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chief Warsaine portioned off a corner of his bodies and heads, and leaving only the eyes, hut for us and our supplies, and the chief's nose, and mouth exposed. The continual peswife consented to be photographed. One young tering which the poor brutes suffer keeps them fellow had learned from a Chilkat Indian a few in poor condition; they cannot feed or lie down English words. As we reached the place at mid- in comfort. We kept them hobbled all the seaday, we were naturally astonished to be loudly son when not at work; a necessary precaution, hailed by“Good-night!” This youth used the for if seriously startled or frenzied by torment expression “too late” with varied meaning; it from insects, they might stampede a hundred described a tear in a shirt or a death. I was miles before being overtaken. commenting on the pest of mosquitos, and he The village of Neska-ta-heen is the princiremarked, “ E-koo-gwink kon sissa hit takartoo pal settlement of the Goonennar Indians, the late,” meaning, “A little fire in the tent and the tribe inhabiting that part of Alaska bordered on mosquitos will be too late.'”

the north and east by the Yukon, on the south Our poor horses suffered severely from the by the coast-range, and on the west by the Copmosquitos; such crowds surrounded them that per River. They speak a language somewhat reat times it was difficult at a little distance to sembling the sing-song tongue of the Chinese, make out the definite outline of the animals. and entirely different from that of the coast Any future travelers should supply their horses natives, which is composed of harsh, raspy with thick canvas cloaks, covering securely the sounds, obtained by trying to cork up the throat with the roots of the tongue. Throughout their or eight years old will never lose a chance of conversation peculiar clicking sounds are heard, enjoying a few whiffs from its father's pipe. resembling the sudden rending of a new piece In the disposal of their dead there is an eleof calico. They are peaceably inclined, but are ment of precaution highly commendable. The always weak-minded enough to be influenced departed one is laid on a pile of dried logs that and controlled by the Chilkat Indians, whom have been smeared with grease; a fire is then they instinctively acknowledge as their superi- started, and the few charred remains gathered ors. They are a strangely cold-natured people. up, tied in a small bundle, and stowed away in They have no ways or words of greeting. A one of the neat, brightly painted little houses friend from a far-distant land arrives, and with at the back of the village. On the coast each out any exchange of salutation with the villag- family has its own grave; in the interior they ers, whom he has not seen for many months, are not so particular. It is seldom that one he divests himself of his pack and arms, draws finds people, even among the most savage, his blanket round his shoulders, and squats be- who do not have some respect for their dead, fore the fire till his host acknowledges his pres- excepting, of course, the cannibal tribes of ence by offering him a pot of fish and game and Africa. In making a short trip within a few a big horn spoon. When stimulated and re- miles of this settlement, we were attracted to freshed by the appetizing dish, he will gradually a little clearing by a loud buzzing of flies, and and deliberately unburden himself of news, di- found an Indian lying dead with only a few lating fully upon hunting and trapping, but pass- branches rudely thrown over him. The man ing over deaths and accidents with but slight was poor, and left behind no furs, or guns, or reference; for the price which an Indian ob- blankets to compensate any one for the trouble tains for his black-bear or fox-skin is of more of disposing of the body according to tribal concern than his mother's death.

