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AFFIRMATIVE ACTION AND EQUAL PROTECTION

HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE CONSTITUTION

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY

UNITED STATES SENATE
NINETY-SEVENTH CONGRESS

FIRST SESSION

ON

S.J. Res. 41
A JOINT RESOLUTION PROPOSING AN AMENDMENT TO THE
CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES RELATING TO

AFFIRMATION ACTION

MAY 4, JUNE 11, 18, AND JULY 16, 1981

Serial No. J-97-24

Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary

0.8. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

WASHINGTON: 1983

84-230 O

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY

STROM THURMOND, South Carolina, Chairman
CHARLES MCC. MATHIAS, JR., Maryland JOSEPH R. BIDEN, JR., Delaware
PAUL LAXALT, Nevada

EDWARD M. KENNEDY, Massachusetts ORRIN G. HATCH, Utah

ROBERT C. BYRD, West Virginia ROBERT DOLE, Kansas

HOWARD M. METZENBAUM, Ohio ALAN K. SIMPSON, Wyoming

DENNIS DECONCINI, Arizona JOHN P. EAST, North Carolina

PATRICK J. LEAHY, Vermont CHARLES E. GRASSLEY, Iowa

MAX BAUCUS, Montana JEREMIAH DENTON, Alabama

HOWELL HEFLIN, Alabama
ARLEN SPECTER, Pennsylvania

VINTON DEVANE LIDE, Chief Counsel
QUENTIN CROMMELIN, Jr., Staff Director

SUBCOMMITTEE ON THE CONSTITUTION

ORRIN G. HATCH, Utah, Chairman
STROM THURMOND, South Carolina DENNIS DECONCINI, Arizona
CHARLES E. GRASSLEY, Iowa

PATRICK J. LEAHY, Vermont
THOMAS D. PARRY, Chief Counsel
STEPHEN J. MARKMAN, General Counsel and Staff Director

RANDALL RADER, Counsel
ROBERT FEIDLER, Minority Counsel

(11)

CONTENTS

420

425

Bunzel, John H.-Continued

Page

Affirmative Action, Negative Results, by John H. Bunzel, from the No-

vember 1979 issue of Ěncounter ....

429

Prepared, Not Preferred, by John H. Bunzel, from the Staford magazine,

Fall/Winter 1980 ...

438

Coleman, William T.:

Testimony.

223

Prepared statement

228

Equality—Not Yet, by William T. Coleman, Jr

235

Dershowitz, Nathan:

Testimony ....

243

Prepared statement

248

Flowers, Wanda:

Testimony

720

Prepared statement

727

Written questions submitted by Senator Hatch, with responses

734

Grassley, Hon. Charles E.:

Si Si, senors Kramer and Liberman, Si Si, from the Washington Post,

July 15, 1981..

500

The Racial/Ethnic Labeling Exercise, by Mike Causey, from the Washing-

ton Post, July 15, 1981.

500

Hatch, Hon. Orrin G.:

Opening statements.

........ 1, 153, 263, 473

Letter from Wm. Bradford Reynolds, Assistant Attorney General Civil

Rights Division.......

484

Herrity, John F.: Testimony

475

Kilson, Martin: Testimony

Lavinsky, Larry M.:

Testimony

673

Prepared statement ....

677

Written questions posed by Senator Hatch, with responses

684

The Affirmative Action Triology and Benign Racial Classifications-

Evolving Law in Need of Standards, by Larry M. Lavinsky, from the

Wayne Law Review, Fall 1980 .......

686

Lowery, Rev. Joseph E.:

Testimony .....

486

Prepared statement

497

Martinez, Vilma:

Testimony ...

155

Prepared statement

158

Nagel, Thomas:

Testimony

399

Prepared statement

402

The Policy of Preference, by Thomas Nagel, from Mortal Questions, Cam-

bridge University Press, 1979....

405

Sedler, Robert:

Testimony

7

Prepared statement

12

Racial Preference and the Constitution: The Societal Interest in the

Equal Participation Objective, by Robert Sedler, from the Wayne Law

Review, Vol. 26, 1980

27

Smith, Ralph R.:

Testimony

265

Prepared statement

271

Sowell, Thomas:

ALLALLA

Testimony

344

Affirmative Action Harms the Disadvantaged, by Thomas Sowell, from

the New York Times, July 28, 1981

348

Poor Aim In War On Bias, by Thomas Sowell, from the New York Times,

August 11, 1981..........

