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Joubert (which had become law in November 1876), Egypt had handed over the management of her revenue to European financiers. One half of its income had been appropriated to the Public Debt, and, without breaking faith with Europe, could not be diverted to other purposes. The country was, besides, already heavily taxed, and aid to Turkey in men and money would involve additional burdens. Then the policy of Mehemet Ali had been, and that of his successor still was, to make Egypt independent of Turkey, and he would not willingly fight for that Turkish supremacy which was opposed to his own interests. Important concessions had been made to Mehemet Ali by the Ottoman Government, which gave to Egypt a semi-independence*; but these had been ignored in Midhat's Constitution, the Ottoman Empire being declared by it to be one and indivisible; and thus the separate existence of Egypt was at once merged into that empire, Nor would her ruler be compelled to aid Turkey by political parties or a sympathising people at home. He might truly say L'état c'est moi; for in Egypt there is neither an aristocracy nor a democracy, nor a public, in the European sense of the term-“there is simply a population and a few pashas, who can be made and unmade with a breath." The Viceroy of Egypt, however, could hardly resist the appeal of his Suzerain (supported, as it might be, by a fleet of ironclads), unless the protection of the European Powers was extended to him. Nor would he be deterred by the fear of Russia ; for Egypt was so bound up with European interests, and especially with “ British interests

(as commanding the high road to India), that the great Northern Power would probably think it best not to meddle with her.

The Viceroy had shown a remarkable confidence in foreigners. In February he had appointed Colonel Gordon (an able, upright, and energetic officer) Governor of the Soudan, with almost unlimited control over the country extending from the First Cataract to the Equator. A firman (of which the following is a translation) was forthwith addressed to all the governors, shaikhs, heads of tribes, Arabs, 'Ulamâ, notables, and the people of the Soudan :-“ Take notice and

By the Firman of February 13, 1841, the Government of Egypt was granted to Mehemet Ali, and the grant was made hereditary by a settlement of the succession on the eldest male of his family. On May 27, 1861, further concessions were made, such as the right of issuing money bearing the stamp of the Egyptian Royal Family, the power to maintain an army of 30,000 men, and a change in the succession which makes the Khedire's eldest son the heir to the throne, instead of Halim Pasha, the Khedire's uncle and the oldest living male of the family of Mehemet Ali. This concession was dearly bought, as the same Firman by which it was granted raised the Egyptian tribute to 750,0001. from 400,0001., and it has been subsequently increased to 790,0001., in return for the grant of the Zeyla district, opposite Aden. On June 8, 1867, Egypt received the further privilege of perfect freedom of internal administration, the no. mination of all officials, from prime minister down to police-constable, and the power of making all treaties of a non-political character. Finally, in September 1872, the country became invested with full powers to run into debt; in other words, it was given the right to contract foreign loans without the previous consent of the Porte-a right which has been exercised to its very fullest extent. Thus, although Egypt remained a Province of the Ottoman Empire, without the jus legationis, or the right of maintaining a separate military or naval force, she, nevertheless, acquired, at enormous pecuniary sacrifices, the position of a semi-sovereignty.”

observe, that in consequence of our assurance of his fitness and capability for the office, we have appointed his Excellency Gordon Pasha to be Governor-General of all the districts of the Soudan on the east as far as Massowah and Suâkin on the south, and seaward of the Soudan as far as Danakala, including the Bahru-'l-Ghazâl and the territory near the Equator, as of Darfûr. We have appointed him to this command, and our plain orders to that effect have been issued. We have further commissioned him to superintend the interests of the people generally, to promote the progress of the country, the tranquillity of the inhabitants, the security of the roads, and all other matters connected with the administration. We call upon you all to co-operate with him, rendering him due obedience and honour, and acting agreeably with his commands in all matters relating to order, security, and progress, paying your taxes regularly, so that you may enjoy undisturbed tranquillity and be found worthy of praise, taking heed not to contravene in any way what is hereby laid down, and uniformly acting in accordance therewith. Written 4th of Sâfar, A.H., 1294.” One object that Colonel Gordon had in view was the suppression of the slave trade in the Soudan, for which the Viceroy gave him every facility. Two ships of war were sent to the Red Sea to co-operate with the land forces at Colonel Gordon's disposal. One of these, the “ Latof," a screw-corvette of 300-horse power, English-built, and ranking the third ship in the Egyptian navy, was unfortunately destroyed by fire.*

