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missioners, Signor P. Baravelli and Major E. Baring, was as follows :Nominal Capital on Nominal Capital

Capital remaining the date of decree, redeemed since the decree

un redeemed, November 8, 1876.

of November 8.

September 8, 1877. Unified Debt

£59,000,000
1,620,500

75,379,500 Privileged Debt

17,000,000

18,000

16,982,000 1864 Loan

1,896,400
243,700

1,652,700 1865-6 Loan

1,401,060
135,140

1,265,920 1867 Loan

1,157,600
153,900

1,003,700

Total
£80,455,060
2,171,240

78,283,820 HOLLAND. Of the minor countries of Europe very little can be said, for, in the presence of the more exciting topics of the Russo-Turkish war and the Constitutional struggle in France, they seem to have been relegated to insignificance, and they furnish no continuous political history, or not any of sufficient importance to interest foreign readers. Hence a few notes only can be attempted.

The funeral of the late Queen of Holland was solemnised June 20. “Great emotion was manifested at the moment when the coffin was removed from the palace. The coffin was strewn with flowers and immortelles, amongst which a wreath of white roses, sent by her Majesty Queen Victoria, was remarked. The King of the Netherlands, the Princess of the House of Orange, the Grand Duke and Prince Hermann of Saxe-Weimar, the Princes of Wied and Oldenbourg, Prince Albrecht of Prussia, and the representatives of foreign Courts, followed the funeral cortége. There was an immense concourse of spectators. The ministers and other distinguished personages bad assembled in the Great Church of Delft, awaiting the arrival of the procession. On the Royal mourners having taken their seats in the church, Pastor Molenkama delivered an affecting discourse, in which he alluded in warm terms to the virtues of the deceased Queen. As the coffin was lowered into the royal vault the King and his sons exhibited much emotion.”

In April the Government introduced a Bill into the Chamber of Deputies, for reclaiming, at the expense of the State, the south part of the Zuyder Zee, at an estimated cost of 116,000,000A.

The Budget for 1878 was brought forward in the Second Chamber, September 17, by the Minister of Finance. He estimated the total expenditure at 121,000,000fl., and the revenue at 113,700,0001). The anticipated deficit would be due mainly to the war in Atcheen, which cost 26,500,000f1. in 1876, and will, it was supposed, cost as much in 1877. The minister believed that the eventual deficit could be covered by the issue of Treasury Notes, and the financial condition of the country was, he thought, by no means unfavourable. The revenue was increasing while the deficit that might occur would be due to temporary causes.

The New Cabinet that was formed at the beginning of November was composed as follows :-M. Van Heeckeren Vankell, Chief of the King's Cabinet, Minister for Foreign Affairs; Deputy Smidt,

Minister of Justice; M. Kappeyne, Minister of the Interior; M. Wichers, Daval officer, Minister of Marine ; M. Gleichman, secretary to the Bank of the Netherlands, Minister of Finance; Deputy Deroo, Minister for War; M. Van Bosse, ex-Minister, Colonial Minister.

A Royal decree instituted a new department for Commerce, Industry, and Public Works. The minister who undertook its duties was M. Tak von Poortoliet.

BELGIUM. Not only all Belgium, but many artists and others from England, France, Germany, Italy, and other countries of the Continent assembled, in August, at Antwerp, to celebrate the “ Rubens Festival.” A bust of Rubens was to be “inaugurated." The cortege met early in the forenoon in the Place Verte. It was preceded by a detachment of Pompeurs and the bands of the Garde Civique. Then followed the Governor of Antwerp, the Burgomaster, and delegates of the Government, and the Echevins and Communal Council, all in official costume. Next came the Council of the Antwerp Academy, and four of their youngest pupils, carrying on a brancard covered with a white gold-fringed sheet crowns of gold and bronze. The delegates of the French Academy, in their academical robes, and headed by a mace-bearer, formed another link in the long cortége. Then followed the delegates from foreign countries - French, German, English, and Scandinavian, and the artists of Antwerp. The procession closed with various members of the administrative and judicial bodies and the officers of the Garde Civique, who pretty inuch resemble our own volunteers. The bust, which is from the chisel of M. Pecher, when uncovered, was highly praised, and will form a fine ornament to the entrance-hall of the gallery of ancient pictures. The inauguration ceremony did not last long, but speeches were made by MM. de Wael, de Laborde, the secretary of the Institute, and M. Charles Blanc.

