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volution; we mean the abdication of the chief command by General Washington, before the Congress assembled at Annapolis. Whoever, in fact, will meditate upon all the recollections and the hopes connected with this proceeding, must admit, that it exhibited a more august and affecting spectacle, than any other to be found, either in the exhibitions of History, or in the creations of poetic fancy.

What, if we admit the superiority of moral over every other species of grandeur, when compared to this resignation of General Washington, was that of Charles the fifth, upon which the historian Robertson descants with so much


of sentiment and language? Upon which of these two objects—upon the American President in his retirement, or upon Bonaparte in his Imperial mantle,-does even the eye of an Italian writer dwell with most complacency? We consider it as fortunate for the present generation, that they have within their own memory a spectacle like our revolution, and such an example as that of Washington, to refresh and revive the moral sense, which pines and withers at the aspect of the scenes lately acted in France, and of the character of the sovereign of the European Continent. It is truly a merciful and admirable dispensation of Divine Providence, that there should be placed, by the side of the gigantic depravity now exhibited in the other hemisphere, a moral excellence of proportions not less colossal, to vindicate as it were, his own moral government of man, and the reputation of human virtue.

We consider it also as an edifying tribute paid by vice to virtue, and as a signal testimony in favour of the merits of our revolution, and of the character of Washington, that a panegyric upon either, of the nature of the one which this history affords, should be permitted to issue from the press in France. It has become a systematic plan with the French ruler, and the main drift of almost all the histories now published in Paris, to vilify the free governments which have at any time existed in modern Europe, and to decry the illustrious achievements and models of patriotism, that antiquity presents to the reverence and imitation of the wise and the good. But there is something so pure and venerable in the revolutionary history of this country, --so preeminently exalted, and so victoriously sacred in the character of the great American patriotthat they have triumphed over the ferocious and malignant spirit of a despotism, which studiously proscribes the exhibition of every other picture of republican or civic virtue, and to which they are, nevertheless, a heavier reproach, and a more humiliating contrast, than any other historical tissue that human actions or human character can furnish.

We cannot, moreover, refrain from remarking, that we in. voluntarily feel every commendation, which is pronounced abroad, upon the actors of our revolution, and every narrative of their noble history, as a reproach in some respects to those, who are now reaping the rich harvest of their toil. The more exalted their services and virtues, the greater is the shame which attaches to this country, for the species of oblivion into which both their names and their example appear to have fallen. If we continue to pursue the path which we have trod. den for the three last years, we shall, instead of securing the advantages which they won, and of rendering liberty venerable in the eyes of all mankind, -as it is yet fully in our power to do,-not only forfeit our inheritance of felicity and glory, but for ever shame republican freedom from the face of the earth. Although we have the testimony of our senses to assure us of the fact, it is yet scarcely credible to our imagination, that this country should stand in its present attitude towards France; that there should exist in the United States, at this moment, no great national memorial of Washington and his associates;—or that there should not be found in the records of our legislature, a solemn decree for the periodi. cal commemoration, by the whole country, of their virtues and exploits.* The loss and the ignominy are for us: They cannot

The American public is by no means indifferent to the disgrace which this circumstance entails, nor unwilling to remove it.-We recollect with pleasure, the sensations excited among a numerous auditory of this city, by the following eloquent passage, in the able discourse pronounced by Joseph Hopkinson, esq. at the late anniversary meeting of the Pennsylvania Aca.. demy of the Fine Arts.

“ But shall any future patriot hope to have his memory perpetuated, “ when Washington lies neglected? Not a stone tells the stranger where “ the hero is laid. No proud column declares that his country is grateful. If “ but an infant perish, even before its smiles have touched a parent's heart, “yet a parent's love marks with some honour the earth that covers it: 'Tis the last tribute which the humblest pay to the most humble.

“ Yet e'en these bones from insult to protect,
“ Some frail memorial still erected nigh;
“ With uncouth rhymes and shapeless sculpture deck'd;

“ Implores the passing tribute of a sigh." “The stranger who, in days to come, shall visit our shore, will exclaim, “ show me the statue of your Washington, that I may contemplate the ma“ jestic form that encompassed his mighty soul; that I may gaze upon those “ features once lighted with every virtue; and learn to love virtue as I be. “ hold them. Alas! there is no such statue. Lead me then, American, to “ the tomb your country has provided for her deliverer; to the everlasting “ monument she has erected to his fame. Alas! his country has not given Vol. I.

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suffer in their fame, as long as there remain in the world, any genuine' mementos of the present century. With regard to them, we may use the beautiful language which is ascribed by the historian Thucydides to Pericles, when commemorating the merits of those, who fought the battles of Athens.

“ Bestowing thus their lives on the public, they have every one received a praise that will never decay;-a sepulchre " that will always be most magnificent: not that in which their “bonės lie mouldering, but that in which their fame is pre“ served, to be, on every occasion, where honour is the theme, “ eternally remembered. This whole earth is the sepulchre “ of illustrious men; nor is it the inscription on the columns “ in their native soil alone that shows their merit, but the me“ morial of them, better, than all inscriptions, in every foreign “nation, reposited more durably in universal remembrance,

than on their tombs."

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Essai historique sur la puissance temporelle des Papes, sur

l'abus qu'ils ont fait de leur ministere spirituel, et sur les guerres qu'ils ont déclarées aux souverains, spécialement à ceux qui avoient la prépondérance en Italie: Ouvrage traduct de l'Espagnol.

