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city, but being unsuccessful in obtaining the licence of the Bishop of Bath and Wells, he opened the chapel as a building apart from episcopal control, and eventually seceded from the Church of England. He afterwards purchased Bethesda Chapel, Bath, and remained there until his removal to Brighton. Here he acquired the Pavilion Chapel, in which he officiated for some years, but his health failing him, he was latterly compelled to spend the winter at Nice. Mr. Wallinger, who held Calvinistic views both before and after his secession from the Established Church, died in Albert Road, Brighton, on March 28, 1878, and was buried in the extra-mural cemetery at that place. He married at Gretna Green on April 3, 1820, Harriet, eldest daughter of John Newenham Devonsher, Esq., of Kilsharrig, co. Cork, and had issue by her four sons and three daughters. His eldest son, John Arnold Wallinger, Esq., is the present representative of the family.

Lynn as early as 1549, in which year and 1551
it was added to Bibles of Taverner's translation,
published by John Day. See J. R. Dore's 'Old
Bibles,' p. 142. Other versions of it are by
William Whiston, 1719, in 'Authentic Docu-
ments'; by Clement Cruttwell, 1785, in a Bible
with notes by Bishop Wilson; and in America by
Dr. E. C. Bissell, 1880.

Of the fourth book there is no other version
except a paraphrastic one, 1702, in L'Éstrange's
'Josephus' (of whose works it was at that time
supposed to form part).

I believe that this list is complete.

Longford, Coventry.

C. F. S. WARRen, M.A.


Besides the two books of Maccabees usually included in the Apocrypha, there are three others all five was published at Oxford in 1832 by the called by that name. An English translation of It may be added that Mr. Wallinger's first late Dr. Henry Cotton, Dean of Lismore. cousins, the Rev. Wm. Wallinger, M.A. (ob. places the so-called third book first, because it Nov. 3, 1880, ct. eighty-five), Prebendary of relates to a period earlier than the rest, before the Chichester, and John Arnold Wallinger, Esq., time of the Maccabees, so that the title is only due appointed a serjeant-at-law on July 14, 1848, who to the fact that the expression Maccabee was died April 4, 1860, aged sixty-two, were the only afterwards adopted by the Jews to designate any sons of Wm. Arnold Wallinger, whose death is this book the Bishop of Durham remarks in one who had to suffer persecution for religion. Of thus recorded in the Gentleman's Magazine, Sep-Smith's Dictionary of the Bible,' that "while it tember, 1798, vol. Ixviii. pt. ii. p. 815:

"Sept. 6. At his house in Milbank-street, West: minster, William Arnold Wallinger, esq. merchant, and captain of the St. Margaret and St. John's association."

17, Hilldrop Crescent, N.


MACCABEES (8th S. iii. 169).-There are many translations of the third and fourth books. The classical edition of the Maccabees in English is "The Five Books of Maccabees in English, with Notes and Illustrations, by Henry Cotton, Archdeacon of Cashel, Oxford, 1832." The fifth book only exists in Arabic, and in the Latin version of the Paris Polyglot, 1645, and it must be noted that it is only from this modern Latin that Archdeacon Cotton has translated it. There is no version direct from the original. Also it must be noted that the archdeacon has, for chronological reasons, altered the numbering of the books, so that his first is that usually called the third, his second and third the first and second, the other two being as usual.

However, this work has been long out of print, and ANON. will most easily find what he wants (except the fifth book) either in Bagster's edition of the Apocrypha in Greek and English, or in "The Uncanonical and Apocryphal Scriptures, by the Rev. W. R. Churton," which latter work is advertised almost every week in 'N. & Q.' Bagster's version of the books in question is by the Rev. H. F. Woolrych.

The third book, indeed, was translated by Walter

historical, some basis of truth must be supposed to
is impossible to accept the details of the book as
lie beneath them." There have been several Eng-
lish translations of it, the first of which was put
forth by Walter Lynne in 1550. The so-called
fourth book of the Maccabees was formerly errone-
ously ascribed to Josephus ; it goes over nearly the
nor the fifth book (the author of which is quite
same ground as the second book. Neither this
unknown) had appeared in English before Dr.
Cotton's version, though French translations of
both had been published. The latter brings the
Jewish history down nearly to the end of the reign
of Herod the Great. Although the author's name
is unknown, there is internal evidence that he
wrote after the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus.
His knowledge of Roman history, if not extensive,
is peculiar; witness his account of the Hannibalic
war, in which he tells us that the Romans, after the
battle [of Cannæ], deliberated about surrendering
the country until they were dissuaded from it by
Scipio, who offered to make an expedition into
Africa, where he defeated and killed Asdrubal,
Hannibal's brother, and afterwards Hannibal, being
recalled, was defeated also, fled into Egypt, but
was followed and captured by Scipio, on which he.
took poison.



