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(* The Directors of 1774, with every particular of the complete conquest of Tanjore before them, express not ibe fightest disappro. basion."
• Where then is the actual proof, which alone could juftify the Directors of 1775, in such heavy charges against such men and measures : “ That the faith of the Company was forfeited, and the honour of the British nation deeply affected (by our servants), contrary to our repeated orders and inftructions ;" and all with impunity, nay with reward! Mark how a plain late of facts has reversed the scene. Mark how the pages of the Company's records prove the actual contrary of those unguarded afperfions. The faith of the Company remained inviolate. The honour of the British nation was maintained, and her interests in the East critically secured against impending danger. The servants of the Company acted under the express sanction of reiterated orders and instructions from their con. ftituents; who fully authorised coercive meafures against the Rajah as juft and necessary; who repeatedly enjoined their prosecution ; and finally saw the completion of them in 1773, by the reduction of Tanjore, without the flighteft disapprobation.
Not till the 12th of April 1775 did this new light dawn on the Court of Directors. The transgressions of the servants in India, the infringement of the Company's faith, the violation of the British honeur; these enormities, fo big with mischief and disgrace, had all Nept from the year 1769 to the year 1775. What must add to our admiration of this enlightened period is, that no public examination had been instituted, no discovery promulgated; fact, record, reason and justice had remained the same as in the fix preceding years. But more illustrious lights now illuminated eaftern politics. Lord Pigot. was to go to India. The splendour of his mission seemed to beam new intelligence on the Directors. But though it might be deemed the riling of his glory, it was the setting of theirs ; for their nota. ble instructions to his Lordhip was the last act of the last day of their administration.'
The Writer next maintains, that the Company's orders to Lord Pigot proceeded on a false idea of the existence of the treaty of 1762 in favour of the Rajah, which he shews was broken through by the repeated perfidious conduct of the Rajah, and afterwards annulled by the treaties of 1769 and 1771. But, even fuppofing this treaty to exist, and the Company to have been, as they style themselves, guarantees of it, he afferts their conduct to be equally inconsistent with their own solemn profeffions, and with the duties of their assumed character.
• They declare their determination (as guarantees) to do justice to a much injured Prince, and by re-initating him in his dominions restore to the Company their public faith, which had been forfeited, and the bonour of the British nation which had been deeply affe&ted. These are fine sounding words; but had this, or any thing fimilar to it, been really their object; had these plaufible sentiments been truly founded ; the business was plain and open before them: the task would have been host and easy, to restore the Rajah to his domi
nions, to secure to the Nabob his tribute, and to guard against the commission of injury in future by either party. Instead of such a line of conduct, which only could accord with their professions, whac measures did they pursue. They will best appear from the following short extracts from their Orders respecting the Rajah’s restoration :
l'aragraph sth. “ And having resolved to contribute as far as in us lies towards the restoration of the King of Tarjore, which by every tie of honour we conceive ourselves bound to do, we hereby direct that you take the most effectual measures, without loss of time, for securing the person of the King of Tanjore, and that you forthwith appoint him a proper guard for his protection, and also for the protection of his family, and inform him that we have determined to replace him on the throne of his ancestors.”
Paragraph 6th. “ We shall infift upon his admitting a garrison of our troops into the fort of Tanjore. You are likewise to infilt upon having an ahgnment of revenues made to the Company, sufficien: for the maintenance of the
said troops, and for providing military stores necessary for the defence of the garrison.”
Paragraph 11th. “ That no treaty with foreign powers shall be concluded by the King of Tanjore without our concurrence."
Paragraph 13th. 1. “ No troops whatever, except those of the Company, Mall be per. mitted to reside within the city of Tanjore, and except also such oa. tive guards as may be necessary for supporting the dignity of bis Ma. jesty's government ; and the number of such native guards shall be fixed by our Governor and Council, and not exceeded or augmented by the King of Tanjore on any account or pretence whatever."
• Such are the Orders given by the Company in the character of guarantees to the treaty of 1762! Pretending to act under the authority of an office merely mediatorial, they assume high and imperial powers. On the specious pretext, but in real perversion of the character of guarantees, which could only entrust to them the care of former ftipulations, they dictate new terms, and impose new con. ditions. Melted with compaflion for an unfortunate Prince, as they profess then felves, they determine to redress his injuries by re-in. Itating him in his dominions. Mark how their sympathy works ! They seize his kingdom to themselves, fill his forts with their garrisons, and his country with their forces ; keeping his Majesty a ftateprisoner with not a semblance of royalty, excepting indeed a bodyguard about his person, that serves only to remind him of his loft dignity. Thus do they “ support the dignity of his Majesty's government !" and thus do they " replace" an injured Prince of throne of his ancestors !”
