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natives of heat and cold are felt very sensibly in Africa and Afis at the 30th degree of latitude, and the Reader has only to caft an eye on the account given of the winters in Persia by M. Buffon, and he will see that the fun is not always a devouring lion in that Eaftern region.
In the fixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth letters, we see the Persians descending from the same Northern mountains with the Scythians; but as the fimplicity and purity of their religious worship, and many other circumstances, distinguish them from the Phenicians, Phrygians, and the inhabitants of Egypt, Afia Minor, Greece and Italy, M. BAILLY considers them as the pofterity of an emigration different from that which peopled the countries now mentioned. He was therefore afraid of losing the trace of his Atlantides among the Persians; but a man like him is never at a loss to fill up a charm. He finds in the ancient archives of the Magi an account of a race of creatures called Dives and Peris by the Persians, and Ginn by the Arabians of whom the Greeks made their Dios and the Romans their Divu, and we our Genii), and the traditions, however fabulous, which mention this ideal race as a superior clafs of beings, and present them as covered with a veil, contain evidently, if we may believe our Author, the notion of a people that once existed, and are now no more. ?
To confirm this farther, M. B. in his eighteenth letter, seeks for the origin of the Persians beyond the northern borders of Asia; and the worship of fire established in Perfia leads bim thither: For how, says he, should this artificial heat be an object of desire or gratitude in a country, where nature produces an excessive warmth of climate ?' Fire, continues he, is fo far from being necessary, that it is useless in Persia, and it would be na
tural to fly from it there, instead of adoring it. We have ob. served above, that this reasoning is more ingenious than folid, and that the winters in Perfia, as described by M. Buffon, render fire neither unneceffary nor useless. But our Author has recourse to other proofs of the derivation of this worship from a Northern source: He observes that pyr, the Greek word for fire, is a Phrygian term, and that the term which is used to fignify fire in the Swedish Edda (that ancient production of i country where fire is indispensably necessary), is fur; and he concludes from the identity of these two denominations, that it was a Northern people which brought fire and its denomination into Phrygia, from whence they passed into Egypt and Greece. Fire was procured, preserved, and adored, in a Northern climate, where it was necessary and comfortable; its worship descended from thence into the Southern regions, as the torrents descend from the mountains. We cannot pretend to clothe this hypo- thesis with the plausibility it assumes in the work before us, 5
from the learned detail into which our Author enters, and the ingenious combinations he employs to ascertain it; we must therefore refer the Reader to the work, and confine ourselves to a general sketch of its contents: the number of historico-fabu. lous relations and anecdotes contained in this and the other letters, is really striking, and discovers the most extensive reading :
-We shall only observe before we leave this letter, that in the mountains North of Caucasus and of (what he calls) the great line of circumvallation that separates the South from the North of Asia, he finds the origin not only of the Persians, who brought from those frozen climes the worship of fire, but also of the Indians and Chinese. Besides the proofs deducible from the Hanscrit, of the Brahmins being strangers in India, our Author alleges the lituation of the learned city of Benares (strong arguments and weak, all is forced into the service !) which is the most Northern city of India, and lies in the neighbourhood of Thibet, from whence the river Brahma runs into the Ganges, and carried perhaps thither the Brahmins with it in
After having led his Reader a wild-goose chace to the foot of mount Caucasus, in order to shew him the ancestors of the Perfians, he carries him into Tartary,-he shews him there a chain of mountains, which, forming the limits between Europe and Asia, continue their direction to the Caspian sea, and lead from thence, on right and left, to the high plains of Siberia and Southern Tartary. Here our Author fixes the first resting place-the first term of the long journey of the travelling and victorious nation which he is hunting after in the dark, or with the light of mythological, geographical-fabulo-historical tapers, which, together with his own fancy (that resembles a Will with a wifp) are likely to leave the Reader as far from conviction at the end of this entertaining book, as he was, when the paradoxical hypothesis was first proposed to him.
For a moment, indeed, we thought the hypothefis proved and ascertained, when we saw at the head of the twentieth and twenty-third letters the two following promising titles --The Discovery of a loft People—The Discovery of the Country of the Atlantides: but when we read these letters we discovered nothing but wit, amenity, erudition and eloquence,-which amused us abundantly, and that was all--for evidence we have neither feen nor felt. We learn from the first of these letters that Abulghazi, a Khan of the Usbecs, who reigned at Korafan in the last century, has written a history of his nation, which, amidst a mul. titude of fables, exhibits an account of the ancient Tartars, their division into the Mogul and Turkish empires, and other branches in the neighbourhood of China, as also in Bulgaria and Hungary. These Tartars furnish our Author with numerous
occasions of twisting fables to complete his system. He derives
by learned man speaks of the veftiges of an ancient people who were destroyed or extinguished near the banks of the Jenisea in the
imp environs of Krasnojarsk, This he concludes from mines that have been wrought in a remote antiquity in the mountain of Schlangenberg, and from the instruments of brass and ftone (for they had none of iron) which these ancient Miners employed to cut the rocks and other hard bodies they found in their
way. Many of these instruments, such as mattocks and wedges of brass, and hammers of wood, as also knives and daggers of
jo brass, arrows pointed with the same metal, and ornaments of various kinds in brass and gold, have been dug up from the be bowels of the earth, and particularly from burial-places in thele Northern regions. These facts lead our Author by various inductions to an ancient people, who practised the arts even before the discovery of iron, which the Mongol Tartars are known to have employed in a very early period.Our Author acknowledges !