A work of a very remarkable character, and probably destined as the herali of important innovations in religion, appeared in Paris, in the commencement of the last spring. It is entitied " An historical essay upon the temporal power of the “ Popes, upon the abuse which they have made of their spi“ ritual ministry, upon the wars which they have declared

against sovereigns, and particularly against those who have

enjoyed a preponderance in Italy.It consists of twelve bulky chapters, and embraces a full review of the origin of the papal power, and of the progress and exercise of that power, down to the present time. The obvious purport of every page is to vilify the apostolical see, and the most indefatigable industry, as well as a very profound erudition, have been employed, in ransacking the obscure and remote archives of

“him a tomb; she has erected no monument to his fame. His grave is in the “bosom of his own soil, and, the cedar, that was watered by his hand, is all " that rests upon it. Tell me whence is this inhuman supineness? Is it "envi, jealousy, or ingratitude? Or is it that, in the great struggle for "power and place, every thing else is forgotten; every noble, generous, " and national sc ntiment disregarded or despised? Whaterer be the cause, "the curse of ingratitude is upon us until it be removed.”

history, for every instance of usurpation, or private depravity, that can serve to excite an abhorrence for the dominion and character of the whole line of popes. The work was very industriously and rapidly circulated throughout France, and at first announced, as a translation from a Spanish volume published nine years ago. The following notice is taken of this deception, in a very elaborate, and manifestly official review of the work, which occupies more than thirty pages in the Mercure de France. “ Certainly the “ French translator is an experienced and veteran writer;ma “ style so elegant, animated and free, is not that of a man com“pelled to pursue the thoughts of another.-It must also “be admitted that this Spanish author possessed a inind' “singularly enlightened, for a country in which the inquisition “ existed-Our readers will decide upon this point, when they “ have before them, that full analysis of the work, which is re“quired from us by the extraordinary merit of the execution, " the vast importance of the subject, and the nature of the present crisis.And again, in alluding to this affectation of concealment, the official proneurs proceed in the following strain. “ Will the author continue to shelter himself under his “ Spanish cloak? Are works of this high order usually written " by those, who have studied at Salamanca or Alcala? Shall we “not soon be permitted publicly to recognise in our author,

of the most enlightened, as well as modest men, that has “ever appeared in our legislative assemblies;-one of the

most comprehensive minds that adorns the Institute of “ France; one of the most accomplished writers, of whom our “ literature can boast at this time?"

We know not who this modest man is, but he certainly merits the eulogium as far as it goes, which his coy reviewers pronounce upon him. The French government has made a most judicious selection in the author of this historical essay, as one of the ablest instruments in the empire, for the accomplishment of its purpose of overwhelming, not only the apostolical see, but the Catholic religion, with obloquy and opprobrium. He has executed his task with all possible ingenuity, and employs his copious resources of learning, and his strong powers of sarcasm, with something of the eloquence, and more than all the insidious malignancy, which characterize the attacks that Gibbon has made upon christianity. The Spanish mask which the author assumes, was intended to have the effect, of promoting the circulation, and strengthening the authority of his book, not only among the less sagacious class of readers in France, but particularly among those of Italy and


Germany, where a philippic against the Catholic religion, would be opened with less suspicion, and perused with more deference, when supposed to come from a Spanish author of nine years back, than when announced as the work of a member of the legislative

body of Paris. Or, perhaps, it is intended to palm upon the Spanish nation a Spanish version of this work, as an original, in order to render it more acceptable to a people, who have no very exquisite relish either for French theology, or French government.

Two or three short extracts will serve to show the manner and spirit of this writer. Speaking of Hildebrand so celebrated in the ecclesiastical annals; who governed the church under six different pontiffs, and afterwards ascended the papal throne himself, under the name of Gregory the seventh, he says,

“ C'était à l'agrandissement illimité de la puissance ponti“ ficale, bien plus qu'à son élévation personelle, que l'entraî. “ naient ses opinions et son caractère. On ne remarque

dans " sa conduite aucun de ces ménagemens que l'intérêt privé u conseille: elle a toute la roideur d'un système inflexible, dont “ il n'est jamais permis de compromettre l'intégrité, par des " concessions ou des complaisances. Son zèle qui n'est pas “ seulement actif, mais audacieux, opiniâtre, inconsidéré, “ lui vient d'une persuasion incurable. Hildebrand aurait été “ le martyr de la théocratie, si les circonstances l'eussent

exigé; et il ne s'en fallut guère. Comme tous les enthousi. " astes rigides, il se crut désintéréssé, et fut sans remords le “ fléau du monde. Sans doute que les intérêts sont le mobile “ des actions humaines; mais le triomphe d'une opinion est “ aussi un intérêt;-ét sacrifier à celui-là tous les autres, “ c'est; dans chaque siècle, la destinée de quelques hommes. “ Il en est qui, attentifs à ne rien troubler autour d'eux, ne "compromettent que leurs propres jouisances; ceux-là sont “ d'autant plus excusables que c'est peut être à la vérité

qu'ils offrent un st pur et si modeste sacrifice. D'autres,

comme Hildebrand, pensent acquérir, par les privations “ qu'ils s'imposent, le droit d'ébranler et de tourmenter les

peuples; et leurs sombres erreurs coûtent des désastres à la « terre.”

And again after having traced the history and character of Innocent the third, he expresses himself thus.

“ Tous les historiens rapportent que, dans une vision mys“ térieuse, saint Lutgarde vit Innocent III. au milieu des “flammes, et que lui ayant demandé pourquoi il était ainsi

tourmenté, le pontife lui répondit qu'il continuerait de “ l'être jusque'au jour de jugement, pour trois crimes qui

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