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states or cities, as a pledge of Christian joy and hope of Heaven. Henry VI., Henry VIII., and Queen Mary his daughter, are among the crowned heads who have received it."Hettinger, Dante's Divina Commedia,
Bowden's translation, p. 220.
In the Tablet of Oct. 6, 1888, there is a learned and interesting paper on the golden rose. I have also a note that the golden rose is mentioned in Dr. Ludwig Pastor's Lives of Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages,' edited by F. J. Antrobus, vol. i. p. 220.
As I am writing concerning the symbolism of the rose, I am reminded to ask where the following passage occurs: "Quæ est ista, speciosa sicut columba quasi rosa plantata super rivos aquarum.' ASTARTE.
It should, in fairness, be mentioned that for most of her interesting antiquarian statements, MRS. C. A. WHITE is indebted to an article on the same subject by the learned and venerable founder of N. & Q.,' MR. W. J. THOMS, published in the first volume of the Shilling Magazine. E. WALFORD, M.A.
Ventnor. On Rose Sunday, it may be noted, in addition to the blessing of the golden rose by the Pope, vestments of a rose colour, or reddish brown, are worn by the officiants at high mass, instead of the purple vestments ordinarily used in Lent. The deacon and sub-deacon of the mass also wear dalmatics, flowers are allowed, and the organ may be played at mass and office, all of which are prohibited on other Lenten Sundays. The same relaxations are permitted on the third Sunday in Advent, sometimes called Rose Sunday in Advent.
St. Andrews, N.B.
ROBERT MONTGOMERY MARTIN (8th S. iii. 408). -There is an account of this author and his voluminous writings to be found in Allibone's 'Dictionary,' but neither the date of his birth or death is inserted. His first production is dated 1832. He wrote chiefly upon the colonies and colonial life, and very high praise is awarded to his writings in several leading periodicals which are mentioned. In the Cradle of the Twin Giants Science and History' (vol. ii. p. 117), by the Rev. Henry Christmas, M.A., a remarkable story is quoted of the discovery of a murder in New South Wales by a spectral appearance. This is said to be taken from the History of Australia,' p. 130, by Mr. Montgomery Martin, and Mr. Christmas calls it one of the latest and one of the best of stories concerning crimes discovered by apparitions. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A.
Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.
I am surprised that it is not intended to include Martin's name in the 'Dict. of Nat. Biography' (see Athen., April, 1891, p. 536), considering that,
in addition to the two works named by the British Vice-consul at Ciaudad Bolivar, he was the author of Ireland Past and Present,' 'Statistics of the British Colonies,' Taxation of the British Empire,' China, Political, Commerical, &c.,' 2 vols., History of Eastern India,' 3 vols.,' Hudson's Bay Territories and Vancouver's Island,' 'State of the Tea Trade in England,' and many others. No notice of his death has appeared in the Athenæum.
71, Brecknock Road.
EVERARD HOME COLEMAN.
See 'Men of the Time,' ed. 1868. I fancy that his life was not prosperous. E. H. M. Hastings.
HOW TO REMOVE VARNISH (8th S. iii. 428).French polish is a kind of varnish, as it is shellac dissolved in spirits of wine; and all varnishes are solutions of resin of some kind in oil, turpentine kind of varnish; wood naphtha will do it more or alcohol. Hence spirits of wine will remove any readily, but its smell is very offensive. Methylated spirits of wine is spirits of wine with a little wood naphtha added, to make it undrinkable, to save duty. L. L. K.
H. M. LL. might try with chloroform. HAROLD MALET, Colonel.
THE CEPHISUS and the Ilissus (8th S. iii. 303, 396). It can scarcely be doubted that in the passage of The Excursion' Wordsworth meant the Athenian Cephisus. But MR. BOUCHIER may take comfort. It has but a short course. A walk of eight miles or so would take the votary and his father to the head waters; and there they might find a "crystal lymph," not yet vaseuse," to "refresh the lip." The Phocian Cephisus is largely most glorious springs of bursting pellucid water, fed by, if it may not be said to find its source in, two called now-a-days ano- and kato-Agoriani, which
come forth from the west side of Parnassus. How Wordsworth would have rejoiced in them! "Fies nobilium tu quoque fontium," he might have said, if he had seen them. However, the outlets of Parnassian water have been changed, I believe, in the course of time by the action of earthquakes. If Apollo were now to visit Delphi, so far from laving his loosened locks in the pure dew of Castalia, he would scarce find enough to wet his toothbrush. He would surely be off to the Agoriani springs. C. B. MOUNT.