th that the Russians of Siberia make no mention of this people :no wonder---( will he say) because this people have long fence been destroyed. If you ask him how he knows that they have been destroyed ? He will reason thus: People that are far enough advanced in the arts to work mines and make instruments, and ornaments of brass, must have previously built houses and cities; but as these houses and cities have disappeared, the people must have been destroyed by fome fatal disaster. Though the Ruflians have no knowledge of this people, yet we are told by M. BAILLY, that tradition has preserved their name, and that they are called by the Northern inhabitants of Siberia Tchouden or Tschoudaki. This is an excellent and fertile word in the hands of our Author; it will discover to us (says he) the ori. gin and emigrations of this people, and he has drawn by the ears to his aliistance a learned Straiburgher, called Oberling who observes + that in days of yore the Finlanders were called Tschouden or chaudes, and that there are vestiges of the ancient people of Finand, even in Switzerland and Hungary, as also a conformity between their language and that of the Greeks. Now as the Finlanders, ancient descendants of the Scythians, are the first inhabitants of the North known to us, these little
* This voyage of M. Pallas was published in three volumes folio, in German.
+ In his letter prefixed to the curious work of Mr. Nils IDMAN, Paltor at Abo, entitled, Researches concerning the ancient inhabitants
frets lead our Author to important conclusions, and shove him Northward for their origin, and Southward for their emigrations. This people was forgotten, because they were only known by their pacific labours, and the exercise of the useful arts, while the nations that ravaged and depopulated the earth left deep impreslions of their cruelty and injustice, and thus continue to live in the memory of mankind. The good Tschoudi would have been buried, perhaps, in eternal oblivion, had not Pallas (we. mean Mr. Pallas) picked up some brazen pitch-forks and faces out of a Siberian grave, and were there not in our times a family of rank in Switzerland which (risum teneatis, amici!) bears the name of TSCHOUDI. Be that as it may M. Bailly is rejoiced at this discovery of a loft people. He finds the discovery infinitely curious: He cannot, indeed, tell us yet, whether this be the people that cultivated astronomy and the sciences in the remotest periods of Asiatic antiquity, for (says he, here, lowering, unusually, his tone towards modelt doubting) I warned you, that I could exhibit nothing but under the cover of a veil; he affirms, however, that the Tschoudes are very ancient that they are near the latitude he had imagined—that they were not uninstructed, fince they wrought mines--and that they exist no more. However, as this good people must have had neighbours, and a language, this may offer a handle for obtaining farther information-and as M. BAILLY seems to have had a good deal of time upon his hands, he run ideally about the country comparing the present languages together, fifting fables in the hope of getting from them some grains of truth, and has thus scraped together materials for his twenty-first letter, which is employed in treating of the Languages of the North, and the Garden of the Hesperides. - In the firit of thele articles M. BAILLY avails himself of the labours, researches and discoveries of Leil nitz, the President de Brolles, and the laborious Court de Gebeliu, the latter of whom more especially, by combining the terms of different languages, and reducing words to their primitive sounds, makes us hope for, nay has promised us, the discovery of a primitive and original language, from which all others are derived. Our Author observes, that if all the alphabets were composed of the same number of letters, it would be impossible to come to any certain conclusion with respect to the time of their forination. But this is not the case : the ala phabets differ, and the number of letters must be different in different nations, in proportion to their progress in knowledge and improvement. He therefore ranges the nations into families, according to their alphabets: and he forms, upon this principle, two great families, one whose alphabet contained only fixteen letters, and one whole alphabet contained twenty and upwards. To the first of these families belong the Phenicians
in the time of Cadmus, the Hetrurians, the ancient Greeks and Latins, the Irish, the Teutons, and the Swedies with their Runic: these have one common origin. To the second belong the people that spoke the Hanscrit, or facred language, now almost forgotten by the Brahmins, and the Zend and the Pelhvi, which are the ancient Persian. These two families came at different periods from the fame original stock, as appears from the comparison of their languages, and they brought their languages as well as the worship of fire from the North. Our Author goes on to prove by endless genealogies of words, &c. that all the labours of Hercules were performed in the North, and that the garden of the Hesperides was near the Pole; and that the Reader may not ask impertinently, how the golden apples of that celebrated orchard could grow, blossom and ripen in the icy nations of the North, M. BAILLÝ ftops his mouth with the new hypothesis of M. de Buffon, which comes in the luckiest possible moment to remove the difficulty, by letting us know, that the globe was, at first, Auid fire, and afterwards all genial warmth even in its polar extremities, and that therefore ruddy apples might have grown where now nothing is discoverable but rocks of ice. It is very unfortunate that the whole discovery of M. BAILLY depends upon the truth of this whimsical and impertinent hypothesis, according to his own confeffion.
The twenty-third letter contains our Author's voyage toHell: Its title is Voyage aux enfers: it would not be civil to leave him there, more especially since he tells us that the fables relative to this region, are of all others the most curious and interesting, and the most adapted to decide the present question. In imitation therefore of Orpheus, Theseus, Hercules, Ulysses, Æneas, and others, down he goes to the shades. But how come at these infernal regions ? For though all nations were agreed that they lay in the bosom of the earth, yet each nation pretended that they were within its domain. The Latins placed them at Baiæ, near the lake Avernus in Italy--the Greeks in Epirus and Arcadia--and Diodorus Siculus exposed the fraud or folly of these pretensions, and made the accounts of the infernal regions originate in the Egyptian mythology. But Homer knew better, and places them in the country of the Cimmerians, where clouds and darkness, and an eternal night reign. This muft, says our Author, have been far North of Greece, though the famous bard does not precisely fix the place, and his account was derived from ancient traditions. Numberless etymologies are employed by M. BAILLY to shove Tartarus and Elysium towards the Pole, and this letter is singularly rich in mythologi. cal erudition.
But now we come to the grand point, the discovery of the Atlantides and the Atlantis of Plato; this is the subject of in