After some remarks on the impolicy as well as injustice of this measure, the Writer concludes by calling upon Government, to whom the Nabob has made his appeal, to support the public faith and the honour of the British nation, by restoring to the Nabob of Arcot the country of Tanjore, and perform
ing every condition, according to the stipulations between him and the Presidency of Madras.
Without attempting to decide on the merits of the main question, which more properly belongs to the court of justice than to that of criticism, we may be allowed to remark, that every fresh developement of the transactions in the East affords a new occasion for lamenting the power of avarice to blind men's eyes
and harden their hearts. Whatever benefits mankind may derive from commerce, we find little reason to expect that it will improve their ideas of equity, or strengthen their principles of humanity.
ART. IX. Moral Eclogues. . 4to. I S. Payne. 1778.
the following brief advertisement:
The most rational definition of Pastoral Poetry, seems to be that of the learned and ingenious Dr. Johnson, in the 37th number of his Rambler. “ Pastoral, says he, being the representation of an action or paffion, by its effects on a country life, has nothing peculiar, but its confinement to rural imagery; without which it ceases to be Pastoral.” This theory the Author of the following Eclogues has endeavoured to exemplify.'
The peculiarity, here mentioned, refers only to the imagery of Pastoral. Many writers, especially Pope, have thought the numbers of almost equal consequence; and that a polihed, easy, gentle Aow of verse was one of the characteristics principally requisite in Pastoral Poetry. The Writer of the Eclogues before us, has accordingly been equally attentive to the style and imagery. The liquid lapse of his measures is rarely interrupted, though some few lines do not quite accord with the sweetness of the reft, viz.
Beneath a broad oak on the grassy plainAnd again,
While herds and flocks their annual increase yieldIn these, and some other instances, the accent is misplaced, and the harmony destroyed; but a poetical ear will, in most parts of these Pastorals, be sufficiently gratified. There is a novelty in the conduct and scenery of the third Eclogue, entitled, Armyn; or the Discontented, which induces us to select some lines from thence, as a specimen of these Eclogues,
There, on the hill's soft lope, delightful view!
Full on the landscape shone the westering fun,
“ Hafte down, o Sun! and close the tedious day :
greens, * And wind-mill's fails flow.circling in the breeze,
Aod cottage walls envelop'd half with trees
Where Delia's smile, and Mira's tureful fong,
« Feels Truth's full force, and bows to Reason's fway." The Reader will not find the rest of the work inferior to this extract. The Author, like other Pastoral Poets, has marked the several seasons of each Eclogue; but he has devoted two to summer, and none to winter.
FOREIGN FOREIGN LITERATURE.
(By our CORRESPONDENTS.) GERMANY and the NORTH.
1. CARS ARSTEN NIEBUHRS Reisebeschreibung nach Arabien und an..
dern umliegenden Laendern. Zweyter Band. -- Niebuhr's Voya age to Arabia, and some Countries adjacent. 410. Vol. II. Copenhagen. 1778. When we reviewed the first volume of this Voyage *, we could not help observing that many things were rea lated with great prolixity, and we have, on reading this volume, found still more reason to complain that the narrative is spun out rather tediously, and that our entertainment has not altogether answered expectation. The Author promises, in the Preface, a third volume, though we could with he had inserted all his remaining materials in the present publication, which, in all probability, might have been done by leaving out things that are sufficiently known, from former writers, and by relating others more concisely. We are unwilling to throw out reflections upon any nation, particularly the Germans, who, within this century, have gained reputation in all branches of literature ; but we are sorry to see that even some of their best writers have not yet divested themselves of their national prejudice in favour of huge volumes ; as if to write a great deal, and to make large books, was the way to literary immortality. It is true, we have had, especially in former times, voluminou's scribblers among our own Authors; but our modern quartowriters cannot properly rank with those in Germany; for, spacious as their productions outwardly appear, their whole manuscript might generally be printed off in a decent octavo, without the loss of a word: but German quartos, in small character, not overbroad margin, and two or three inches thick, are really enough to frighten any reader, especially a poor Reviewer, who Teads with his pen in his hand, expecting the dose to be repeated upon him again and again!
Weleft our Author, at the end of his first volume, in Arabia, and we now meet him again at Bombay, of which island he gives an account that might be improved from many other deIcriptions in our own language. One thing, however, we shall mention, viz. that in the year 1773, our East-India Company, for the first time, sent a ship up the Arabian gulph to Suez, which was formerly thought a very dangerous voyage, and for that reason the goods were always landed at Dsjidda in Arabia, to be carried from thence by caravans into Egypt. The 'government ac Dsjidda and Mocka had laid heavy duties on merchandice, and the English captains were treated but indifferently
. see Review, vol. liii. p. 577.