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That the action of the blood-veffels evolves phlogifton, is a propofition fcarcely capable of demonftration, and with refpect to which, therefore, we must be contented with probable arguments drawn from concurring facts. Those which our Author principally dwells on are, That phlogifton is the chief ingredient in all alimentary fubftances; that a chemical analyfis evinces its prefence in the blood; that it is the principle of tafte and colouring matter in the bile; that the chyle, after being for a fhort time fubjected to the action of the veffels, becomes of a deep red colour; and that the halitus, which escapes from blood newly drawn, and the vapour flying off from every part of the body, confift chiefly of the principle of inflammability.'

In proceeding to fhew that the evolution of phlogiston is attended with heat, the writer takes a very extensive view of his fubject, difcuffing the mechanical and chemical doctrines of fire, and endeavouring to reconcile them with each other. He attempts to prove that phlogifton is the cause of concretion, and that in every process of refolution there is an escape of this principle. He treats on the identity of the phlogistic fluid and the electric, the matter of light, and the ether of Newton, He fhews, that in the feveral ways of exciting heat, by ignition, fermentation, and chemical mixture, phlogifton is evolved, and its evolution is the probable cause of the heat. This is a long and curious chapter, and evinces an intimate acquaintance with some of the abftrufeft parts of natural philosophy.

The chief argument adduced to evince that the heat generated by the evolution of phlogifton from the blood is the fole cause of animal heat, is derived from the fimplicity obfervable in the laws of Nature, who is never found to employ more agents than are neceffary to effect her purposes. That the agitation and compreffion the blood undergoes in the veffels would promote the developement of its phlogifton, by causing an inteftine motion in its conftituent parts, is rendered probable by analogous facts. In this chapter the Author declares his belief, that phlogifton is the chief pabulum of animal life, and the grand principle of mufcular motion, as well as the only fource of vital heat.

In the concluding chapter it is attempted to be fhewn, that the most striking phænomena of animal heat evince the truth of the theory propofed. Here, the Author first treats of the connexion of animal heat with the ftate of motion in the fanguiferous fyftem; and obviates fome objections to his doctrine which might arife from obferving that quickness of pulle is not always attended with increase of heat. He then difcuffes that difficult fubject, the ftability of animal heat; and here, being obliged not to admit any power of creating cold refident in the animal


animal machine, which fome late philofophers have attempted to establish, he canvafles, at fome length, the extraordinary experiments which have been published, relative to the power of fupporting degrees of heat vaftly fuperior to that of the human body. He points out, with the jufteft criticifm (as we think), feveral fallacies in the deductions drawn from thefe celebrated experiments; which chiefly turn upon not having taken into confideration the different time required by different bodies to rife to their temperature, the different degrees of heat they are capable of imbibing, and the difference in bulk of the maffes which were exposed to the fame heat. His own folution of the ftability of animal heat in various temperatures is, that in the hot, a balance is preferved by the cooling effects of evaporation; and in the cold, by the tonic and ftimulant effects of cold air on the animal fibres, Laftly, he briefly explains on his principles the connection between the degree of animal heat, the ftate of refpiration, and the colour of the blood.


Thus have we given a concife view of the general doctrine and method of proof in this very ingenious work; the great variety of matter in which, however, renders a complete analyfis fcarcely practicable within the bounds we prefcribe to ourselves. This, befide, is the lefs neceffary, as we imagine few of our philofophical readers will be fatisfied without a perufal of the work itself. Whether or no fuch a perufal will produce a full conviction of the main doctrine attempted to be eftablished in it, we cannot determine; but we will venture to pronounce, that it cannot fail of infpiring a very favourable idea of the scientific and literary abilities of the Writer.