A banquet was given by the city to the deputies of foreign academies and other distinguished visitors; the Bourse being specially decorated and lighted for the occasion. “M. de Wael, the Burgomaster, presided, and there were present very many of the best-known painters, architects, and sculptors of all the countries of Northern Europe. M. de Wael, in proposing the toast of the foreigners present, described them as the representatives of the institutes, academies, and scientific bodies of all the European capitals, who had come to Antwerp to help the citizens in doing honour to their great painter. They would, he hoped, carry to their homes with them the impression that in this jarring world science and art inspire peace and goodwill among those who cultivate them. Their adepts were all friends ; they knew of no divisions and frontiers. Blessed be the bond of union that the worship of arts and letters preserved among men! The Vicomte

de Laborde returned thanks on behalf of the French, and M. Van Ellemet on behalf of the Dutch. M. B. Dumortier, Belgian Minister, forsaking the mere language of compliment, adverted to the delicate question of the birthplace of Rubens, and then dwelt with some patriotic fervour on the new spring of life which at present is raising the Belgian people to their old position among the nations. M. Hiller, of Cologne, spoke, in French, of the relations of the old cities of Antwerp and Cologne, and of their rival claims to be the birthplace of Rubens. Whichever way it was, Cologne had an interest in Rubens, and could not but sympathize with the honour done to his memory. M. Kaulbach, of Munich, in the name of German art, passed a eulogium on the genius of Rubens, but the applause was so enthusiastic that little of what he said could be heard."

Fétes followed, the greatest of which—“the nocturnal procession of the giant and the giantess, the ship and the whale was intended to illustrate the intellectual glories of Antwerp. Unfortunately the fireworks and illuminations were eclipsed by the brilliant lightning of “a terrific thunder-storm,” and the festival ended in a general sauve qui peut.

A very different gathering was the meeting in September, at Ghent, of the Ninth Congress of the “International Working Men's Association," of which the official name is “ The Universal Congress of Socialists." The first question discussed was that of “ A Revolutionary Solidarity of the Federations."

It was resolved that when an insurrection breaks out in any country, socialists are to support each other by all possible means. Also that it is the duty of each country where an insurrection is successful, to provide neighbouring countries with means necessary for revolutionary action. The speakers likewise developed their ideas upon property. Of liberty it was remarked that social liberty, not individual liberty, is the aim of socialists. Finally, after much strife between the Anarchists and the Authoritarians, the Congress decided in favour of the Authoritarians against the “ Anarchists” or “Collectivists.” The Congress, however, made this fact evident, that all the federations represented in it accepted the following political dogmas :—“the expropriation of the owners of all capital and the abolition of individual property; all soil, buildings, capitals, fabrics, &c., having to be made collective property of groups of labourers. Each kind of State, each kind of representative government, must be abolished; the society must be a net of federations of labourers, united together for their special needs and the special purposes they propose to reach. The realisation of this programme (elaborated at length in a series of brochures) can be reached only by a series of revolutions, each of which has to accomplish some part of the programme, as, for instance, the Commune of Paris, which partially realised the autonomy of communes." The last orator indulged in gross abuse of the Belgian Govern

