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grandfather to our Milesius. The venerable Bede extolls, in the highest manner, the learning, the sanctity, and munificence of the Irish nation, and acknowledges, that by them the Saxons were converted to christianity, and instructed in letters. Nor is Camden lefs diffufive in his acknowledgment of the bounty and humanity of our ancestors; yet this lame Camden, the moment he enters on that part of their history, in which they oppose the English tyranny and oppression, declares them a cruel and barbarous people, though still adhering to the same laws and customs, which made them fo conspicuous in times of freedom and independency! Nor have subsequent British writers, from that period to this day, blushed at pouring out the most illiberal and unjust abuses on our country, and her gallant sons. This being the case with the South-Britons, what ihall I say of their northern neighbours? This people, though con. fessedly an Irish colony, protected and supported by the mother in times of distress, and at length, through her means, arriving at the supreme command of that country-the Irish, the vernacular tongue through the whole state two or three centuries ago, and still the language of one half-Yet North British writers have, within a century past, been even, if poffible, more fcurrilous and severe than their southern neighbours. Thus much, I hope, will suffice, for an eternal answer to all the arguments from Strabo, Mela, and Solinus.'
Here we lhall for the present take leave of this Author, intending to give a farther account of his performance in our next Review. Art. IV. A Philosophical Survey of the South of Ireland. In a Series
of Letters to John Watkinson, M. D. 8vo, 6 s. Boards. Cadell. 1777: N this Survey of part of an island, less known perhaps to
Englishmen' than any of the other territories dependent on the British crown, the ingenious Author, to use nearly his own words, presents us with sketches of the country through which he travels; and comparisons of its present state with that which it formerly exhibited, and is capable of exhibiting in tuture. Left these representations should seem overcharged with ftill life, he heightens and animates the prospect with human figures, as they present themselves before him; and to vary the scenery, intersperles retrospective, present, and future views of manners, cuftoms, and arts. In his progress, without any other attention to method than what naturally arises from the course of his pereginations, he judiciously discusses a great variety of subjects, on which he throws much new light. The principal of these are, the political itate of Ireland, the neceffity of an union with England, accounts of the Oak-boys, Steelboys, and White-boys; the Itate of religion, and the impolicy of
the penal laws against the Roman Catholics ; manufactures, commerce, and agriculture; ancient history, monuments, and remains of antiquity; physical observations with respect to climate, temperature, &c. and accounts of learned men and artists ; together with a variety of anecdotes occasionally introduced.
In our further account of this miscellaneous work, we shall imitate the Author's general plan, in not following any other method, in the extracts which we shall give from it, than that of prelenting them in the order in which they occur.
The Author's first letters are dated from Dublin. In one of these he relates the many striking singularities of a Mr. M-e; a gentleman of fortune, and a member of the Irish parliament; who had lived much at Rome, where he had made a most pleasing collection of pictures, which the Author visited at Summerbill, in the neighbourhood of Dublin. This Virtuoso, greatly foaring above his Dutch guides in gardening, and disdaining to piddle with the spade and sheers, in shaping his parterre into mathematical figures, and cutting his trees into globes and pyramids, nobly resolved to indulge his minute genius in executing the following gigantesque plan.
. Instead of following nature, says the Author, in ornamenting his demesne, he took up the whimfical thought of cutting it into the form of a thiftle. I have it from a gentleman, who has often seen the park, that he cut a deep and wide trench, of a mile in
ference for the bulb of the flower, with double ramparts from thence, forming the petals, with clumps of trees representing the down; the avenue to his house was for the stalk, and the several fields branching from thence, and from each other, delineated the leaves. This indeed was madness, but you must allow there was method in it.'
Speaking of the Irish language, the Author is inclined to ascribe to it a very high antiquity, principally on the authority of Major Vallancy; who has brought to light some very old Irish manuscripts, particularly one intitled, Lessons for a Prince. It was addressed to that celebrated monarch of Ireland, Brien Boiromhe, who exterminated the Danes at the battle of Clontarfe. The style, says the Author, which is not unlike [that of] the Proverbs of Solomon, marks the very high antiquity of it; and the fine moral and poetical spirit which animates the whole piece, fufficiently evinces that civilization had made a considerable progress here before the invasion of our fe, cond Henry.