VAUGHAN AND Dodwell (8th S. i. 209, 453).— Doubtless R. D. has seen the extracts from the parish registers of Shottesbrooke, in Berkshire, printed in the Genealogist, vol. vii., giving at least four generations of the Dod well family. Can R. D. say where Henry Dodwell was born in 1641? There appear to have been families of Dodwell in the county Roscommon, at Sevenhampton, Dowdes
well, &c., in Gloucestershire; at Souldern, in Ox-
REGINALD STEWART BODDINGTON.
15, Markham Square, Chelsea.
REV. HENRY ADAMS, M.A. (1764-1839) (8th S. iii. 387, 417).-He matriculated from Wadham College, Oxford, Nov. 28, 1785, ct. twenty-one, as the son of Henry Adams, of Buckler's Hard, Hants, gent., and graduated B.A. June 12, 1789, proceeding M. A. on Dec. 17, 1794 (Foster's Alumni Oxonienses,' 1715-1886, i. 6). His death is thus recorded in Gent. Mag., July, 1839, New Series, vol. xii. p. 95:
April 27. At Beaulieu, Hants, aged 74, the Rev. Henry Adams, for forty-nine years Chaplain of that place, and Chaplain to Lord Viscount Montagu, and for forty-one years Vicar of Hatch Beauchamp."
Mr. Adams does not appear to have joined the ranks of authors. DANIEL HIPWELL.
17, Hilldrop Crescent, N.
name, so corrupted it into Fairmedoe and Fairmeadow. He says:
"I find that on the 20th April, 1683, letters of Administration were granted in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury of the estate of Sir Cornelius Fairmedoe, Knight, of St. Martin in the Fields, Middlesex, to his relict Dame Dyonisia. Among my extracts from the registers of St. Martin in the Fields I have this burial: 1638, April 6, Cornelius Farmado, eques auratus.' He goes on to tell me that in his own transcript of Dugdale's manuscript of knights, now in the Bodleian Library, it is stated that "Cornelius Faremedow, of Fulham, Middlesex," was knighted at Windsor, Sept. 25, 1628.
Sir Cornelius Vermeuyden is mentioned in Stonehouse's 'History of the Isle of Axholme,' in Rous's 'Diary' (Camd. Soc.), 128, and in 'Report of Hist. MSS. Com.,' iii. 228. I have also a note that Sir Cornelius and a Bartholomew Vermuyden had something to do with mines at Wirksworth. See Addit. MSS., 6677, pp. 191, 395; 6678, p. 261; 6681, p. 264; 6682, p. 355.
Cornelius Vermuyden the younger left the army of the Parliament a few days before the Battle of Naseby. Joshua Sprigg says, under June 8,
"A FLY ON THE CORPORAL 19 1645:(8th S. ii. 147; iii. 298, 416).—Has not the meaning of the word corporal" been misunderstood by your correspondents? Is not the allusion to the "corporale," which Bailey thus explaina ?—
"A Communion Cloth used in the Church of Rome, being a square Piece of Linen on which the Chalice and Host are placed by the Priest who officiates at Mass."
The presence of a fly thereon would be regarded as desecration. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY.
"This day, Colonel Vermuden, who the day before the quarters of the army, himself came to the general, was with his party of Horse returned, and come near to desiring (in regard of some special occasions which he said he had to draw him beyond seas) that he might have leave to lay down his commission, which was yielded unto, and accordingly he received his discharge." -'Anglia Rediviva,' ed. 1854, p. 32.
Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey.
HENCHMAN (7th S. ii. 246, 298, 336, 469; iii. SERENE HIGHNESS (8th S. iii. 409).-Does not 31, 150, 211, 310, 482; 8th S. iii. 194, 389).- Royal Highness" strictly (and etymologically) The word is older than 1415. It occurs in 1400, mean that the person bearing the title is the "Henxtmen Dominæ "1 (Wardrobe Account, 2 son, or other descendant, of a king; whereas Hen. IV., 95/30, Q.R.); 1378-9," Hans Wynsele, "Serene Highness" is the title of an archduke, a henxsman Regis"(ibid., 43/2, Q.R.). Henchmen grand duke, or some sovereign whose position is are mentioned in connexion with two queens, just short of regal? Cromwell certainly was not Katherine of France (ibid., Enrolments of Ex-a king's son by birth, and he failed to be a king's chequer, Roll 12, fol. 11, L.T.R.) and Marguerite father by usurpation, as this happy day (May 29) of Anjou (ibid., fol. 39, dorso). reminds us. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M. A.
"Serene Highness" will not be found in an English table of the order of precedence. It is a form of address restricted to the sovereign princes of Germany and their families. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 71, Brecknock Road.
EVAN (8th S. ii. 529; iii. 118, 336).—In answer to your respected contributor, I submit the nearest approach to a transliteration of the Welsh words "Ieuan" and "Ieuangc" would be "Yea-an" and "Yea-angk" and of the colloquial "Ifange" would be "E-vangk," with the accent on the first syllable of each of the three words. I might mention that
the accent of Welsh words is on the penultimate, 250; 6th S. i. 436; ii. 329, 358, 415, 433; iii. with very rare exceptions. 35; iv. 56; 7th S. iv. 127; vii. 26.'