T

ment, because one of the fraternity (Kanckel, an ex-member of the Paris Commune) had been wamed by the Belgian police to leave the country. Many of those who took part in the proceedings of the Congress were men of superior instruction and undoubted ability, carried away by political and social fanaticism. Mild-mannered revolutionists advocated the most sanguinary doctrines; and if they did not demand a million of heads, they argued that universal brotherhood could only be inaugurated by universal insurrection and the destruction of all existing institutions. On November 13 the Belgian Chambers were opened by the King in person, “ Belgium," said his Majesty, “faithful to her pacific rôle, continues to entertain most amicable relations with all the Powers. The last census proves that in ten years the increase of population has been 508,000. The number of legislators must therefore be augmented by five senators and ten representatives. The provincial and communal representation mnst also be increased accordingly. The law for the prevention of electoral frauds will be completed, and unity of electoral legislation established. Public instruction is in a prosperous condition, and sufficient provision for the teaching body of all degrees has been made. The situation of agriculture is satisfactory; and the invasion of the cattle plague has been prevented. Notwithstanding the commercial crisis, Belgian commerce has not declined, and the activity of the ports has increased. Belgian industry will take a part worthy of it at the Paris Exhibition. Belgian art sustains its old reputation. The Civic Guards and the Army answer to the confidence of the country. A Bill relative to the organisation of the Civic Guards will be presented this session. The product of the sale of military lands will be employed in the construction of two forts on the left bank of the Netbes, to secure the defence of the Antwerp roads. Credits for artillery will be demanded. The public revenues, with the exception of the railways, will realise the expectations formed. In the last six years 350,000,000f. have been spent on works of public utility. The execution of new maritime works at Antwerp, commenced on the river Meuse, will soon render it navigable through the whole of Belgian territory. The construction of railways is progressing, notwithstanding the regrettable financial disasters. Belgium will join the other Governments in the question of the simplification of railway tariffs. Postal legislation will be put in harmony with the principles of the postal union. Maritime legislation is to be revised, and a law will be presented regulating responsibility in questions of transport. In questions on which men's minds are divided the principles and ideas uniting all should not be forgotten—the love of national autonomy and attachment to constitutional liberties. In two years the fittieth anniversary of national independence would be celebrated; then the great things accomplished in half a century would be commemorated, and, as to-day, God would be thanked for having always protected their dear fatherland,"

DENMARK

of that year.

The political year was marked by considerable agitation arising from the conflict between the Crown and the Folkething —the Representative Chamber- which was in progress during 1876, as may be seen by reference to the Annual Register

“ The root of the conflict,” said a Ministerial Memorandum, dated April 11, 1877, “between the Crown and the Folkething lay in the desire of the latter to restrict the King's choice of counsellors, abolish the equal prerogative of the Landsthing, and overthrow the constitutional distribution of the public powers. It is a duty the King owes to himself and his successors, and which is incumbent upon him as protector of the Constitution, to repel such attempts. The Ministry would act contrary to its duty if it were to resign at the present time. A dissolution of the Folkething would, in opposition to the Constitution, place the power of amending it solely in the hands of electors or members of the Folkething. The Constitution does not provide for the present case, in which the financial law has failed through a disagreement between the Chambers. The enforcement of a provisional financial law remained the only issue out of the difficulty. In taking this course the Ministry has limited itself to that which was indispensable, because it wishes to facilitate a return to a regular state of things."

As no agreement had been arrived at between the two Chambers during the last session, relative to the budgets of April 1, 1877, and March 21, 1878, the King had recourse to a temporary law approving of the receipts and expenditure. It was signed by the King, and countersigned by all the Ministers. This law was promulgated in accordance with Article 25 of the Constitution, which empowers the Government to make the necessary current expenditure according to the established rules; but the principal sum and the single items of expenditure must not exceed the amount laid down in the Government proposals presented to the Rigsdag.

A letter from Copenhagen gave some account of the autumn races in Denmark, which took place at Slagelse, a town in the heart of Zealand, about twenty-five miles from the capital. The account is worth quoting, in order to show how Anglicised all the world has been growing in this respect. “ The fourth race

was the principal event of the day. It was a handicap over one mile, for three-year-old horses and mares from all countries. Nine horses were entered, but only three came to the post — Sir Garnet, Warrenby, and Miss Harriett. The race was very exciting. Miss Harriett at once came to the front, and maintained her lead until within a hundred yards from the winning-post, when Sir Garnet, who had been pulling double, nearly dragging the jockey out of the saddle, came on with a rush, winning in 1 min. 45 sec., Miss Harriett was a good second, closely followed by Warrenby.

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