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Our Country's Story.

An Elementary History of the United States,

. 65 cents. The point to which we would especially

call the attention of every Southerner is the treatment of the causes and progress of the Civil War. Here the book is absolutely fair, just and impar.ial. . .: We would commend this book to all who are looking for a history for the young, and most especially we commend it to the consideration of school committees in the South. Its lairmindedness and impartiality is a high tribute to its author."-- The Southern Churchman, Richmond, Va.

England's Story.

A History of England for Grammar and High Schools,

85 cents.

“In breadth, fairness of intention, and avoidance of aught that might stir partisan feel. ing or raise protest from pride of race, the spirit of this juvenile history is admirable and might give a hint to some more pretentious histories.”The Outlook, New York.


4 Park Street, Boston

85 Fifth Ave., New York.

378-388 Wabash Ave., Chicago.

Office of Superintendent.
The Office of Every County, City, Borough, and Township

Superintendent in the State should have

A Complete Set of Fifty Volumes Pennsylvania School Journal.


The educational records of the State are found nowhere else outside of these fifty volumes of the PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL. The only complete set of the annual reports of the State Superintendents of Public Instruction; the only continuous record of the proceedings of the Pennsylvania State Teachers' Association through its fifty sessions; the only complcte record of the proceedings of the annual sessions of the City and Borough Superintendents' Association ; the only complete record of the annual meetings of the Pennsylvania State Directors' Association ; the only continuous history, and the only one that makes any approach to completeness, that is now in existeuce anywhere, of the work of the Department of Public Instruction of the State since 1851-all the archives of this department of the State government, which had been carefully preserved for so many years, having been lost in the late fire that destroyed the Capitol building at Harrisburg-nearly all this matter of greater or less importance is found from rear to year in THE PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL JOURNAL, and nowhere else. This monthly periodical has kept the record intact and beyond the reach of destruction from any cause whatsoever. Also, many Thousand articles on subjects of varied School interest.

These Fifty Volumes, from 1852 to June, 1902, can be supplied in Twenty-five Handsome Double Volumes for Sixty Dollars, Or unbound for Forty Dollars. We have but a few complete sets remaining, and wish to close them out, hence the very low price at which they are here offered. Should Odd Volumes be desired to Complete Full Sets, we will supply them so far as possible. Address

J. P. McCaskey, Lancaster, Pa.

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To the Senate and House of Representatives : the earliest date on which the payment

GENTLEMEN: In submitting the annual of the appropriation has been completed report, it is deemed wise to call attention since it has been above two million dolto a few statistics showing the dimensions lars, and much earlier than that of any which our system of public instruction previous year except 1901. has attained. During the year which ended June 2,

DEADLOCKS IN SCHOOL BOARDS. 1902, the number of pupils enrolled was The frequent deadlocks in the election 1,163,509, the number of teachers em- of teachers and the selection of text-books ployed was 30,640, the number of direc- has raised the question whether it would tors in charge of the schools was 15,289, not be wise to reduce the number of the expenditure for text-books and sup- directors in townships from six to five. plies was $1,285, 282.86, or $1.38 per The tendency of the age is to concenpupil. The cost of maintenance, includ- trate power and responsibility. Proviing text-books and supplies, was $18,- sional and professional certificates are 665,117:73, which, added to the cost of granted by one officer, the superintendent, new buildings and other improvements, and this power is seldom abused, because aggregates the annual sum of $23,027,- responsibility can be located. The com678.82. The growth of the system has mittee on permanent certificates was surpassed the most sanguine expectations diminished from five to three. This has of its founders and early friends. Our worked well in practice. If the number school population exceeds the entire pop- of directors were reduced from six to ulation of any one of states. five, teachers could be selected promptly,

It is a matter for congratulation that fewer factional contests would arise, the the favorable financial condition of the person failing of election could seek a State enabled the present State Treasurer, school elsewhere, and the prompt decision Hon. Frank G. Harris, to break all pre- of school questions would promote rather vious records for early payment of the than hinder progress. The only thing school appropriation. So rapidly was it to be said in favor of six directors is that paid out that on the 26th day of Septem- two are elected every year for a full term ber the Superintendent of Public Instruc- and a two-thirds vote is required to contion was authorized to draw on the State stitute a majority on important questions. Treasurer for all unpaid appropriations In favor of school boards of five it can be except that of the first district. This is said that we would thereby avoid the expense of removing directors by process DOUBLE ENUMERATION OF CHILDREN, of law. All school questions should be By the act of July 15, 1897, the assesdecided speedily, without expense and sors are required, during the odd years, with as little rancor as possible.

to make an enumeration of children beWith this end in view some states have tween six and sixteen years in connection gone far beyond Pennsylvania in the

with the assessment. This enumeration centralization of power in school affairs. is used for the purpose of distributing the In the State of New York, for instance, State appropriation. The act of July 11, there is a law officer attached to the

1901, requires annually the preparation Department of Public Instruction. His of a careful and correct list of all children, findings and decisions become those of between the ages of six and sixteen years, the school department, and can not be for the purpose of enforcing attendance questioned or reversed in any court of at school. if these acts were harmonized law. Whilst it would be contrary to our so as to require one enumeration instead traditions to go as far as the Empire State, of two during the odd years, there would nevertheless the student of our educa- be a saving of money in every county. tional history cannot escape the conviction that we might with profit imitate

RECIPROCITY IN TEACHERS' LICENSES. the example of other states in the enact

The last Legislature passed an act ment of legislation to prevent deadlocks looking towards interstate comity in the in the election of teachers and the selec-recognition of teachers' licenses. It has tion of text books.