custom, so he was left where he died on the The gastronomic taste of these people has trail, although his own brother was in the party an extended range. I have seen an Indian at the time of his death. harpoon a salmon, bite a mouthful from just The dog plays a big part in Indian life. In above the nose, then fling it back into the summer he accompanies his master on the trail, stream. Strange to say, the fish swims off as and is harnessed with two little pack-bags in though the loss of that part of its anatomy which is stored away about twenty-five pounds' were no inconvenience. I remember at one weight, generally of shot, so that in crossing the time visiting a little rocky island which had stream no damage can be done. In the winter been taken possession of by a flock of gulls, they draw the sleighs. These poor animals are and we gathered a lot of eggs. It was a little very badly treated at all times. When an Inlate in the season, however, and only a few dian child is out of temper he attacks a dog, were really fresh. An old Indian we had with pinches him, screws his ears round, or beats him us at the time watched us with disdainful gaze with a stick. Only during a few months in the as we selected the good and discarded the bad. summer do the dogs get enough to eat. When Then, as if to rebuke our fastidiousness and the salmon are running they live on raw fish, lack of economy, he broke half a dozen in his but during the remainder of the year they have pan; good, bad, and indifferent were then all to be contented with scraps of skin and bone. mixed up in an omelet to his liking. It is When in good condition they are fine-looking a crude palate that enjoys the delicious wild animals, with a wolfish head and body, and a strawberry served in rancid fat, yet to the In- coat resembling that of a collie. As a rule dian this fruit is insipid unless thus dressed. want of food and hard treatment keep them Antiquated fish-heads are a favorite dish; they very lean. They are equipped with strange diare kept in wooden troughs for several weeks gestive organs; at one time one of them ate at before they are thought to be fit for eating. one mealthree courses, which deprived us of our This dish is produced only upon some impor- only piece of soap, the remains of a towel, and tant occasion warranting a banquet. When eat- a goodly slice of Dalton's hat. On another occaing meat they toast it in big long strips, then sion the leathers of our oars,thickly studded with stuff as much as possible into their mouths, and copper tacks, were torn off and eaten by a dog. cut off each bite close to the lips with their While at Neska-ta-heen I witnessed the cereknives. No people in the world are more ad- mony of the medicine-man expelling from a dicted to the use of tobacco; they are inces- sick woman the evil spirit which was attacksantly indulging in the narcotic in some form ing her. He was dressed in beaded buckskins or other. They smoke, chew, and plaster their liberally fringed, and wore a blanket around his teeth and gums with a paste made of damp shoulders; a few little charms hung about his ened snuff and ashes; they even sleep with to- neck, and he held a wooden rattle. The patient bacco in their mouths. Men and women are was lying on a robe of sheepskins in the center equally devoted to the weed, and a child seven of the hut, and a crowd of natives were sittin

Vol. XLIV.-89-90.

at the sides. All were smoking, and a big fire interior have been prevented by them from gowas blazing, creating an atmosphere more to ing to the coast. be dreaded than the evil spirit. The medicine- From this point valleys of comparatively man approached the woman and uttered in- open country stretch away to the four quarters cantations, at first slowly and deliberately; but of the compass: to the east lies the way we his speech and actions became more and more had just traveled over; the valley of the Alseck excited as he danced and hopped about, imita- River runs south to the Pacific Ocean; to the ting birds and animals. He looked truly drama- west there is a way to the back of Mt. St. Elias, tic as he leaned over the woman, and, clutching and lakes Dassar-Dee-Ash and 1-She-Ik lie to fiercely with one hand at some unseen object, the north. Future research must tell what treapointed tremblingly with the other to the aper- sures lie concealed in these unknown regions. ture in the roof, as if grabbing the evil spirit and From the coast to Neska-ta-heen we had suggesting a means ofexit. At intervals he would taken the Indian trail as a basis, following it sing, accompanied by the beating of a drum when good, and, as far as possible, avoiding its and the voices of his audience. His first song bad features. After that experience, we conreferred to a raven, and while he sang he spread cluded that we could take a fully loaded packhis blanket across his shoulders and hopped train from the sea to this village in seven days. about and “cawed” in a way very suggestive Our successful experiment wrests from the Chilof that bird. The chorus of this song ran thus: kat Indians the control of the road to the inte.

rior; the bolted gate hitherto guarded by them, Ann joo chay na tay na koo na hee;

to the exclusion of enterprise and progress, has Ah ah ah, yeah; yeah, ah ah ah;