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given, attention may be called to the entry in 'A Key into the Language of America,' by Roger Williams, "of Providence in New England," printed in London, 1643, by Gregory Dexter. Roger Williams says: "What cheare, Nétop?' is the general salutation of all English toward them," that is, the Indians of southern New England, about 1640. He adds that "Nétop" means friend, and Mr. Trumbull, the greatest living scholar in Algonkin philology, explains that ety, mologically it means my friend, or comrade." It is stated that when Williams, driven from Massachusetts, landed in June, 1636, at the place he called Providence, the Narragansets, more hospitable than the Puritans of Boston, greeted him with the welcome, "What cheer, Nétop?" The "What cheer?" of Shakespeare and the gentle Narragansets has been the motto of the beautiful city of Providence, Rhode Island, from the outset, and is carried in the seal of the city as well as by local institutions. It is the one word by which Rhode Islanders know each other the world over. When the Pilgrim Fathers landed at Plymouth, Samoset greeted them with the words, "Welcome, Englishmen." So it seems that a bit of honest English may be picked up from the American Indians of 1620 and 1636. "What cheer?" may be slang in old England; here it means Providence,

Rhode Island. Boston, Mass.


"What cheer?" may be slightly slangy, but it is not so very modern. Some fifty years ago I spent a few months in Newcastle-on-Tyne. There I found the phrase literally in every mouth. The keelman, the pitman, every "canny lad" on the street saluted his passing acquaintance with "What cheer?" and the acknowledgment came back as readily, "What cheer?" It was the "How do you do?" of politer society. I believe it is still generally used. In my wanderings through the far West I have occasionally met with a Tyneside man. The old greeting of "What cheer?" would open his heart and make his face shine in an instant. "What cheer?" has also an American connexion. In 1636 Roger Williams, a Welsh clergyman, was expelled from Massachusetts for nonconformity. A few years previous the Rev. Wm. Blackstone, another fugitive from conformity, had effected a settlement in what is now Rhode Island. Williams sought the same refuge, and, with five followers, landed at the head of Narraganset Bay. The Blackstone settlers had probably taught the natives some English, for as Williams and his friends drew near the beach an Indian saluted them with, "What cheer, friends, what cheer?" Williams accepted the kindly word as a good omen, and it took deep root in the traditions and realities of the city of Providence, which he then founded. The phrase still asserts itself in "What cheer?" newspapers,

banks, public buildings, &c. It may not be in such everyday use on the shores of Narraganset as on the banks of the Tyne, but it is well known and much respected in its New England home. DOLLAR.

defined in Hotten's 'Slang Dictionary as "a "BOXING HARRY" (8th S. iii. 128).—This is plying dinner and tea at one meal; also dining term with bagmen or commercial travellers, imwith Duke Humphrey,' i. e., going without." Mr. Farmer repeats this definition in his 'Slang and its Analogues.' Wimbledon.


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DECAY OF HISTORY (8th S. iii. 124). — MR. at a correction. The "State Services" did not HYDE CLARKE, I am sure, will not be offended become optional," as he expresses it. They were formally abolished by a royal warrant, the same 17, 1859, and are now, therefore, absolutely authority which imposed their use, dated January illegal. Prayer Book) gives no option; the Queen's AccesThe warrant (printed at the end of the sion Service alone is retained.



AUSTIN BERNHER (8th S. iii. 148).-Your correspondent W. S. S. will find, if he refers to Bohn's edition of Lowndes's 'Bibliographer's Manual,' that a collection of 'Sermons preached by Maister Hugh Latimer' was published by John Day, in quarto, in 1562, and that it contains a dedication to the "Duches of Suffolke" by Aug. Bernher. The index to the edition of Foxe's 'Acts and Monumonts' issued by Seeley in 1868 describes Austin Bernher as Latimer's servant, and gives the following references: vi. 393, 756; vii. 262, 398, 767; viii. 185, 404, 456, 457.