been found very difficult, and in most

cases impossible, to carry out the intenVACCINATION AND COMPULSORY

tion of the Legislature. New York reATTENDANCE.

fuses to endorse any certificates from The act of July II, 1901, making Pennsylvania. New Jersey has agreed attendance at school compulsory, is more to accept only the diploma of the three efficient than any former compulsory law. | years' Normal School course. County Yet it fails whenever the parents neglect permanent certificates and Normal School or refuse to have their children vacci- diplomas in the elementary course have nated. The law excludes such children not found recognition anywhere. Several from school, and under the ruling of the states refuse to endorse the permanent courts the person in charge of a child certificates granted to college graduates, cannot be fined if admission has been re- the claim being that these certificates are fused under the act of 1895, which re- issued without examination. Our law quires from pupils who have not bad

assumes tbat if a college graduate cap for small-pox a certificate of successful vacci.

three years pass the examination for a nation as a condition of admission to provisional or professional certifcate, he school. In other words, vaccination is can do so at any subsequent period. not compulsory. During an epidemic it College bred men and women, who have is wise to exclude the unvaccinated child taught successfully for three years in the from school. But if the child has a right public schools of Pennsylvania, are the to know as well as grow, it must be con. only persons who are certificated to teach sidered a hardship to exclude from all without passing an examination before school privileges children who are im- sworn State officials, and then only in mune as well as those whose parents the branches upon which they passed the refuse to allow them to be vaccinated. required examination before the proper Legislation is recommended to relieve the college authorities. Our method of licenclash between the two statutes. Some sing teachers grew up on our own soil, provision should be made for the attend. and it does not seem wise to change the ance of the children in whose case vacci- method of granting permanent certifination does not take after repeated trials; cates. Teaching is the only profession for there is certainly little, if any, danger in which examinations are a life-long that small.pox will spread through their possibility. Ever-recurring examinations presence at school. And the child whose degrade the teacher to the level of the parents declare, under oath or affirmation, animal that is tied to a stake and is not an unwillingness to permit vaccination, permitted to graze beyond prescribed should be allowed to attend school during limits. Like the tethered animal, the periods when there is no danger of con- teacher in course of time assimilates all tagion from small-pox.

within reach; then the process of starvation begins. After receiving three, or ture and history, and provides for the at most five, provisional certificates, a study of Cicero and Virgil. The best teacher should get a permanent certifi- is not too good for the pupils in our cate. Then he or she can afford to forget public schools. The new course seeks needless details and to spend time in mas- to prepare teachers for more scholarly tering new fields of knowledge. Under work. The standards of all professional the arrangement for granting county per- schools have been raised; the applications manent certificates teachers can continue of science to agriculture, as well as to to grow; and this is far better than the other industries, make new demands recognition of our certificates by the upon the school-demands that can not school authorities of other states. No be fully met unless the teachers push change in policy is, therefore, recom- their scholarship beyond the branches of mended, even though full reciprocity in an elementary course. The new course teachers' licenses be far distant.

will diminish the number of graduates The county permanent certificates can for several years, but in the end it will be continued without hindering the move- increase the attendance at our Normal ment to advance the scholarship of high Schools and give the public schools a school teachers.

generation of teachers with better trainSCHOLARSHIP OF TEACHERS.

ing and broader scholarship. Teachers can not impart what they do

SUMMER SCHOOLS. not know. In this age the schoolmaster should know more than he is required to

Teaching is a growing profession. In teach. This principle was recognized

their zeal for improvement, teachers have from the start by the officers in charge from ten to twenty per cent. of their

been known to spend at summer schools of the common schools. The primary teacher has always been expected to salaries; in some cases their entire savknow more than she is required to teach. ings. No vocation can boast of greater In the high school it has sometimes been

sacrifices. Very many teachers can not assumed that it is sufficient for teachers

afford to attend summer schools at a to know the branches they are required great distance from their homes. Hence to teach. As a consequence, many of Pennsylvania should profit by the examour high schools have failed to meet the ple of her neighboring States. The New expectations of their friends. A teacher

York Legislature adds ten thousand dolwho lacks college training can scarcely lars to the institute fund in order that hope to prepare students for college along two schools may be maintained during the best lines and with the least waste of

the summer vacation at places where time and energy. The act of June 28,

study can be combined with recreation. 1895, prescribes that at least one high The General Assembly of Virginia makes school teacher shall know more than the

an annual appropriation of twenty five branches in the curriculum. This should hundred dollars, the Peabody Education not be regarded a hardship any more

Fund contributes from fourteen to sixthan it is a hardship to expect primary

teen hundred dollars, whilst the teachers teachers to know English grammar,

who attend the summer school of methods algebra and civil government. Instruc

pay a fee ranging from three to five doltion acquires its best flavor when given lars according to the grade of work taken. by a teacher of culture and scholarship.

The board of visitors of the University of Teachers of limited education seldom in Virginia appropriated fifteen hundred spire the desire for knowledge which is

dollars last summer for the school of needed to carry pupils into the institutions methods, and the southern education of higher learning; still less can they

board gave five hundred dollars more to instil the habits of reading and observa- the same school. Over a thousand teachtion which lie at the basis of success in

ers were in attendance, most of whom modern civilized life.

paid their own board and traveling ex

penses, though some counties and cities NEW NORMAL SCHOOL COURSE.

relieved their teachers of this burden. With the last commencement, the two South Carolina spends each year the years' elementary course of the State sum of nine thousand dollars for summer Normal schools became a thing of the school purposes. Five thousand dollars past. The new course covers three years. are given by the State Legislature, two It increases the amount of science, litera- thousand by the State Board of Educa

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