350

Weber and Bakke, and the Presuppositions of “Affirmative Action," by

Thomas Sowell, from the Wayne Law Review, Vol. 26, 1980.

352

05 "Affirmative Action" Reconsidered, by Thomas Sowell, from the Public

Interest, Winter 1976....

380

Todorovich, Miro:

Testimony ......

171

Prepared statement

179
Page

[graphic]

Todorovich, Miro-Continued

Discrimination, Color Blindness, and the Quota System, by Sidney Hook,

from the University Centers for Rational Alternatives, October 1971..

Uncertain Progress, by Sidney Hook, from the University Centers for

Rational Alternatives, October 1972...

Growing Row Over "Peer Review," from Time, October 1980

The Bias in Anti-Bias Regulations, by Sidney Hook, from the University

Centers for Rational Alternatives, Summer 1974..

Academic Freedom in Jeopardy-Time to Strike the Alarm Bell, by

Sidney Hook, supplement to the University Centers for Rational Alter-

natives, September 1980...

Federal Courts and Universities: The James A. Dinnan case, by George L.

Newsome, University of Georgia .....

Point of View, by John H. Bunzel, from the Chronicle of Higher Educa-

tion, January 1981.

Van Alstyne, William:

Testimony

Prepared statement

Rites of Passage: Race, the Supreme Court, and the Constitution, by

William Van Alstyne, from the University of Chicago Law Review...

Warner, Michael A.:

Testimony

Prepared statement

Issues raised by Executive Order No. 11246, by Michael A. Warner, David

A. Copus, and C. Daniel Karnes ...

The Legality of Preferential Treatment After Weber, by C. Daniel Karnes,

from the Federal Contract Compliance...

What Is "Affirmative Action"? Fair Game? Inequality and Affirmative

Action, by John C. Livingston, from the Texas Law Review, Vol. 58:845,

1980 ...

Contractor Obligations Under Executive Order No. 11246 To Provide

Financial Relief, by David A. Copus and Linda A. Rosenzweig, from the

Federal Contract Compliance..

Preliminary Analysis of Proposed Changes in OFCCP Regulations, from

Seyforth, Shaw, Fairweather & Geraldson.....

APPENDIX

Part I–MISCELLANEOUS STUDIES AND ARTICLES

Affirmative Action in the 1980—U.S. Commission on Civil Rights:

Part A-The Problem: Discrimination......

Part B-Civil Rights and Affirmative Action ..........

Part C-The Remedy: Affirmative Action...

Appendix-Guidelines for Effective Affirmative Action Plans...

"Affirmative Action" Under Reagan, by Chester E. Finn, Jr., from Commen-

tary April 1982.....

"Voluntary" Quotas, by Nathan Lewin, from the New Republic, Vol. 181

Living with Quotas, by Joseph Adelson, from Commentary May 1978...

Loading the Economy, by Senator Orrin G. Hatch, from Policy Review.

A Blueprint for Judicial Reform-The Son of Separate But Equal: The Su-

preme Court and Affirmative Action, by Senator Orrin G. Hatch

Benign Victimization, by Midge Decter, from Policy Review

From Back To Patriarcy, by Daniel Amnéns, Arlington House, 1979.

Racial Classification: Politics of the Future? by L. H. Gann and Alvin Ra-

bushka, from Policy Review, Summer 1981..

Why Racial Preference is Ilegal and Immoral, by Carl Cohen, from Commen-

tary June 1979

Justice Debased: The Weber Decision, by Carl Cohen, from Commentary Sep-

tember 1979.....

Some post-Bakke-and-Weber Reflections on "Reverse Discrimination," by

Henry J. Abraham, from the University of Richmond Law Review, Vol.

14:373, 1980

What's Wrong With Affirmative Action, by Leonard Reed, from the Washing-

916

ton Monthly, January 1981......

Ignoring the People, by Victoria Sackett, from Policy Review.

932

939

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