There is no etymological or orthographical affinity in the words "Ifan" and Ifange." It is not correct to say "that they differ from one another by the addition of one letter only." "Ifan" is spelled with an n, but “Ifange" with ng, a digraph expressing the simple sound eng. What radical heresy could not be established by spelling words to suit the theory?
The "correct native spelling" of "Evan" is "Ifan," i and ƒ being the equivalents of the English e and v. The very old Welsh authors used v, but in modern Welsh it has been discarded and f substituted, I think with disadvantage, for it necessitates the adoption of a cumbrous digraph ff for f.
71, Brecknock Road,
EVERARD HOME COLEMAN.
NOTES ON BOOKS, &c.
St. Paul's Cathedral Library. By W. Sparrow Simpson, D.D. (Stock.) DR. SIMPSON does not profess to enumerate in this catalogue all the reparate volumes and pamphlets, 21,000 and odd, which are contained in the Cathedral Library. better than the whole in a judicious selection of the He gives us, however, that proverbial half which is books which seem to have a distinctive claim to belong to such a collection. The items here catalogued fall under three classes: (1) Biblical and Liturgical books; It is misleading to say that "Ieuan" is pro-ing; (3) books relating to the City of London generally. (2) books illustrating the history or fabric of the buildnounced "Ifan." In the Welsh every letter in a Miscellaneous works which may be found in general word has its own proper value, and asserts itself in libraries are of set purpose omitted. This unique collecthe pronunciation distinctly and without variation. tion, over which Dr. Simpson presides, has been got There are no silent letters and no changes. Once together almost entirely during his own tenure of the you have mastered the alphabet, you read straight when he was appointed to the office, in 1862, there was librarianship. He mentions, with pardonable pride, that on without let or hindrance. "Ieuan" could not hardly a book in the library, with the exception of Dugbe pronounced "Ifan." dale's well-known work, which bore directly on the Cathedral; now it is the most important and complete collection in existence on this special subject. desideratum we have noted is John Weever's Ancient Funerall Monuments,' 1631, which gives much curious information about Old St. Paul's, a not very scarce book, but we have failed to notice it in these pages or the index. Dr. Simpson refers with some satisfaction to the series of Paul's Cross sermons which he has brought together, and to the valuable collection of maps, plans, and views which he has amassed by diligent research. His zeal has led him even to seek out books in general literature which give incidental notices of St. Paul's. Among these allusion-books he has overlooked George Wither's Britain's Remembrancer,' 1628 (pp. 108 seq.), an author, by the way, whose name he misspells on accurately done, and we congratulate the learned The bibliography seems very carefully and librarian on this colophon put to his labours.
There can be no doubt that the Welsh word for John, "Ioan," pronounced "Yo-an" is the Greek Iwavvns, abbreviated to suit the Welsh idiom and introduced with the Gospel into the language, as were many other Greek words, for instance, "Efengyl"=gospel, ang-el" angel, &c. I can give no authority at present, but it is taken and accepted by Welshmen generally that the names "Afan," "Ifan," "Owain," "Ieuan," are mere variants of "Ioan." So also the Russian "Ivan " and the Spanish "Juan," pronounced "Yu-an," I understand.
I could not pretend to trace the history and causes of all these variants, but it is obvious that the case of "Ieuan" and "Ivan," of "Ieuange" and "Ivange" must be referred to the medieval MS. writers who used the u and the vinterchangeably, and the readers would pronounce these letters indifferently according to their fancy. If you displace the u in "Ieuan" by the v of "Ivan " you have "Ievan," and if you transpose the u of "Ieuan" to the place of v in "Ivan," " Iuan" reappears; so also by the transposition of these letters in "Ieuange" and "Ifange," one word will take the place of the other. JNO. HUGHES.
17, Upper Warwick Street, Liverpool. There is no sound of Y in the Spanish "Juan." The J is pronounced as a harsh aspirate, and between the u and the a these should be heard something very like the German ch.
W. F. WAller.
COBBLERS CALLED "SNOBS" (8th S. iii. 428).This question has been repeatedly asked in 'N. & Q.,' and replies obtained. See 1 S. i. 185,
The Monumental Brasses of Lancashire and Cheshire.
