« AnteriorContinuar »
so favourable to Pretaupa Sing, it has appeared, that he dhewed so little inclination to be punctual, in performing his part of the terms, that nothing but his terror from the troops, marching to the siege of Madura, could induce him to pay his second Kift. Wher, upon the death of Pretaupa, in December 1763, his son Tulja.ji succeeded to the Rajaship, he improved on his father's obstinacy and crimes. Hav. ing removed the legitimate branches of his own family, either by the dagger or bowl, he formed a close connection and established a secret correspondence, wiih Isoph Chan, then in actual rebellion, and besieged in Madura, by the Nabob and English. When a war was kindled between Hyder Ali and the Engliih, the Rajah, though he had obtained, at the time, favours from the Presidency, affifted their enemy with money. When that chief invaded the Carnatic in 1769, Tulja-jî aflisted him with money and provisions, which enabled him to carry the war to the gates of Madras, and to conclude a peace on his own terms. Hyder Ali was so sensible of the Rajah's service, and the Rajah so certain of the protection and alistance of that chiet, that Hyder insisted, his new ally should be comprehended in the treaty, which he dictated, in a manner, to the Presidency in April 176 Though the Presidency, by a subterfuge, to which they endeavoured to affix a meaning, infifted upon including the Rajah in the treaty, as their friend, he did not consider himself in that light; but, on the contrary, depending upon the power of Hyder Ali, itopped the pasment of the stipulated tribute, which became due just three months after the treaty of April 1769 was concluded.
• It has appeared, that the Court of Directors were so sensible of the duplicity and treachery of the Rajah, and so much irritated at the whole of his conduct, that, on the 17th of March 1769, they sent positive orders to the Presidency, to alli lt the Nabob in bringing to a severe account his undutiful vassal, That the Court plainly were of opinion, that the treaty of 1762 had not abridged any part of the conftitutional rights of the Carnatic over Tanjore. That they contidered that country, as a part of the Carnatic; and its Rajah only a Zemindar of that province. That he had not only deserved char. tilement for his conduct; but that the Company were bound to allit the Nabob against his refractory feudatory, It has been hewn, that the ostensible reasons, for not executing those orders, proceeded from circumstances very different from any amendment in the behaviour of the Rajah. That the Prefidency, who were, by no means, prejudiced in favour of the Nabob, declared that the Rajah certainly deserved chastisement, for having aslifted the enemy of the Carnaric, with money and provisions, and for delaying the payment of the peilhcuilh, settled by the treaty of 1762. That, in the end of the year 1770, the Rajah's correspondence with Hyder and the Marattas, which two powers he invited to an invalion of the Carnatic, was difcovered, by the Presidency, as well as the Nabob. That, whilft he folicited foreign enemies to attack the Nabob, he himself actually took up arms against the dependents and vafals of that prince. That when the English President wrote to the Rajah to fufpend hoftilities, instead of paying attention to that application, he conveyed insula and impertinence, in his answer. That, upon the whole, the intrigues of the Rajah, with the avowed enemies of the Carnatic, his
taking up arms against the dependents of a prince, to whom he himself was tributary, his breach of the treaty of 1762, of which the Company were guarantees, his opposition ço the English commerce, his connection with other European factories, his avowed disobedience to his superior, his ingratitude to his protectors, his behaviour in the late war, che danger that might relult from his known character, in any future war, rendered it jult, expedient and necessary, to bring him to a severe account.
• Though the conduct of the Rajah appeared to the Presidency to merit the ultimate chaftilement of war, it has been thewn, that the Nabob preferred negociation to hoftility. That when the decision of arms became neceffary, he veiled his eldest son with powers, to accommodate matters with the Rajah. That when an agent was sent with letters to Tanjore, from the President, the General, and the young Nabob, Tulja ji treated him with indignity, and his dispatches with contempt. That notwithltanding, when a practicable breach was made, a peace was concluded, so favourable to the Rajah, that the Presidency exprefled the highelt diffatisfaction, on that head. That, from the known character and views of Tulja.ji, it was the opinion of the Presidency, that a second expedition against Tanjore would soon become necessary ; and that nothing short of the absolute reduction of the Rajah could preserve the peace of the Carnatic. That this opinion was verified by the subsequent conduct of the Rajah, who renewed his intrigues, with foreign powers, as soon as the guns, which had breached his walls, were wiindrawn from the batteries. That he demanded fuccours from the Marattas, assured Hyder, that be had no other protector, promised to allilt that chie', in dismembering the Carnatic, entered into intrigues, treaties and agreements for a military asliitance, with the Dutch of Negaparnám, Danes of Tranquebar, and French at Pondicherry. That, instead of treating the just authority of nis fuperior, with becoming respect, he had refused, apon requisition, to assist him with troops, in terms of his tenure. That he received, protected and aided the enemies of the Nabob, encouraged depredations in his country, and neglected to pay the money, ftipulated by the agreement, to the obfervance of which he had folemnly sworn, in the month of October 1771.
