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laws of affinity, as well as of hospitality, pleaded in his cause and that of his followers.

Here, says Mr. O'Halloran in a kind of triumph, we see to demonstration thé Milesian adventurers well acquainted with the country, its inhabitants, and their ancestry :--we also find them speaking the same language ; 'nor is there in history a fact better ascertained than this, notwithftanding the flippant affertions of some moderns, who will, on their bare authorities, have it, that all the colonies, previous to the Milesian expedition, came from Britain.' On this point we will not dispute with our historian. · It is told of Ith, that finding the three princes (brothers) who then jointly ruled Ireland, were met at a palace not very diftant, to agree about a partition of the crown jewels, he resolved to pay

them a visit. “He conducted himself with so much difcretion, that the princes agreed to constitute him umpire. His justice and impartiality on the occasion is said not only to have prevented a civil war, but to have entirely reconciled the brothers, and given them great pleasure. But soon after Ith had. left them, they began to reflect on the high encomiums he bestowed on their country, and the diligence with which he had obferved and explored it, from whence, with other circumstances, they concluded he was a fpy, and formed the resolution, for their own security, to cut off him and his party before they could reach their fhip. One of the brothers was immediately detached with a number of men by a different route; they soon overtook Ith, who with his men retreated as fast as they could to their fhip, and as they drew nearer, a desperate attack was made, in which the flower of his small company were killed, and with great difficulty the remains of the inattered troop reached the vessel, bearing with them their general mortally wounded.

. Such was the event of the first Milesian expedition to Ireland. Those who reached Spain were provided with fufficient arguments to excite their countrymen to renew the attempt. Their preparations were vigorous, their troops numerous, and their Aeet, it is said, such as would be respectable at any time, but for that period a very great one. This was the grand Milesian expedition under the conduct of Heber and Heremon. Our Author gives us the names of several principal persons as they have been, he says, carefully preserved in the Irish annals, and he mentions them, because many considerable places in the kingdom yet commemorate them, of which he produces instances. On their landing, an embassy was sent to the reigning princes, the three sons of Cearmada, requiring a speedy submission. They replied, that it was contrary to the rules of war to take them thus by surprize, but if they would give proper time to collect

their troops, they would then put the fate of the kingdom to the issue of a battle.' It was at length agreed that the Milesians fhould re-embark, and their fhips clear the coasts; after which, if they made good their second landing, it should be deemed an equitable invasion, and the Damnonii, or present poffeffors, would either submit or oppose them as they found most convenient

• I Mall make no comment, says Mr. O'Halloran, on this extraordinary agreement, but observe to my readers, that it was faithfully adhered to by the Milesian chiefs. They conveyed all their troops and provisions on board, and put to sea with their whole fleet. When they had all cleared the land, and were fairly in the main ocean, they tacked about to reach the .coasts they had left; but at this very critical time, a violent storm of wind at West arose, owing, say, our annals, to the magical powers of the Damnonii; but let that pass as one of the many instances of pitiable credulity in our annalists, though at the same time of their great dread to alter the least iota in the national records ; since nothing can be more absurd than recurring to preternatural causes in accounting for facts which we know may happen, and often happen, as a Westerly wind is a kind of trade wind on our coast. The wind increaling, and want of sufficient sea room, were the fources of dreadful calamities. The galley commanded by Donn ran into the Shannon, and was dashed to pieces beyond the Cashel, at a place which to this day retains his name,


foul on board perished ! Behde this chief, we are particularly told that twentyfour common soldiers, twelve women, four galley flaves, fifty select warriors, and five captains, being all on board, shared his fate! The galley commanded by Ir, met the same fate on the Desmond coast. The remainder of this Acet, though much damaged, stood off to sea till the storm abated, and then relanded at Inbher-Sceine ; but Arranan a most experienced seaman, in the height of their distress, mounting the mast to secure fome fails, which none other had the boldness to attempt, was by the violence of the wind dashed down on the deck, where he died. The place of his interment yet goes by the name of Cnoc Arranan, though vulgarly called Cnoc Arrar, bordering on the Shannon, in Kerry. The squadron commanded by Heremon felt part of this storm, though most of them landed safely at Inbher-Colpa, or Drogheda, so called from Colpa who perished here, as did likewise Aireach. Thus by this high point of honour, of the eight fons of Milesius five perished in this form, beside many ladies and captains of special note, and numbers of soldiers.

• The second landing was effected on the 17th day of the month Bel or May, and in the year of the werdd, according to



: Rev, Feb. 1779.

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the Hebrew computation, 2736. The troops of Heber immsa diately took poffeffion of their former camp at Sliabh-mis; nor were the Damnonii in the mean time idle, since we find them collect ro considerable a force as to attack his entrenchments the third day after their landing. The attack was long and bloody but the Danaaris at length gave way to superior courage, having left a thousand of their best troops killed in the trenches. The loss of the Milesians was alfo confiderable; three hundred brave fellows falling by the sword of the enemy, with two Druids, who animated them by their prayers, and two ladies, Scota, widow of Milesius, and Fais, wife to Un. The next day the remains of these amazons were interred with great funeral pomp; Scota in a vale, to this day from her called Glean-Scota, near Tralee, where a royal monument was erected to her memory. The beauty of this place has been celebrated by antiquity; but at present it appears a dreary uncultivated waste, the fatal consequences of depopulation and neglect of til. kage ! Fais was buried in another valley near Sliabh-mis, which yet retains the name of Glean Fais.