swung back at the approach of the packhorse. the meaning of which is that he has hunted We tried our hardest to get guides at Neskathroughout the village and has found no one ta-heen to pilot us to the far interior, but they practising witchcraft. His actions and incanta- would not seriously entertain our proposal, tions increased in violence till they became a though we offered most generous remuneration. veritable frenzy, and he fell groaning to the They dared not go to the White River, which earth. This finale suggested that he had suc- we wished to reach; the Indians of that region ceeded in ridding the sick woman's body of being always on the war-path. In former days the evil one—and the audience went away. the latter had made raids on this settlement The medicine-man plays a big part in the life and killed off the natives; in fact the present of the natives, and on account of his power he small population of about a hundred at Neskais the most dangerous influence with which a ta-heen was attributed to fights with the Yookay white traveler has to contend. The credulous Donner people dwelling on the banks of the natives have confidence in his power. They White River. They pictured to us a frightful will give him skins and furs, which they have list of hideous obstacles to overcome — hostile been gathering for months during the winter, natives, bottomless swamps, canons, glaciers, in return for some paltry charm to protect them and swollen torrents. Should we continue our against the ills which beset mankind. A fever course, we might possibly reach this far-away or a swelling will disappear if he only blows land and then be killed by the hostile Indians, on the sufferer, and an ugly gash from a bear's and it was so far that we could not get back claw will heal at once under the same treat- over the divide to the coast before winter set in, ment. It is a form of faith-cure. They believe and we and our horses would perish. They their medicine-man obtains control over birds begged us to change our plans and to make a and animals, extracts their cunning, and allies journey through some safer part of the land, this with his own ability, thus forming a power- and to avail ourselves of their considerate ful combination which they credit with super- guidance at two dollars a day and board. natural power.

I was able to extract a lot of crude topoNeska-ta-heen is a most important rendez- graphical information from these natives; the vous. During the winter the natives of the in- novelty of pencil and paper and judicious little terior roam over all the land in small parties, donations of tobacco threw them off their guard. hunting and trapping, but return here with By this means I gained a knowledge of their their spoils of black and brown bear, black, trails that proved of the utmost value to us cross, gray, white, and red fox, wolverine, land- in our advance. I cross-questioned them most otter, mink, lynx, beaver, etc., and exchange fully, and learned of unmistakable landmarks them for blankets, guns, powder, and tobacco, and bearings; and when the natives refused which the Chilkat Indians bring to them from to accompany us as guides, their scribblings of the coast. The latter have always enjoyed a valleys, hills, and lakes availed to keep us on monopoly of this trade, and the natives of the our course to the far interior of Alaska.

E. J. Glave,

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CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS.

By Emilio CASTELAR.

V. THE NEW WORLD.

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HERE are longings which touching his emotions, as well at the sight of

can find expression only in the dim taper that told of human life amid the music, and ideas which wastes as when he beheld the first land that poesy alone may convey. proved the truth of his predictions. A monkAs human speech, crea- ish chronicler, in the solitude of his cell, could tion's divinest work though scarce have set down more curtly the acts of it be, is too weak to voice other men than has Columbus his own deeds.

the infinite intensity of love, so history, although showing forth the mind of “At the second hour," he says, “after midman as the universe proclaims its Maker, can night, the land appeared, two leagues distant. never in its cold analysis rise to the level of All sails were furled, leaving only the stormsail

, poetry, which after all is the sole human me- which is the squaresail without bonnets, and they dium capable of fitly depicting

the feelings of lay hove-to awaiting the day, Friday, when they

reached one of the Lucayos, which in the Indian Columbus in presence of those islands — the tongue was called Guanahaní. Soon naked men ecstatic rapture of sight and sense, the ming- were seen, and the admiral went ashore in the ling of all his being with the virgin life there long boat, with Martin Alonso Pinzon and revealed amid blue seas and skies, as though it Vicente Yáñez, his brother, who was captain of were the work of his own soul and the crystalli- the Niña. The admiral displayed the royal stanzation of his great purpose.

dard, and the captains the two flags of the green Something akin to the feelings of Him who cross, which the admiral carried on all the ships looked upon his work and saw that it was good letter a crown, one on one side of the cross and the

as signals, bearing an F and a Y, and above each must have been in the mind of Columbus when other on the other. On reaching shore they saw he gazed upon those islands, and in the ecstasy very green trees, and much water, and fruits of of his joy found them fair beyond the fondest divers kinds. The admiral summoned the two imaginings of his fancy. Yet Columbus is silent captains with the others who went ashore, and Voemisode scovedo the scrivener of all the fleet, of the waters, a sweeter breath of bloom and doine curigu sanchez of Segovia, and bade them savor of fruitage, and such rich dyes on the

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ain and witness how he in presence of far horizon as enraptured him, and filled his Encantil was taking and of right did take posses- body with a new life and his soul with poesy. von vi said isiand for the king and for the queen, Among its vegetable growths he particularly his lords, making all the requisite declarations as is more fully set forth in the minutes which were

noted the lign-aloe, and among animals the there drawn up."