In an essay on the antiquity of this language, the same learned soldier has shewn, from a collation of the Irish with the Punic, that the former has a strong admixture of the Phoenician. His mode of proceeding, says the Author, is very fatis.
factory, factory. He takes that scene of Plautus, wherein a Carthaginian flave is introduced speaking in his mother-tongue; and comparing it verbum verbo with the Irish, which is now generally acknowledged to be the purest dialect of the Celtic, thews the agreement between the two languages; which is indeed so striking, that even a person who understands neither may per. ceive it, by a bare inspection of the words.'
We know not whether the Author meant to consider the Irish howl, or the Cry which the females set up in this country on conducting their dead to the grave, as originating from the Phænicians : but, after taking notice that this custom, or the Conclamatio as it was called by the Romans, was anciently practised by the Hebrews and the Greeks likewise; he adds, that it is evident that the Phænicians ufed it, from the testimony of Virgil, who was very correct in the Costume of his characters.-· The Conclamatio over the Phoenician Dido, as described by him, is similar to the Irish cry:
Lamentis, Gemituque, & fæmineo Ululatu
Testa fremunt. « The very word, Ululatus, or Hulluloo, and the Greek word, of the same import, have all a strong affinity to each other.' In his progress the author meets with
occasions to lament. the prevailing attention to the breed of sheep, the consequent depopulation of the country, and the neglect of agriculture; as well as the restriction or rather the suppression of the woolen manufacture, which he endeavours to prove, has been ruinous to Ireland, is injurious to England, and beneficial only to France. He likewise thews the bad policy of our penal laws against the numerous Roman Catholics of this kingdom; for the repeal of which he strongly pleads, both on the principles of equity and policy. In answer to those who exclaim against the virulence of Irish Popery; he observes that though our laws no longer consider the Roman Catholics there as absolute outlaws and enemies, they are treated in many respects as aliens : and how can we expect that they, who are the body of the people, can cver be zealous friends of government, whilst they despair of reciprocal acts of friendship and protection?
. But granting the disaffection of the Roman Catholics of Ireland were as malignant, as it is represented to be by their well-meaning Proteftant neighbours, is not that a fufficient reason for altering a conduct towards them, which experience has proved so ineffe&ual to reclaim them? Can they expect cordial affe&tion in return for legal interdicts? Can partial laws command more than partial obedience? If a yoke be heavy, will it not gall? If chains are iron, will they not sometimes rattle? Loose these chains, throw off this yoke, and repeal these laws; confer benefits, expect affection, and receive gratitude. Before you hope for the duties of loyal subje&tión, impart
the bleflings of an equal dominion. Before you think of reaping the fruits, low the seeds of true self-interest, Make people happy, and you may make them loyal.'
The causes of the various risings of White-boys, Oak-beys, &c. have been so little understood on this side the water, that we cannot perhaps give any more acceptable extracts from this work, than by transcribing a part of the authentic information with which the Author furnishes us on these subjects. The insurrection of the White-boys, which cannot even yet be said to be quelled, is related and accounted for thus :
• The original cause of the rising of the White boys was this: *" Some landlords in Munster set their lands to cotriers far above their value; and, to ligbten their burden, allowed commonage to their tenants, by way of recompence : afterwards, in despite of all equity, contrary to all compacts, the landlords inclosed these commons, and precluded their unhappy tenants from the only means of making their bargains tolerable." Too ignorant to know the law, and too poor to bear the expence of it, they betook themselves to violence, as their only resource. As mobs se'dom rise without suffering some grievance, and never subside without doing some injury; so these insurgents, having no, prospect of redress, began to direct their vengeaace against the clergy. The deluded rabble, smarting under the galling load of oppression, Aed every where for relief, but where they ought. And, in order to divert their attention from themselves, it became the policy of the landlord and grazier to cherish, or at least connive at, the spirit of curcailing the church of its pictance.
