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longitudinal aisles, each covered with a double-pitched roof so devised that, by a system of skylights and clearstories, abundant light should be provided for the area beneath. These three aisles are also in two stories, with an opening in the second story under the center aisle to admit light to the main floor beneath. Thus the entire space of nine acres and a half is covered and lighted, and the galleries furnish about five additional acres of floor space.
This adjustment of the plan is entirely in the interests of the agricultural exposition, with no unnecessary concessions to interior architectural effect. But this effect has nevertheless been obtained by the wide and lofty central naves, which invite the visitors to proceed on the axial lines of the building for a general survey of its contents, without distractions, and by the system of aisles on each hand, which enables them to pursue their investigations in detail with the least possible chance of confusion. The arrangement also facilitates the work of classification, and the whole presents
A mighty maze, but not without a plan.
The corps du bâtiment inclosing the area is 96 feet wide on the long sides and 48 feet wide on the shorter sides. Where these come together at the angles of the building they naturally constitute corner pavilions, 48 feet wide on the long fronts and 96 on the short fronts; and where the naves, 95 feet wide, with their attendant aisles, 2372 feet wide, encounter the center of each façade, a central pavilion of about 118 feet results, which, from its connection with the axial line or main avenue, becomes the main porch of that side.
The architects thus found imposed upon each of their four façades the conventional arrangement of a central pavilion and corner pavilions of certain specified dimensions, with curtain-walls between. Under the agreement of the architects of the court structures, a continuous covered ambulatory or portico was required inside the building line, and there was prescribed a height of 60 feet for the main cornice. They considered that the dignity of their theme would be best expressed by the use of a colossal Corinthian order, very richly Kenyon Coy - 1842. from a photograph from oriquine fesileby P. Mwything embellished, as the principal vehicle of architectural expression in their design.
Accordingly they determined to occupy the But the equal spaces of curtain-wall between whole required height with columns or pilasters these great pilastered pavilions and piers still 50 feet high, without pedestals, and supporting constitute, in the aggregate, the larger part of an entablature 10 feet high, the whole resting the frontage. The spacing of structural interior directly upon the terrace, 40 feet wide, on which supports generates a corresponding division of their building stands. But the north front, as each of these wall-spaces into three equal bays; viewed from the opposite side of the basin, is the necessity of obtaining for the interior as provided with an effective and majestic stylo- much light as possible suggests the piercing of bate in the face-walls of the two terraces which each bay with a great arch, framed with bronzed run parallel with it, the lower one being washed grilles for windows; the two-storied division by the waters of the great basin, and the upper of the interior imposes a horizontal division of being crowned by a balustrade with vases and these arches by a subordinate entablature on statues, a rostral column standing at each end. a line with the gallery floors; and to provide, To emphasize this relation of the terraces to as agreed, for an outside ambulatory within the the façade, a broad staircase, corresponding in building lines, the space underneath must be width to the projecting columnar portico of the left open, and this entablature is supported in central pavilion, descends to the water's edge, each bay by an open screen of two subordinate after the manner of the landings in front of the columns, behind which the portico required palaces of Venice. Now it was evident that to traverses the whole length of each front. In extend a colossal order along the whole front, fact, this inferior order of columns constitutes without interruption, would be monotonous and a closely set open colonnade, practically conmechanical. It would force a formula — noble tinuous between the greater order of pilasters and majestic, indeed, but still a formula—into and columns in the pavilions, giving to the verpredominance over the more important subject tical elements of the composition a delicate and matter of the composition. Therefore they con- refined contrast of harmony and scale hardly cluded to group their great pilasters at points possible in a style less highly organized. But where the main divisions of the plan would be these vertical elements are always carefully subbest illustrated. The central pavilion admitted ordinated to the horizontal lines of the entabeight pilasters, and each of the corner pavilions latures. In this way the plans and elevations four, on the main front. But this concentration developed together with mutual concessions, of the order at three points on the long façades, and, at the same time, the whole arrangement, the middle and the ends, gave such long in- with its detail of buttress-like engaged coltervals between that the composition became umns, continuous with those of the ambudisjointed and straggling. It was clear that the latory and supporting statues between the necessary unity could be obtained only by some arches, follows the conventions of imperial sort of repetition of the order in these interme- Roman architecture. diate curtain-walls. The plan was devised with Now each pier or buttress and pavilion must forethought for this emergency, for it provided have its special treatment in respect to the skyfor a series of subordinate transverse passages, line. From an academical point of view, a or aisles, across the building, ending in secon- fitting culmination for the center of an archidary doorways, or vomitories, on the façades, tectural composition so heroic in size and so occurring three times in each curtain-wall at full of detail is some form of dome. From a equal intervals. These doorways furnish a mo- poetical standpoint, an appropriate main vestive for repetition of the order in two pilasters for tibule to a structure devoted to an exhibition each, thus forming smaller pavilions, or, more of agriculture is a temple to Ceres. The conproperly, piers; so that the pilasters occur dis- ditions of the plan made it possible to realize continuously along the frontage in a manner to this idea in a circular domical chamber, 78 feet satisfy at