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Anmerkingen op de Tegenwoordige Toestand van Zaaken, &c. i. e. Obfervations on the prefent State of Affairs between Eng land and Holland. 1779. This pamphlet, anonymous both with refpect to its Author and the place of publication, comes to us from the Hague, where, we are told, it was printed some weeks ago. It contains a judicious and candid state of the points, at prefent contefted between England and Holland, and carries, in the elegant fimplicity of its ftyle and manner, evident marks of its coming from no ordinary pen. The Author fets the perfidious conduct of the French miniftry, and the bold iniquity of their American connexions, in a palpable and ftriking light, but without either animofity or invective: he fhews the Dutch how ungracious, unfriendly, and unjust it is to ad


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here rigorously to the fourth article of the treaty of 1674 (without attending to fubfequent and more effential engagements), and on the strength of it to furnish France with naval ftores: and he demonstrates the prejudice, that must enfue from hence to their own effential interefts in the iffue of things. His language, here, is that of a real friend to two countries, whom religion, liberty, and national character ought to bind together in the moft indiffoluble union; whofe independence can only be infured by that union, and whom nothing but the greatest imprudence can engage to prefer temporary and fubaltern advantages to a connection that afcertains their moft effential interefts. A connoiffeur in the Dutch language has affured our Editor, that this pamphlet has all the marks of a tranflation from an English original; adding, that it is fup posed to have come from the pen of a public minifter of diftinguished merit at the Hague. A decent tone of dignity, that runs through the compofition, renders this conjecture probable, and the concluding words of the pamphlet confirm it; they are as follows-or to the following purpose: "The treaties fubfifting between Great Britain and Holland ftand not in need of the intervention of France to explain them. Neither of the contracting parties have called in that power as a mediator; and until they do fo, his Moft Chriftian Majefty has no right to meddle in their affairs.-The King of Great Britain loves the republic; efteems its chief; wishes peace and profperity to its fubjects, and stability and independence to its prefent conftitution: he has always been, and ever will be, ready to maintain that conftitution to the utmost extent of his engagements, and he can do this with a power at least equal to theirs who endeavour to undermine it. This virtuous prince can never be fufpected of any defign to make an improper ufe of this power: he prefers the language of friendship to every other mode of perfuafion; but, nevertheless, it is both the duty and intereft of his allies to confider feriously the unhappy confequences that may follow from facrificing ancient connections to a low and tranfitory intereft, or to fudden movements of impatience and paffion. As an Englishman, a Hollander is dear to me, and I fhall willingly liften to his juft complaints; but if he adopts, in this time of war and conteft, the tone, the interests, and the measures of France, then he cannot juftly blame me, if I make no difference between him and my enemy." Ex ungue Leonem.



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For MA Y, 1779.



Art. 14. The Practice of Navigation, on a new Plan: by Means of a Quadrant of Difference of Latitude and Departure; and an eafy and true Method of bringing Departure into Difference of Longitude; and, vice verfa, without the Ufe of a Variety of nauti cal Tables, or any Knowledge in Trigonometry: The Whole cal culated to inftruct the most common Capacity in this ufeful Branch of Knowledge. By James Rymer, S. R. N. 4to. 5s. Evans, 1778.


HIS performance, with its title-page and preface, confits of 28 pages of letter-prefs, and a copper-plate, faid to be invented by the Author, Mr. James Rymer. Inventions ought certainly to be paid for, and fair and candid reports ought to be made of them to the Public: but as we find ourselves rather at a loss what account to give of this new invention, and apprehending that the Author can have no objections to his own; the candid Reader is therefore defired to accept it, verbatim, as follows:


• If this little treatife has any merit, the world will foon discover it. If it has none, it might be uncharitable to treat it with contempt. I dedicate its utility to the young and ignorant; and folicit indal gence from men of science and genius. If I pretended to raise its value by depreciating books which contain fyftems of mathematical navigation, I should hold myfelf guilty of irreverence and dif refpect to the memory of many great and worthy names.