• In some places they will not suffer the parson to have any asistant in letting his tithes. And if any one be so hardy to lend his aid, he risques the loss of his ears, or his nose, or both. In other places, they refuse absolutely to pay those dues the law fpecises. And ią all, they pay with grudging and ill blood: So that the case of the clergy in this province is deplorable. For how can a man of liberal sentiment submit to the low drudgery of chaffering and dodging with each parishioner, most of whom would use every art chicane can devise, to outwit and deceive him? If the parson give up to each demand, his income is frittered down to nothing; and if he does not, he muft ftudy all the little tricks of bargain-making, and so degrade
* See An Inquiry into the Causes of the Outrages committed by the Levellers or White boys, printed 1762, where the following ludicrous story is told from Saunderson's K. James: “ A commotion was stirred up by some commoners, against engrossing their grounds, when the King in a hunting journey happened to pass that way, and turning short at the corner of a common, happened near to a countryman fitting by the heels in the stocks, who cried Hofannah! to his Majefly; which invited the King to ask the reason of his reftraint. Sir Tbomas said, it was for stealing geese from the common. The fellow replied, I beseech your Majesty, 'who is the greater thief, I, for stealing geese from the common; or his worship, for stealing the common from the geefe? The King immediately ordered the witty fellow to be released, and the common to be restored to the poor.”
himself to the level of a rithe dealer. And sunk so low, he inevitably loses all that influence wherewith the fanctity of his character had invested him, and which a propriety of conduct would have infallibly secured.
• There is another cause which immediately tends to distress the clergy, and remotely to stop the progress of agriculture. The House of Commons in one of those frantic fits, to which all popular assemblies are incident, passed a vote, some twenty or thirty years ago, whereby, any lawyer was declared an enemy to his country, who Thould appear as council for the recovery of a due called Agisiment or Herbage, which had ever been paid in lieu of the tithe of grass. But as this vote had the sanction of only one branch of the legislature, it could neither assuine the form of a law, nor be binding upon those who paffed it, but during their political exiflence as a parliament. It has, nevertheless, to all intents and purposes, acquired the force of a law; for the claim is totally relinquished.
. Now if the parfon alone had suffered by this most iniquitous decision, one might be brought to believe that no great harm had been done by it. But this very vote contributes to repress industry, and to walte the country. Whereas, if the parson had been allowed to receive that herbage to which he was intitled, agriculture might have been revived, and depopulation restrained. Herbage would have acted as a premium upon tillage, by being a tax upon palturage.
• Thus you may observe, that a rich grazier, who pays perhaps ten thousand pounds a year rent, may not be subject to as much tithe, as a wretched cottier, who holds but ten acres of land. No wonder then, that both the clergy and the poor should be equally distressed. And as little wonder, that insurrection should rear its head in this illfated country; the first landlords of which are absentees, the second either forestallers or graziers, and where the only tiller of the ground stands in a third, and sometimes in a fourth degree from the original proprietor. Something should be thought of, something done, to rettore the rights of human nature, in a country almost usurped by bullocks and theep.'
The rising of the Oak-boys proceeded from a very different cause; and the disorder has long ceased, by the application of a proper remedy to the complaint.
• The highways in Ireland," says the Author,' were formerly made and repaired by the labour of the housekeepers. He who had a horse, was obliged to work fix days in the year, himself and horse: he who had none, was to give fix days labour. It had been long complained, that the poor alone were compeiled to work; that the rich had been exempted; that instead of mending the public roads, the sweat of their brows had been waited on private roads, useful only to the over. feers. At length, in the year 1764, in the most populous, manufacturing, and consequently civilized part of the province of Ulter, the inhabitants of one parish refused to make more, of what they called job roads. They rose almost to man, and from the oaken branches which they wore in their hats were denominated Oak boys. The discontent being as general as the grievance, the contagion seized the neighbouring parishes. From parishes it flew to baronięs, and