iguana. As the tree comes from eastern Asia,

Columbus gave close heed to it, and investiCould the tale be more simply told? Does gated its abundance in those fair new-found this recital, as bald as a bill of lading or a busi- fields. With knotty trunk and fleshy leaves, its ness letter, show any trace of the emotion foliage dark-colored and its fruit resembling which underlies other passages of the journal? cherries, its sap bitter and the gum exuding

Halting only three days in the first-found from its fibers and the perfume shed by its island, Columbus passed on to others, giving wood very fragrant, it was medicinally known them names typical of his thoughts and aims. in those times, as Columbus notes in his diary – The first he named San Salvador, in homage to that record of whatever singular object met his our Lord, whose saving arm had upheld him in keen scrutiny. No less worthy of note was the his sorest need; the second he called Santa iguana, an exclusive amphibious product of María de la Concepcion, a name invoked by those shores, and unknown in our own land, him throughout the voyage, and to the holy ef- yielding a medicinal oil, and eaten by the naficacy of which he attributed his good hap in tives and even by the discoverers themselves. escaping storm and sickness hitherto; the third Las Casas says they saw it eaten, but partook he christened Fernandina, as a tribute to his not of so repulsive a food; but Acosta, in his king, a proof that the monarch had not been “History of the Indies,” after mentioning sev. as hostile to Columbus as a certain historical eral other articles of food, exclaims, “Much school maliciously supposes, or that, if he had more toothsome is the iguana, although foul been, Columbus sought his future favor and to look upon, for it is like the lizard of Spain.” consigned the past to oblivion; to the fourth he In traversing those seas, two contradictory imgave the name which he might well have used pressions possessed the discoverer — his infinite at first, or at least employed before the king's, delight with what he beheld and his bitter disthe name of Isabella. Thus the discoverer appointment at finding nowhere the gold he went on, in the effusive joy of his first com- coveted. He notes the products brought by munings with this renewed Eden-world of na- the savages, and at each step very ingenuously ture, fulfilling by the giving of these names the and sincerely bewails the scarcity of the wisheddebts of gratitude he owed.

for precious metal. The first tribe he met ofIsland after island rose before him, yet he fered him balls of cotton yarn, gay parrots, came not to any continent, although in his ig- arrows,“ and other trifles which it were tedious norance of the true extent of the ocean he to write down"; and although he inquired diliimagined himself at the threshold of Eastern gently if they had any gold, and noted how Asia, and about to realize his lifelong dream some of them wore a bit of it suspended from of finding the Indian empire. Feverishly he their pierced nostrils, he found nothing of value. sought the one factor that could lend value to He asked the bedizened natives whence they his discovery, but gold was rare in those isl. procured their gold, and from their responses, ands, which yielded but bloom and fruitage, made in signs, not words, he inferred the exisheaped as by enchantment upon the billows tence of golden sands in the vicinity, and vases of the Atlantic.

or jars of gold in neighboring lands that lay to But let us follow the track of the discoverer. the southward and were ruled by a powerful On October 12 Columbus sighted the island of monarch. Columbus sought to induce his inSan Salvador. On the 15th, he sailed toward formants to guide him to this new El Dorado, the island he named Santa Maria, and thence but they soon convinced him that they knew toward Fernandina. October 19, he discovered nothing whatever about the journey. Still, Isabella. In the first two of these he was es- all that he learned and saw strengthened his pecially struck by the primitive and natural conviction that his true course lay toward the state of the islanders, naked yet not ashamed, south, and he determined to steer thither, in who gazed upon the strange objects presented the firm belief that he should speedily encounto their view with a childlike curiosity; in the ter the island of Cipango (Japan), so minutely second he remarked, as we have seen, an as- described by Marco Polo as a rich mine of cent in the scale of life denoted by the pro- precious metals, situated some fifteen hundred

rudimentary industry; in the third miles from the mainland of India. These naurity of atmosphere, a mysterious tives of San Salvador swam like tritons about

diation, a crystalline transparency his ships, offering limpid water and luscious

ducts

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