In the beginning of the year, Baron Malaret was appointed Comptroller-General . under the arrangement effected by MM. Goschen and Joubert. Mr. Gerald Fitzgerald, of the Indian Civil Service, was Deputy-Comptroller-General of the revenue. Many Englishmen occupied public offices; while the superior officers in the army were mostly Americans-Southerners, who had sought foreign service upon the collapse of their Confederacy. How largely Englishmen were employed in the service of the Egyptian Government at the beginning of the year is set forth more particularly in the following account, which was written in January 1877:-“In the Admiralty administration there are an English Post-Captain (Admiral M‘Killop Pasha), a Commander (Morice Bey), and at least a dozen smaller officials. At the 'Treasury there is Mr. Romaine, ex-Secretary of the Admiralty and ex-Judge_AdvocateGeneral in India, now English Comptroller-General of Taxation in Egypt. He is soon to have a colleague in the English Commissioner of Public Debt, and the two offices will require many minor appointments. At the Public Works there are engineers whose

* This happened at sea, sixty miles from Suez, on March 10. “ The vessel," said the account, "had taken Colonel Gordon to Massowah, and was returning to Suez with 300 soldiers from Abyssinia, a few passengers, and a crew of 160, when the chimney becoming overheated, the woodwork caught fire.” The soldiers and crew broke through all discipline and seized the boats, and but for the fineness of the weather and the assistance of two English steamers, many lives would have been lost. As it was, thirty people were missing.

name is legion, and of varying capacity, from Mr. Fowler, the Khedive's consulting engineer, and Mr. Anderson, the manager of his sugar factories, down to the drivers on the railway between Cairo and Alexandria, and the engineers on the big steamers that run to the ports on the Red Sea and between Alexandria and Constantinople. In the Education Department is Mr. Rogers, whose knowledge of the language of the country, its customs, and its people will make him invaluable as a fellow-worker with M. Dor, who has worked long and ably in the establishment of a European system of education throughout the country in connection with that already at work in the two capitals. The railway system of the country is to be placed by the Goschen arrangement under an administration of which General Marriott, an engineer officer well known to Indian officials, is president. An English colleague remains to be appointed, and our two countrymen, with a Frenchman and two natives, are to have complete control of every railway in the country. In the telegraphs are two English superintendents— Mr. George and Mr. Gisborne, both names well known to telegraphists; at the Post-office Mr. Caillard, who a year ago was a clerk at St. Martin's-le-Grand, and is now Postmaster-General and one of the most esteemed of the Khedive's officials. In the new judicial system an Appeal Judge and a Judge of First Instance are English, and their strength has recently been increased by the promotion of a countryman to the Judicial Bench at Ismailia."

Financially, "1877 inaugurates a new system, and for the first time the liabilities of the country were met by means of the country's revenue"; and this included a strict system of economy in Viceregal expenditure, the army, and the administration generally.

Peace with Abyssinia was concluded about the beginning of June. The terms settled for the most part by Colonel Gordon) were as follows:- The old frontiers are restored; there is to be free trade instead of a prohibitory tariff for Abyssinian goods entering by Egyptian frontiers and ports; free passage for envoys and letters; an Abyssinian Consul at Massowah and an Egyptian Consul at Adowa; the Khedive to sanction the appointment of the head of the Abyssinian Church by the Coptic Patriarch at Cairo. The Abyssinian rebel Michael to be detained by Egypt.

On June 10, at early morning, a booming in the distance outside the harbour of Alexandria announced to the inhabitants of that town the arrival of the Turkish escort for the Egyptian contingent, and the frigates were seen in the offing, where they took up their position. The ships were the “Mesoudivé," ironclad frigate, twelve guns 400lb. shot, three guns 150lb. ; “Orkaniyeh,” ironclad frigate, fifteen guns 150lb. shot, one gun 300lb. shot; two frigates, not ironclad, the “Salmié"and" Hudi Ventikar," and a despatch boat, the “Febwaid.” They were under the command of Hassan Pasha; and, by a singular coincidence, Prince Hassan, a son of the Viceroy, was the commander of the troops which form the Egyptian contingent.

Inside the harbour lay the Egyptian fleet, eleven in number, their "gay bunting Auttering in the wind, ” while “small white-sailed boats, full of curious Alexandrians,” were plying about in every direction. The contingent, which was to have numbered some 10,000 or 11,000 men, fell short of that number, for it was said that 6,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry, with two batteries of Krupp guns, made up the actual force despatched on this occasion.* During the embarkation the Turkish Admiral exchanged visits with princes and high officials, but it was remarked he did not vieit the Khedive, and the inference was that this indicated Imperial displeasure.