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"CROCKERY":"DUSTMAN" (8th S. iii. 146). — So far from dustman having been introduced as a new substantive by Miss Burney in 1782, Mr. Oliphant would have found it if he had looked into Gay's Trivia,' 1715. In book ii. l. 37, we read :

The dustman's cart offends thy cloaths and eyes. J. DIXON. OLD COIN OR TOKEN (8th S. iii. 209).—I think J. L. B. will find the coin he asks about in 'N. & Q.' is an old crest button, made by Messrs. Firmin & Sons, who for some years had a button and accoutrement shop in Conduit Street. I see they are now at 155, Strand, and I have no doubt would give him all information required.


KING AND QUEEN OF THE SANDWICH ISLANDS (8th S. iii. 105, 177).-I do not think I am insensible to humour, but I cannot see anything amusing or comical in the death of these personages. Hood so loved a joke that he sometimes overstepped the bounds of good taste in search of one. That the king and queen should have come to England, and there died within a few days of one another, struck me at the time as affecting, and so it seems to me still. Death is a serious thing; and circumstances made it in the case of these islanders unusually sad. As to their complexion, they certainly did not deserve the name of darky, usually given to negroes. How any one could approve of the epitaph suggested at the close of their career," I cannot understand. To me it seems both unfeeling and silly. When Queen Emma was here, in 1865, I saw a good deal of her. She was of white blood on her father's side; but her two companions were full-blood islanders, and they were not more swarthy than mulattoes. JAYDEE.

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"WHETHER OR NO (8th S. iii. 186). —Am I right in thinking that this locution involves & precious survival, which no one would be more unwilling to stamp out than MR. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY, if he should come to judge of the matter as I do? It seems to me that the no=the not which he desiderates, and that it represents the na or ne used in southern English, after northcountry men had accepted as a synonym the innovation noht. There is a more or less unknown writer of the Elizabethan age, whose very name we moderns are undecided how to spell, who would, perhaps, have more sympathy than MR. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY has with the newspapers, novels, and magazines of today, which "revel" in the use of "whether or no"; for he was a fellow-sinner. A little out of fashion that mode of speech may have been, even in the sixteenth century, as I observe he attached it for the most part to the less polished individuals of the motley crowd of personages it pleased him to portray; but he makes an astonished King of Naples exclaim, in a moment of agitation,


Whether thou be'st he or no,
Or some enchanted trifle to abuse me
As late I have been I not know,
causes one Cassius to remark,—
it is doubtful yet

Whether Cæsar will come forth to-day or no. Whether I be right or wrong, then, in the supposition that I entertain, I would plead that any English yet current amongst penmen which was been quoting, ought not to be "called in" by legalized by the gentleman from whom I have

Are the royal remains still in the vaults of St. Martin's Church; and if so, why? For, according to the Annual Begister,' 1824, the bodies were embalmed, and, after lying in state, deposited in a vault in St. Martin's Church, until they could be conveyed home." Moreover, "Government gave orders for every respect being shown to their remains in their conveyance to Owhyhee." Since writing as above, I have read in This expression, if a story I have heard is true, the late Lady Brassey's 'A Voyage in the Sunbeam' is used with a disregard of other things besides that their remains " were brought back here [Hono-grammar. A lady, I have been told, wrote to a

the condemnation of critics or be nailed to the ST. SWITHIN.

counter as spurious.

friend that she would pay her a visit on Monday
D. V., and on Tuesday whether or no!
C. F. S. WARren, M.A.