once the practical and the esthetic in diameter and 129 feet high within, treated considerations involved in the problem. This with the order of the exterior in eight pairs of repetition is like the recurrence of a leading columns, which surround and enshrine the cenmotive or theme in a fugue, which is set forth in tral statue of the goddess. Her benignand beaufull at one point and repeated at others by hints tiful presence may serve in a brief interval of of various emphasis. In the architectural com- unconscious influence to bring the distracted position the main statement, with eight pilasters, minds of the visitors, as they hurry past, into occurs very properly in the center; the secon- some degree of sympathy with the agricultural dary statement, with four pilasters, at the ends; collections within. To this vestibule, the design and the third, of minor importance, with two pil- of which is completed and enriched by paintasters, at three intermediate points. Thus, also, ings, is applied a projecting exterior portico of the various points of ingress and egress along four detached columns, flanked by solid wings, the façades are illustrated with a varying empha- which are treated with pilasters; the whole being sis proportioned to their varying importance. surmounted by an attic order, decorated with
winged figures, somewhat like those known as in exterior dimensions, 1687 feet long, north and the“ Incantada" at Salonica, anda central pedi- south, and 787 feet in width. Its southern end, ment, peopled with symbolic sculpture, so dis- forming a part of the inclosure of the great posed and grouped as to lead the eye upward court, was necessarily subjected to the same to a circular podium or drum, supporting a low, conditions regarding architectural style and spreading dome, the total effect being somewhat scale as were agreed upon for the other strucsimilar to that of the Roman Pantheon. Each tures around the quadrangle, and these condibuttress along the fronts is crowned with a co- tions were extended so as to control the other lossal group, figurative of pastoral or agricul- façades. The interposition of an architectural tural life, and each of the corner pavilions is wall nearly 1700 feet long, and but little over roofed with an attic or podium correspond- 60 feet high, between the lake and the flat dising to that in the central pavilion, supporting trict known as the lagoon would have the efa low-stepped pyramid, accompanied at its base fect of transforming the whole aspect of the by sculptured groups and eagles, and crowned Park as viewed from any point on land or waabove by a composition of figures holding aloft ter. The importance of an adequate treatment a globe.
of this vast scheme was obvious. The return walls on the east, toward the Mr. George B. Post of New York, the archiLake, and on the west, toward the minor court tect of the building, in considering its general between the Agriculture and Machinery build- plan, promptly fell upon the scheme of convertings, grow without apparent effort from the con- ing its area into a court by surrounding it with ditions of the plan, as described. The corner a continuous building, and of cutting this court pavilions are here made more important than in twain with a central circular structure; thus those of the main front, and the central pavilion recalling, but on an immensely larger scale, is much subordinated, while the intermediate a much admired disposition of Philibert Decurtain-walls are composed like those of the lorme in his first project for the palace of the front, but with only one repetition of the triple- Tuileries as a residence for Catherine de Médarched bay on each side of the center. The west icis. But even with such subdivisions the scheme front responds to its neighbor on the opposite was still so heroic in dimension that no such side of the canal with harmonious contrast, correspondence as this could be of the slightand with a certain high-bred courtesy, in which est avail in furnishing him with types of archieach seems to aid and to receive aid from the tectural treatment. He found that he must work other.
in regions quite removed from historical expeIn its various combinations, the exterior rience. With his assumed module of 25 feet, sculpture, which is the work of Mr. Philip Mar- he found that he could carry around the four tiny of New York, is intended to symbolize sides of his area of thirty acres a building combucolic labor: the central groups typifying hu- posed of a nave 107 feet 9 inches wide and 114 man efforts in agriculture; those next the center feet high, covered with a pitched roof with showing the horse held in restraint by grooms; clearstories, and supported on each side by twoand those nearer the outward wings exhibiting storied aisles, or lean-tos, 45 feet wide. This the ox, urged forward, dragging the elementary arrangement of plan permitted ready illuminabeam-plow of Virgil.
tion, easy classification, and convenient comThe whole architectural mass may be traced munication. It left an interior quadrangle 1237 rather to the Palatine Mount than to the influ- feet long and 337 feet wide. The domical hall ence of Palladio or Vignola, and it presents not in the center of this space was planned to be only in scale and extent, but in its serious beauty, 260 feet in clear diameter and 160 feet high, in its splendor of enrichment and refinement of surrounded, like the other parts of the building, detail, a model of imperial luxury and pomp, with two-storied aisles, or lean-tos, 45 feet wide. borrowed to adorn the peaceful triumph of the These circular aisles, compared with the seatlatest of civilizations.
ing space of the Roman Colosseum, would have
inclosed an area largely in excess of that great That department of the Exposition classi- arena. The two courts thus obtained Mr. Post fied as “ Manufactures and the Liberal Arts” proposed to treat as gardens with fountains and embraces so many and such varied industrial kiosks, or, if more space should be needed for interests, that the building to accommodate it exhibition purposes, to occupy them with a semust be by far the most spacious in Jackson ries of covered sheds. Park. The thirty acres which were assigned to But as the practical needs of this important it, though including an area much larger than and comprehensive part of the Exposition bethat assigned to a single department in any pre- came more evident, it was finally concluded to vious Exposition, will need to be carefully hus- abandon the central dome, and to convert the banded to meet the requirements for space un- whole interior court into the largest unencum. der this head. The site admitted of a building, bered hall ever constructed, by covering it with