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become poffeffed of. To this purpose, I determined, as the next proof of my zeal, to explore the moft unknown parts of them, and to spare no trouble or expence in acquiring a knowledge that promised to be so oseful to my countrymen. I knew that many obitrpations would arise to my scheme from the want of good maps and charts; for the French, whilft they recained their power in North America, had taken every artfal method to keep all other nations, particularly the English, in ignorance of the concerns of the interior parts of it: and to accomplish this design with the greater certainty, they had published inaccurate maps and false accounts ; calling the different nations of the Indians by nicknames they had given them, and not by those really appertaining to them. Whether the intention of the French in doing this, was to prevent thefe nations from being difcovered and traded with, or to conceal their discourse, when they talked to each other of the Indian concerns, in their presence, I will not determine; but whatsoever was the cause from which it arose, it tended to mislead.
that the English had been greatly deceived by these accounts, and that their knowledge relative to Canada had usually been very confined, before the conquest of Crown-Point in 1759, it had been esteemed an impregnable fortress : but no sooner was it taken, than we were convinced that it had acquired its greatest-fecurity from false reports, given out by its poffeffors, and might have been battered down with a few four pounders. Even its lituation, which was represented to be fo very advantageous, was found to owe its advantages to the same fource. It cannot be denied but that fome' maps of these countries have been published by the French with an appearance of accuracy; but these are of so small a fize and drawn op fo minute a scale, that they are nearly inexplicable. The sources of the Mififlippi, I can affert from my own experience, are greatly misplaced; for when I had explored them, and compared their fituation with the French charts, I found them- very erroneously repreTented, and am fatisfied that these were only copied from the rude sketches of the Indians.
Even fo lately as their eyacuation of Canada they continued their schemes to deceive ; leaving no traces by which any knowledge might accrue to their conquerors: for though they were well acguainted with all the Lakes, particularly with Lake Superior, having constantly a vessel of confiderable burthen thereon, yet their plans of them are very incorrect. I discovered many errors in the descriptions given thereia of its islands and bays, during a progress of eleven hundred miles that I coasted it in canoes. They likewise, on giving up the poffeffion of them, took care to leave the places they had occupied in the same vncultivated state they had found them; at the same time destroying all their naval force. I observed myself part of the hulk of a very large veffel, burnt to the water's edge, just at the opening from the Streights of St. Marie's into the Lake.
'These difficulties, however, were not fufficient to deter me from the undertaking, and I made preparations for setting out. What I chiefly had in view, after gaining a knowledge of the manners, cuftoms, languages, foil, and natural productions of the different-nations that inhabit the back of the Miffiffipi, was to ascertain the breadth
of chat valt continent, which extends from the Atlantic, to the
Pacific Ocean, in its broadelt part; between, 43 and 46 degrees northern latitude. Had I been able to accomplish this, I intended to have proposed to government to ettablish a.polt in some of those parts about the Straits of Annian, which having been fir discovered by Sir Francis Drake, of course belong to the English: This I am convinced would greatly facilitate the discovery of ia North West palage, or a communication between Hudson's Bay and the Pacific Ocean. An event fo defirable, and which has been fo often fought for, but without successio Besides this important epd, a secuement on that extremity, of America would answer many good purposes, and repay every expence the establishment of it might occasion. For it would not only disclose new sources of trade, and promote, many useful discoveries, but would open a passage for conveying intelligence to China, and the English fettlements in the East Indies, with greater expedition than a tedious voyage by the Cape of Good Hope, or the Straits of Magellan will allow of.
: How far the advantages arising from such an enterprize may.ex. tend can only be ascertained by the favourable concurrence of future events. But that the completion of the scheme, I have had the ho
nour of first planning and attempting, will come time or other be effected, I make no doubt. From the unhappy divisions that at preSent fubfift between Great Britain and America, it will probably be fome years before the attempt is repeated; but whenever it is, and the execution of it carried on with, propriety, those who are fo fortunate as to succeed, will, reap, exclusive of the national advantages that must ensue, emoluments beyond their most fanguine expectations,' And whilft their spirits are elated by their success, perhaps they may bestow some commendations and blesings on the person that first pointed out to them the way. These, though but a hadowy recompence for all my toil, I shall receive with pleasure.
To what power or authority, this new world will become de. pendent, after it has arisen from its present uncultivated state,
time alone can discover. But as the seat of empire, from time immemorial has been gradgally progressive towards the west, there is no doubt but that, at some future period, mighty kingdoms will emerge from these wildernesses, and stately palaces and folema temples, with gilded spires reaching the skies, fupplant the Indian huts, whose only decorations are the barbarous trophies of their vanquished enemies.
As some of the preceding passages have already informed the reader that the plan I had laid down for penetrating to the Pacific Ocean, proved abortive, it is necessary to add, that this proceeded not from its impracticability (for the farther I went the more convinced I was that it could certainly be accomplished) but from unforeseen disappointments. However, I proceeded so far, that I was able to make such discoveries as will be useful in any future attempt, and prove a good foundation for some more fortunate successor to build upon. These I Ihall now lay before the Public in the following pages; and am fatisfied that the greatest part of them have never been published by any person that has hitherto treated of the interior nations of the Indians; particularly, the account I give of the Naudowęfies, and the situation of the heads of the four great rivers that take their rise
within a few leagues of each other', nearly about the centre of this great continent; viz. The River Bourbon, which empties itself into Hudson's Bay; the Waters of Saint Lawrence ; " the Millisli ppi, and the River Oregon, 'or the River of the West, that falls into the Pacific Ocean at the firaits of Annian.