Longford, Coventry.



narrative we gather that the inhabitants of Ufton Court were quiet, peaceable folk, who desired nothing except the permission to worship in quietness after the manner of their forefathers. Although the old court has been mutilated and degraded, the oratory in which the offices of their religion were performed has not been swept away. The old house also contains more than one of those strange dens, called priests' hiding-holes, in which the wandering ministers of the fallen faith were wont to conceal themselves when hunted by pursuivant and constable. We trust they may long survive, as memorials of a state of barbarism which has happily passed away. We gather from the records which Miss Sharp has disknow-covered that the Perkinses might have lived in peace among their neighbours had it not been for the overofficious zeal of a certain informer named Roger Plumpton-can he have been a far-away scion of the old Yorkshire race of that name?-who, for the hope of reward, no doubt, acted as a spy upon their actions. His accusation against Francis Perkins has been handed down to us. It bears date 1586, a disturbed and dangerous time, when the ruling powers suspected every one of treasonable practises who did not conform to the Church of England. The whole document gives a most curious picture of the state of terror in which "popish recusants" lived. With all his cunning, the spy could not make out very much. Care was taken to hinder as much as possible his seeing the habits of the household, but the fellow was sharp-witted and had quick ears. On more than one occasion he deposes to having seen of the familye, one after another, slipping upp in a secrett manner to a bighe chaumber in the toppe of the howse & theere continewe the space of an hower & halfe or moore &...... harkening as neere as he might to the place, hath often heard a little bell rounge, which be imagineth to be a sacring bell, whereby he conjectureth that they resorte to hear masse."

Historic Towns.-York. By Rev. James Raine, M.A.,
D.C.L. (Longmans.)
CANON RAINE, we need not tell our readers, is an accom-
plished antiquary. Not only has he a profound
ledge of the York archives, but bis acquaintance with
European history is of a wide and genuine character.
There are very few of us who may be trusted to
generalize on historical subjects beyond the limits of our
own island, but Canon Raine is, by the universal con-
sent of the few who are in a position to be able to
criticize him, one of that select number. He is, there-
fore, especially qualified for writing a history of the
City of York which shall be at the same time popular
and scholar-like, for the interests attaching to York are
not confined to England only. As one of the early
homes of Christianity in the north, the old Northumbrian
capital is an object of great interest. She did not hide
her light under a bushel, but spread the flame south-
ward over what was then barbarous Germany. Egberht,
Wigberht, and Willibrord spread the Gospel in Fries-
land, the last of them founding the great line of Bishops
of Utrecht. Wilfrith was, it is believed, the first Christian
missionary who set foot among these wild scions of the
great Teutonic stock. His name must ever be indissolubly
connected with York, although his body rests, as is fitting,
in the minster he founded at Ripon.

Canon Raine does not trace the history of events further than the abdication of James II. We wish be had followed the stream of time down to the '45, and told us of the poor, unhappy creatures who were put to death at York for the part they took in the vain endeavour to bring about a second restoration of the house of Stuart.

The author draws attention to a medieval legend that the body of the Emperor Constantius was discovered in a sepulchral vault under the church of St. Helen without the walls, and that with it was found a lamp which had been burning ever since the emperor's burial. We now know that such tales cannot possibly be true, but many of them exist in the older literature of Europe. It would be well to have a collection of them, so that, if possible, we might ascertain what has been the origin of this picturesque piece of folk-lore. The History of Ufton Court, of the Parish of Ufton, the County of Berks, and of the Perkins Family. By A. Mary Sharp. (Stock.)


WE have seldom met with a volume which more fully carries out the promise of its title-page. Miss Sharp has given her readers a history of Ufton Court in the very best sense of a word which is very often misused. We have no scissors-and-paste work here, but a chronicle of a noble old dwelling and of the worthy race that inhabited it carried on with conscientious care from generation to generation.

The Perkinses of Ufton were a Roman Catholic race, who clung to the old ways of thinking when all around was changing. Their fidelity to the elder faith brought much trouble upon them during the times of the cruel penal laws. In their case the punishments seem to have been without the slightest justification. Some of the Roman Catholic gentry were, there can be no doubt, dieloyal to their Protestant rulers, but from Miss Sharp's


The author has discovered a highly curious account of a riot which has hitherto been hidden among the Star Chamber papers of the reign of Henry VIII. We are grateful to her for printing it. It tends to show that the manners of the gentry in the earlier Tudor time were as rough and violent as those of the London rough of the present time. We must not conclude without noticing the excellent illustrations with which Miss Sharp's interesting volume is enriched.