THE engravings given in this useful volume have been
The west of England was, it is probable, never so rich in monuments of this kind as the southern and eastern shires; and, like the rest of the land, the churches there have suffered much from the violence of fanatics, the carelessness of churchwardens, and the stupidity of church restorers. Mr. Thornely has a sad tale to tell of "brasses torn from their beds in the floor of the choir and carted away to make room for those tiles so dear to the heart of the restoring churchwarden." Mr. Thornely
has arranged his engravings and illustrative matter in chronological order. The series does not begin at an
early date. The oldest in the district_the_writer has undertaken to illustrate is that of John Huntington, Warden of Manchester, which yet exists in the cathedral. He is vested in his canon's robes, and this brass is, on that account, of especial interest, as it shows how secular canons were vested when in choir at a period (1458) nearly a hundred years before the Reformation.
The latest brass Mr. Thornely has figured is that of Ralph Assheton, of Middleton, dated 1650. He was an officer in the service of the Parliament during the Civil War, and is represented in his armour of plate and jackboots as he rode forth to battle. His commander's baton is in his hand and his sword supported by a very long belt. We should conjecture from the pose of the figure that it is an exact copy of a full-length portrait painted during life.
A History of Crustacea. By the Rev. Thomas R. R. Stebbing, M.A. (Kegan Paul & Co.) THE volume before us forms the seventy-fourth of the "International Scientific Series," with some of which it may safely be assumed that all readers interested in any part of natural science are well acquainted. The present (if we may be pardoned for a small pleasantry) is on rather a crabbed subject, but it is treated in a way which speaks well for the choice of the hand to which it has been entrusted. Probably none but adepts have much idea of how extensive the whole subject is, so that only a portion could be adequately discussed in a volume of the size of those in this series. Dr. Henry Woodward, of the British Museum, had intended to publish therein a history of recent and fossil crustacea, but has been compelled to postpone it from the continual pressure of other engagements. The results of his unrivalled knowledge of the extinct forms will probably at some future time be given to the public, and the materials which he had collected relating to the characters of the living organisms are in reserve for a future volume. Mean time, the portion of the subject dealt with in the present was by his express desire entrusted to Mr. Stebbing. It relates to the sub-class Malacostraca (a Greek word meaning soft-shelled animals), which includes those crustaceans which are highest in development and of most direct value to mankind. Their structure and habits are described in a way which cannot fail to inspire an interest in their study; and the value of the volume is greatly increased by the excellence of the illustrations.
Epochs of American History.-Division and_Reunion, 1829-1889. By Woodrow Wilson, Ph.D., LL.D. (Long. mans, Green & Co.)
THIS useful series of text-books, edited by Professor Hart of Harvard College, contains in brief compass an epitome of American history from 1492. The third and concluding volume, written by Dr. Woodrow Wilson, Professor of Jurisprudence in Princeton University, brings down the narrative to the end of President Cleve land's first administration in 1889. It is well printed and carefully indexed. To the student who desires to extend his inquiries on any particular topic the bibliographies which are attached to the several divisions of the book will be exceedingly useful. Though apparently intended for the use of American schools, the average Englishman, who has but a vague idea of American history, will learn much by perusing it.
Nevill Simmons, Bookseller and Publisher. With Notices of Literature connected with Old Sheffield. By George Hester. (Sheffield, Leader & Sons; London, Stock.)
MR. HESTER seems to demonstrate that there were two Nevill Simmonses who were publishers. There was one
at Kidderminster and another at Sheffield. As we can trace them for more than half a century, it is almost certain that they were not the same. We also meet with a printer of this name in 1670, whose place of business was the Three Crowns at Holborn Conduit. Mr. Hester gives several interesting bibliographical notices of these Puritan booksellers, who certainly knew Richard Baxter and who may well have come in contact with Milton. What we are about to say has little relation to the subject, but Mr. Hester's interesting pages have suggested to us how usefully some local antiquary would be employed who gave us a Sheffield bibliography. Most of the early Sheffield books are, we have been told, in the Hailstone collection in the library of York Minster.
WE have received the first volume of the Calendar of Letters and State Papers relating to English Affairs preserved in the great Spanish record repository_at Simancas, issued by Her Majesty's Stationery Office under the direction of the Master of the Rolls. Mr. Martin A. 8. Hume is the editor. Few volumes of this abstracts leave little or nothing to be desired; they are great series show more careful workmanship. The sufficiently full to satisfy the demands of all but the most exigent antiquaries. The period covered is a most important one (1558-1567). Religious hatred had then arisen to boiling point. There was not a Christian land in which torture and death were not dealt out with lavish prodigality to those who held forms of faith not accepted by the ruling powers. As has been remarked before, every one with serious convictions on matters of faith at once looked around to find some one whom he might burn for contradicting them. Few persons, we imagine, will read the volume through from cover to cover; but there is no one who takes serious interest in Elizabethan history who will not find therein much that will interest
WE learn that Mr. de V. Payen-Payne is about to publish through Messrs. Nutt a work on French Idioms and Proverbs,' as a companion to Prof. Deshumbert's Dictionary of Difficulties.'
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