder. Smith, and Sir William Dawson. He also painted a porates numbered in all only six or seven hundred thou- trait of Garfield (after the President's death) for the sand, against over two million Federals, are widely at Union League Club of New York. “ The Man with variance with the facts, and are more extraordinary be- a Violin " (a portrait of the engraver Timothy Cole), cause they are made by those writers who, above all which is printed on page 882 of the present number, others, ought to know the truth. It is impossible that was painted in Florence, Italy.
W. Lewis Fraser.