“ The departure," said an eye-witness, “ was a fine sight. The Ottoman escort lay outside the harbour with steam up-four huge men-of-war quite able and ready to sink all the audacious Russian cruisers that are said to be prowling about these waters in hopes of capturing the Egyptian fleet. The transports, preceded by a gunboat, went out in the following order—“ Behara,” “Favoum, “ Charkieh," “ Rahmanieh," “Dahalieh," “Garbieh,” “Tanta," each named after an Egyptian province. Then followed the frigate “ Mehemet Ali,” which in these days is as much good as a cardboard box,' at least, so said an old navy officer. The “ Masr,” (the Arabic name for Cairo) brought up the rear, with Prince Hassan, the Commander-in-Chief, and his staff on board. The shipping in the harbour was dressed and all the forts saluted the ships as they passed out to sea. Outside in the open the squadron formed in line; three Turkish vessels leading, the Egyptians followed, with the “ Mehemet Ali” and “Masr” flanking them on either side, and a huge ironclad bringing up the rear. Thus they sailed away through the crowd of white-sailed fishing boats as the sun set red into the sea, leaving a crimson bank of cloud behind. The harbour was crowded with spectators. The flat roofs of the Alexandrian houses were covered with a curious public. There were many weeping women, wives or mothers of the young fellows who had gone away to slaughter. But the Arabs seemed proud of the sight, and talked of certain victory in the war. "Things have changed,' said one, since the great war (the Crimean War): we no longer need the aid of the Queen of England-look at our paved streets, our square, our gas, our progress. Allah must make us win. • But why,' asked another, did Allah make all these men ? Not to kill each other—there is something wrong in it all.'”

A special force was organised for the protection of the Suez Canal, an Egyptian steamer being stationed at each of the three ports, Suez, Ismailia, and Port Said. Also three gunboats under M.Killop Pasha were engaged in the same dutý. On shore, nine stations were established, each one under the charge of ten mounted policemen; the whole number being commanded by

* It was afterwards raised to 11,000 or 12,000 men.

Colonel Ward. In July a further contingent of Egyptian troops was despatched to Constantinople.

The Egyptian contingent appears to have been by no means a worthless contribution, for they won for themselves the reputation of brave soldiers, and their commander displayed the qualities of an able and well-trained officer. He had received an European education, and he was the “only one of the Mussulman princes who ventured to expose himself on the field of battle, and share with his troops the dangers and privations incidental to a campaign.” Nevertheless, neither the soldiers nor their leader seem to have received fair treatment at the hands of the Turkish commanders; and in November a communication appeared in the Times vindicating their conduct. From this statement it appeared that the Egyptian troops had not, from the time of their arrival at the seat of war in Bulgaria, been placed under the orders of their legitimate commander, Prince Hassan, but were stationed in detachments between Rustchuk and Bazardjik. They particularly distinguished themselves at the battle of Karahassankoi, and contributed not a little to the success of the day; yet, in a newspaper description of that action, they “ were taken seriously to task and charged with the falsest accusations." Mehemet Ali, in his official report of the battle, entirely ignored the services rendered by the Egyptians; and to complete the injustice a telegram appeared in an English paper stating that 244 Egyptian soldiers had been wounded in the forefinger, which meant that they had mutilated themselves that they might escape further service. This, however, the correspondent declares to be a gross calumny.

The following particulars relative to the Egyptian Commanderin-Chief, Prince Hassan, and the contingent sent under his direction by the Khedive to his Suzerain in aid of his cause, is from M-Coan's “ Egypt as it Is":

** The Ministry of War is under Prince Hassan Pasha, his Highness's third son--of whose general and professional education it is enough to say that he is an Oxford D.C.L., and a Major in the Prussian Army. . . . As now organised, the Regular Army consists of eighteen regiments of infantry (two of which are negroes from the Soudan), of four regiments of cavalry, of six squadrons each, of four regiments of field artillery, of six batteries each. Although not more than 20,000 men may now be with the colours, the regimental cadres are kept up for an army of 80,000 men.. The infantry is armed with Remington rifles, the cavalry partly with revolver and lance and partly with sabre and carbine; the field artillery with 100 Krupp and 50 smooth-bore guns. . .. The chief weakness of the Egyptian army is, however, its still defective organisation ... and what would be really fatal to its efficiency in service anywhere out of Egypt, its complete want of military train."

In September the report of the Egyptian Public Debt Com

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