* The impediments that occafioned my returning, before I had accomplimed my purposes, were these. On my arrival at Michillimackinac, the remoteft English post, in September 1766, I applied to Mr. Rogers, who was then governor of it, to furnish me with a proper assortment of goods, as presents for the Indians who inhabit the track I intended to pursue. He did this only in part; but protnised to supply me with fuch as were neceffary, when I reached the Falls of Saint Anthony. I afterwards learned, that the governor fulfilled his promise in ordering the goods to be delivered to me; but those to whose care he intrusted them, instead of conforming to his orders, disposed of them elfewhere.
Disappointed in my expectations from this quarter, I thought it necessary to return to La Prairé Le Chien ; for it was imposible to proceed any farther without prefents to ensure me a favourable reception. This I did in the beginning of the year 1767, and finding my progress to the Westward thus retarded, I determined to direct my course Northwart. I took this step with a view of finding a communication from the heads of the Minifippi into Lake Superior, in order to meet, at the grand Portage on the North-west side of that lake; the traders that usually come, about this season, from Michillimackiv nac. Of these I intended to purchafe goods, and then to pursue my journey from that quarter by way of the lakes Le Pluye, Dubois, and Ouinipique to the heads of the river of the West, which, as I have faid before, falls into the straits of Annian, the termination of my intended progress.
I accomplished the former part of my design, and reached Lake Superior in proper time; but unluckily the traders I met there ac. quainted me, that they had no goods to spare; those they had with them being barely sufficient to answer their own demands in thefe remote parts. Thus disappointed a second time, I found myself obliged to return to the place from whence I began my expeditions which I did after continuing fome months on the North and East borders of Lake Superior, and exploring the bays and rivers that empty themselves into this large body of water.
As it may be expected that I should lay before the Public the reasons that these discoveries, of so much importance to every one that has any connections with America, have not been imparted to them before, notwithstanding they were made upwards of ten years ago, I will give them to the world in a plain and candid manner, and without mingling with them any complaints on account of the ill treatment I have received.
On my arrival in England, I presented a petition to his Majesty in council, praying for a reimbursement of those fums I had expended in the service of government.
This was referred to the Lords Coinmillioners of Trade and Plantations. Their Lordships from the tenor of it thought the intelligence I could give of so much importance to the nation that they ordered me to appear before the Board. This
meffage I obeyed, and underwent a long examination ; much I be.
• To make the following Work as comprehensible and entertain. ing as possible, I shall first give my readers an account of the route I pursued over this immenfe continent (through which they will be able to attend me by referring to the plan prefixed) and as I pass on, describe the number of inbabitants, the ftuation of the rivers and lakes, and the produ&ions of the coantry, Having done this, I hall treat, in diftinct chapters, of the manners, cultoms, and languages of the Indians, and to complete the whole, add a Vocabulary of the words mostly in use among them.
• And here it is necessary to be speak the candour of the learned part of my readers in the perusal of it, as it is the production of a person unused, from opposite avocations, to literary pursuits. He iherefore begs they would not examine it with too critical an eye; especially when he assures them that his attention has been more employed on giving a just description of a country that promises, in fome fucure period, to be an inexhaustible source of riches to that
people who hhall be so fortunate as to possess it, than on the style or compofition; and more careful to render his language intelligible and explicit, than smooth and Aorid.'
Having now introduced our Readers to some acquaintance. with Mr. Carver, and informed them of his motives to this undertaking, we must defire them to shake hands with the Gentleman, and to part for the present. In our next we propose to have the pleasure of a second conversation with this intelligent and enterprizing Traveller : in which his discoveries and observations will, if we are not greatly mistaken, afford us much entertainment, and not a litile information.
Art. III. O Halloran's History of Ireland, concluded. See our last. .
N the Shandyan phrase, every man has his hobby-horse.
That of Mr. O'Halloran appears to be the antiquity and bonour of his country: though, as we remarked in our account of this Author's former work *, we cannot suppose it a matter of very high moment, whether the Highland clans descended from the Irish, or the Irish from the Highland clans; neither can we absolutely reprehend a zeal of this kind, if united with learning and judgment. Under their direction it may help to throw light on ancient history, and contribute to entertain and inform the inquifitive reader. It is but justice to this Author, to allow that he writes in a manner that bespeaks him a man of erudition; and we must acknowledge, that the proofs he offers in support of the Irish descent from Milefius, bear the marks of reason and probability : in this respect we think there is ground to unite with Mr. Wynne, who, in his History of Ireland, produces some of the same arguments with Mr. O'Hallorant
It was in the year of the world 2734, according to this writer, that the fons of Milesius determined to form a settlement in Ire. land. This determination is said to have been made in confequence of a prediction delivered some years before by Caicer, one of their ancestors, that their pofterity should settle in the most wefterly island in the world. Accordingly Ith, a principal person among them, was appointed to visit the country. He set fail from Spain with a small force in the year 2735, and landed at a place called Daire-Calgach in the North, the prefent Derry, lays our Author. When the inhabitants enquired who this adventurer was, and what his business ; he immediately answered, we are told, in the Irish language, that they were from one common stock, being both the descendants of Magog; that distress of weather threw him on their coafts; and that the
* Vid. Review, vol. xlix. p. 201.