Indeed, I fhould do wrong to recommend, much more to extol it, any farther than it proved of utility to myfelf, when the schem firft occurred to me. At that time I had not the fmalleft systematical Anowledge in navigation; and often wondered at my own ignorance, when I reflected on the length of time that I had been at fea. I had often heard them talk of difference of latitude and departure, allow ance for lee-way, variation of the compafs, heave of the fea, the action of tides and currents, without in the least comprehending what was meant. All of a fudden, one day, at fea, I was determined, by fome means or other, to learn how to work a day's work, and keep a reckoning. I got a Daily Affiftant, a Mariner's Compass, a Robertfon's Elements, &c. and applied myfelf diligently for about two hours when my head began to ach, and my ideas became confufed: I put away the books-yauned-fcratched my temples-went to bed-raved-and, the present work is the refult of the dreams of that night. Whoever doubts what I affert, does me an injury: but, as I allow of an univerfal toleration of belief and fentiment in all trivial matters, I can readily forgive him.'

This Author's account of his work is not of the common caft; and our Readers will form what judgment they think proper of it. For our own parts, as we wish neither to have the extent of our faith called in queftion, nor to be laughed at for our credulity, we fhall not fay yea or nay to this folemn affeveration, but content


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ourfelves with obferving, that if he had mentioned, amongst the books which deranged his ideas fo dreadfully, Traite complet de la Navigation, par Bougeur, or a later, edition of the fame work, under the title Nouveau Traite de Navigation, par Bougeur, abrégé par M. l'Abbé De la Caille, there would not have been the least reason for any one to difpute either the existence, the regularity, or distinctnefs of his midnight vifions. Every one is apt to dream, at night, of what he has feen or read the day before; and therefore, as the whole of what this publication contains, plate included, is contained in that work, and almoft in the fame order, fuch dreams might then have been naturally expected.

Some of our Readers may, perhaps, think it our indifpenfable duty to give an opinion of a work, especially where fo much money is charged for fo little matter: if fo, we may obferve, that it is poffible that fome may receive benefit from it. The means of percep tion, even of the fame idea, are, in different perfons, as various as their faces; and this scheme may strike some when all other modes of inftruction have failed: but we muft declare, for ourselves, that we think the Traverse-table, as it is ufually called, folves every thing much more readily than can be done by the method here recommended; and, we apprehend, that the generality of perfons will think, with more perfpicuity also.


Art. 15. A Differtation on the Teeth and Gums, and the feveral Disorders to which they are liable, &c. &c. By W. Bennett, Surgeon. 12mo. 1 s. Harrison, &c. 1779.

Every writer naturally fets out with attempting to impress his reader with an idea of the great importance of his particular fubject; but few whom we have met with go beyond the Author before us in this refpect, who affirms," that one of the most material duties of a perfon, intended for an orator, is that of attending to his teeth." This is a matter that Cicero and Quintilian feem never to have thought of, and may serve as an additional proof of the fuperior accuracy of the moderns above the ancients in confidering a fcientific fubject. It is not only by his pamphlet, but by a certain Dentilave Tinăure and Dentifrice that Mr. Bennett propofes to afflift his countrymen in this very effential point; the virtues of which we leave to be determined by those who think fit to give them a trial.

Art. 16. The Inftitutions of Medicinal Pathology. By H. D. Gaubius, Profeffor of Chemistry in the University of Leyden. Tranflated from the Latin by Charles Erskine, Surgeon. 8vo. 46. fewed. Edinburgh printed; fold by Cadell, London. 1778. We cannot but with that it might occur to all who engage in the bufinefs of tranflation, that, humble and eafy as their talk is ufually accounted, it requires a qualification which is not neceffary in every fpecies even of original compofition; this is, the accurate knowledge of two languages. Obvious as this remark may appear, we are convinced, from difagreeable experience, that it is not impertinent now and then to remind authors of it. Were it fufficiently attended to, we certainly should not fee tranflators blundering round about a meaning, in a tyle neither native nor foreign, and often giving neither the fenfe of their author, nor any other.


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