The Essays of Montaigne. Done into English by John
Florio. The Second Book. (David Nutt.)
WITH the second volume of the new edition of Florio's
Montaigne, published in something approaching to fac-
simile by Mr. Nutt and reintroduced to the public by Mr.
George Saintsbury, the cancel leaves are issued to replace
the erroneous title-page to which, in our review of the first
volume, we called attention. A special feature in Florio's
translation is the curious rendering of the Latin ex-
leaves alone.
tracts: those from Lucretius Florio sometimes chastely
These translations are very like in style
to the speeches assigned the players in Hamlet.' The
edition is both attractive and convenient. Something
may be said in favour of the folios so dear to Charles
Lamb and Cotter Morison, but one at the present time
suffering from an accident due to the fall of a folio will
be content to have them in this smaller if still substantial
folio, and find it satisfactory in all respects. It is, indeed,
We have compared the reprint with the original


a scholar's book.

Verzeichniss der Bibliotheken mit gegen 50,000 und mehr Bänden. II. Von P. E. Richter. (Leipzig, Verlag von G. Hedeler.)

THIS is the second and concluding part of a valuable index to the nature and extent of the collections in

the principal public and some of the more remarkable private libraries of the Old and New Worlds, which we owe to the zeal and care of the Librarian of the Royal Library, Dresden. The part now before us contains the Romance, Slavonic, and Scandinavian countries of Europe, and also includes Africa, Asia, Australia, and the greater part of the American continent, taking in several notable private collections in the United States.

There are some lacuna which we hope the erudite Royal Librarian at Dresden may see his way to filling. before the next edition of his work is called for. A few misprints occur-e.g, "Chalon" for Châlons, "Forli " for Forli-which can easily be corrected. As he evidently, and we think rightly, takes the minimum of 50,000 volumes somewhat broadly, and not as one to he slavishly adhered to, he might, we cannot but feel, have increased the value of his book by giving us the statistics of such special libraries as those of the Society of Comparative Legislation, Paris, the Geographical Society of Lisbon, the Royal Lombard Institute, Milan, the Chapter Library, Verona, where the celebrated Gaius is preserved, and other such rather out-of-the-way collections, information as to which is not easily to be met with. What has already been gathered together by Herr Richter gives us the desire that he may long continue his most useful labours.

Men of Kent and Kentishmen. By John Hutchinson. (Canterbury, Cross & Jackman.)

MR. HUTCHINSON has compiled a handbook of all those personages who, being natives of that famous county, have at any time distinguished themselves in any way. His tale, full told, extends to only 227 items. We should have thought he might have secured more. He makes no pretence to original research, but takes his information from the usual biographical collections, devoting half a page or so to each of his worthies. That Mr. Hutchinson does his best to swell out his catalogue appears patent from his including Sophia, the infant daughter of James I., who, though she only lived three days, distinguished herself by getting born at Greenwich.

John Wyclif. By Lewis Sergeant. (Putnam's Sons.) WHEN a writer essays once more such a well-worn subject as John Wyclif and his times we naturally turn to his preface with some curiosity, to see what justification he can plead for his work of apparent supereroga


The position of this work as the most convenient and trustworthy in its class remains unassailed. The present is the twenty-third annual issue, and all conceivable pains have been taken to secure accuracy.

Notices to Correspondents.

We must call special attention to the following notices: ON all communications must be written the name and address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith.

We cannot undertake to answer queries privately.

To secure insertion of communications correspondents must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested to head the second communication "Duplicate."

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We find, then, that this is a response to the imperious demand (we had nearly said fad) of the day that everybody and everything of importance must be treated as one of a series. Wyclif must needs be written up to take his predestined niche as one of the "Heroes of the Nations"-an excellent series, by the way, if such things must be. Mr. Sergeant takes credit to himself that he has done something to popularize the picture of John Wyclif as an Oxford schoolman and the picture of the schoolmen in general as pioneers of the reformation He draws of freligion and the revival of learning. special attention to the fact that the later schoolmen, so far from being bigoted upholders of ancient authority, were often of an innovating and revolutionary spirit. It was from them that the Doctor Evangelicus inherited his intellectual emancipation and independent inquiry. We can congratulate Mr. Sergeant on having produced Deposit, and allows Interest monthly on each completed £1.

a bright and readable narrative in a popular and attractive style, and so having fulfilled his purpose. The six representative portraits which he brings together for the first time are of great interest.

The Clergy Directory and Parish Guide for 1893 has been published by Mr. J. S. Phillips, of Fleet Street.



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