• Encouraged by this first defeat of the enemy, the Milesians in good order proceeded towards Inbher-Colpa, or Drogheda, to join their associates commanded by Heremon; and we cannot doubt but in their route they were joined by many malcontents, but particularly by the Belgæ. This junction was happily effceted, and now united, they send a second fummons to the fons of Cearmada to surrender the kingdom, or to appoint a day to put its fate to the issue of the fword. These princes return a refolute answer, that they would die as they lived, monarchs of Ireland ; and that they would meet them on the plains of Tailten, in Meath, where the longest sword and strongest arm should determine the conquest. At the time agreed on the two armies met, resolved on victory or death. Their numbers were nearly equal, as were the commanders; the three fons of Milefius, to wit, Heber, Heremon, and Amhergin, heading the invaders, while the Damnonii were led on by the three sons of Cearmada, The fight soon began, and continued with astonishing obstinacy froin sun-rife, even to fun-fet, as the book of invasion notes. The oppofing princes eagerly fought for each other, through numbers of wounded and dying enemies. At length they met. The fate of Ireland now, like that of Rome, in the days of the Horatii, hung on the swords of these contending brothers ! At length Mac Cuill fell by the hand of Heber-fion, Mac Creacht Was Nain by Heremon, and Mac Greine by Amhergin. The Danaans, now deprived of their chiefs, gave way on every fide, but this had more the air of a regular retreat, than a precipitate flight. The victors wisely considering, that if the enemy now etcaped, it would be the source of fresh devastations, closely,


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but in good order, pursued them. The Danaans made a gallant effort at Sliabh-Cuálgne, so called from Cualgne, the son of Breogan, who fell in this battle; a second stand they made at Sliabh-Fuadh, so named from Fuadh, brother to Cualgne, who was here Nain. But more enraged than intimidated at these checks, the Milesians continued the pursuit, putting to the sword all the enemy they met, and so effectually broke them, that they were never after able to make the least difturbance in the kingdom ; and such as did not passively fubmit to the new government retired to Britain, possessing themselves of Devonthire and Cornwall, and carrying with them their name and language. Thus, after ruling Ireland for an hundred and ninety-five years, under nine princes, were the Danaans completely conquered. From their history it is evident that they were a very warlike, as well as a learned people.'

The above relation of an important revolution in the Irish history we have chosen to lay before the reader in the author's own words, from whence some judgment may be formed of his · manner of writing. He proceeds to tell us of the policy and humanity with which the Milesians treated their new subjects, which he contrasts with what he calls, the opposite conduct pursued fince the revolution; but it should be remarked, that he does not, here at least, ftate those reasons and motives which, when they are properly examined, might possibly give some ground for a different mode of policy. However, this is an argument we do not undertake to discuss.

The supreme command of Ireland was vested in Heber and Heremon; the former, 'this writer says, had the southern half of the island, and the northern was the property of the latter. • The nobility, the military, and the followers of these two princes, had estates and lands alligned to them, in proportion to their different ranks; but O‘Naoi, a celebrated mufician, and Mac Cis, a bard of the first eminence, had like to have produced much trouble, each prince being fond of retaining both in his service. It was, however, determined by lot, when the musician fell to the share of Heber, and the bard to that of his brother Heremon; an early index, remarks Mr. O'Halloran, who neglects nothing for the honour of his country, of that protection which the Irish nation ever after afforded to poetry and music! Nor were arts, agriculture, and manufactures leis attended to.-Nor should it be forgot to the credit of our literati, that while many important actions of our ancestors have been loft, yet the names of such princes as most remarkably attended to and encouraged agriculture have carefully been handed down from age to age? Ireland was undoubtedly formerly, what China is at this day, one continued scene of tillage.' H 2


Should any of our Readers with to know how Heber and Heremon proceeded in their new conquest and government, this Author gives the following account:

« The present pleasing dawn was soon clouded by ambition, for, rara concordia fratrum! Like Pompey and Cæsar, Heber could not brook an equal, nor Heremon a superior. Our writers tell us, that the ambition of the queen of Heber gave rise to a war, in which this prince lost his diadem and his life. On the confines of their different territories were three lovely vales, two of which were the property of Heber, the third that of his brother. Tea, the queen of Heremon (we must suppose, to account for this quarrel), began to lay this out in great taste; and the other lady mortified, requested the possession of it also. Heber, it appears, in compliance to his queen, folicited—but solicited in vain this favour from his brother. However easy it may

be sometimes to reconcile men, yet disputes among the fair are not fo foon compromised! The ladies on both sides grew positive. Each engaged her husband in her cause, and this dispute, in itself of so little consequence, was the source of the most dreadful calamities, and laid a foundation for those bloody wars which for near thirty centuries after distracted Ireland! These altercations produced indifference on both sides; this was succeeded by coldness; hatred foon followed ; and revenge and war were the certain consequences. What a lesson of instruction! The contending princes, no longer to be restrained by prudence, or fraternal love, agreed to put their cause to the issue of a general engagement. Both armies met on the plains of Geisiol, in Leinster; and Heber, beside the loss of three of his best commanders, and numbers of gallant fol. diers, tell also in this battle, a sacrifice to folly and vanity!'

Heremon now appears fole monarch of Ireland; it was in his reign, Mr. O'Halloran observes, and about the year 2746, that the Picts first landed in Ireland : unable to oppose the power of Heremon, they sued for peace on such terms-as might be im. posed, and requested that settlements might be allotted them in Britain. • To prove, he adds, the fincerity of their intentions, and their future dependance on Ireland, they at the same time requested wives from Heremon, engaging in the most folemn manner, that not only then, but for ever after, if they or their successors should have issue by a British, and again by an Irilh woman, that the issue of this last only should be capable of succeeding to the inheritance! Which law continued in force to the days of venerable Bede; 1. c. about two thousand years ! a mark of such striking distinction, that it cannot be paralleled in the history of any other nation under the sun! The principal leader of this people on their landing here was Gud, but he

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