Upon the whole, it has been shewn, that the Rajah, by with holding, for more than two years, the tribute ftipulated to be anna. ally paid to the Nabob, had broken the treaty of 1762, to which the Company were guarantees. That the Company were bound, by that treaty, which they themselves had made, to allift the Nabob against the Rajah. That, though the Rajah, as a tributary to the Carnatic, was in juflice bound to furnith his quota of men and money, towards the general defence, he refused both, and affifted the enemy. That the Presidency of Fort St. George, by the express orders of their superiors, were obliged to give their affistance to the Nabob, in preferving the peace of the Carnatic, as well as the rights and dignity of his government. That the dangerous intrigues, preparations, and even hoftilities of the Rajah had broken that peace of which they were the guardians. That their duty to their superiors, their en. gagements to the Nabob, and even felf-preservatior, forced them to take the field. That, when a war was once commenced, they could
only appear, as they themselves uniformly acknowledged, in the light of allies, auxiliaries or mercenaries.' That, in none of those characters, they possessed, or pretended to pofsefs, any right to what might be obtained by victory, except the plunder of places taken by storm. That, as Tanjore was a part of the Carratic, a's being tributàry to that province, the keeping poffeffion of that plaće, when reduced, or the giving it to any other, than its lord paramount, the Nabob, would have been, in the Company, a direct infringement of Che treaty of Paris, which guaranteed Mahommed Ali, in the entire and exclufive poffeffion of the whole country. That, granting Tanjore had not been a part of the Carnatic, a position which we deny, it became a part of that country, when it was conquered by the arms of the Nabob, in a necessary, regular, and folenin war. That, as foon as it became'a part of the Carnatic, by conquest, which is the leaft disputable of all rights, it immediately fell under the security of the treaty of Paris. That nothing but another conqueft, or a voluntary ceflion of Tanjore, by the Nabob himself, could alienate it from that prince. That the Company, by taking poffeffion of it, by keeping it for themselves, or transferring its revenue and government to another, not only infringed the guarantee of the state, but committed an act of private injustice, if not robbery, which ought to be, and perhaps is, punishable by the laws of their country. That, by reforing Tanjore to the Rajah, or, what in fact is the case, their seiz. ing it for themselves, they broke a solemn contract, concluded with the Nabob, under the faith of their own real.'
The Author then gives a particular relation of the circumstances attending the restoration of Tanjore; and censures, in the most severe terms, the whole tranfa&tion, and all the parties who were actually concerned in it. With what justice he does this, will more fully appear from the next Article, to which we Thall proceed, after informing our Readers, that this Writer gives the public reason to expect, in the course of a few months, a second volume, in which he proposes to lay open what he calls the secret intrigues of Leadenhall.street.
Art. VIII. Considerations on the Conquest of Tanjore, and the Refo
ration of the Rajab; founded upon authentic Facts, taken from the Records of the East India Company. 4to. Cadell. 1779. THIS Writer, who appears to be well informed, and ex
presses himself with coolness and moderation, in order to thew the injustice of the proceedings of the East India Company against the Nabob of Arcot, first enumerates the proofs which the Nabob, for many years paft, has given of his faithful attachment to the Company. He next proceeds to Thew, that the conquest of Tanjore by the Nabob may be maintained on principles of justice and found policy, and that the Govera nor and Council were warranted by the Company in affifting the Nabob in the conquest of Tanjore. With this view he
produces the peace
produces the orders of the Company to the Governor and Council át Madras, effectually to support 'the Nabob in his preten: fions on the Rajah of Tanjore; and their letter to the same, after they had received information that the Rajah was to be included in the treaty with Hyder Ali as a party to be protected ; expressing their dissatisfaction with the conduct of their agents ; acknowledging the Rajah to be by right tributary' to the Na. bob; and suspending their former order, only because the proceedings of the Council of Madras had rendered it impossible to put them into execution. These orders, which it was necessary to suspend, which the Council were soon after prepared to put in force, and which after several delays were executed, our Author justifies by the following enumeration of facts :
" That the Rajah’s critical desertion of the Company and the Nabob, in the war with Hyder Ali, warranted their Arongest resentment at his conduct;"—that though he owed his security,
security, and of his country, to the easures sustained by the Nabob and the Company;"—and though he was." a tributary Dependent on the Nabob,”
he refused furnish his quota towards carry: ing on the war;" cultivating, on the contrary, a warm attachment with Hyder," the common enemy, and “ afsifting him with money :'-That it therefore" became necessary to pursue such meafures against him as the Nabob might think consistent with the jusa tice and dignity of his government.”—That in addition to all this ill-conduct, the Rajab “ withheld the peifhcuish, due to the Nabob," in violation of the Nabob's rights, in actual breach of his engagements, by the treaty of 1762, and in contempt of the honour and power of the Company, who had guaranteed it ;--and that, as a confummation of his perfidy, “ he attacked the Dependents of the Nabob's government."
Having on these and other grounds justified the Company in afiifting the Nabob to reduce Tanjore, our Author concludes that they could have no right to reverse their conduct, and diveft him of the country they had so juftly assisted him in recovering. He then proceeds :
* But the Directors of 1775 thought otherwise. In their memora. ble ipfructions to Lord Pigot and the Council, dated" 12th April 1775, we find the following affertions ;
Paragraph 4th. “ As the solemn promise made by our Governor and Council at the request of the Nabob of the Carnatic and the King of Tanjore, to guarantee
the treaty of 1762, has been fully approved by the Court of Directors, we cannot but confider the public faith of the Company as forfeited, and the honour of the British nation deeply affected, by the measures taken for dethroning that unhappy prince; whose kingdom has been wrested from him by our servants, and put under the government of Masumed Ali Cawn ; in direct violation of that creaty, and contrary to our repeated orders and instructions, which have uniformly and expressly prohibited them from aitempting to enlarge our own, or the Nabob's dominions." Rev. Apr. 1779
• This extraordinary passage conveys more than perhaps its aughors were aware of. For it not only asserts the existing validity of the old creaty of 1762, a mere speculative point, which may have misled the opinions of some; but it decides without reserve and with. out mercy against the characters of men who have filled, and who do fill, the highest stations boih in the direction at home, and in the service of the Company abroad, with a reputation eminent as their rank, and till this period animpeached, unsuspected.
• Surely a subje&t so peculiarly delicate, required all caution and circumspe&tion. It would not have been onworthy the Directors of 1775, to have regarded with more tenderness the character of their predecessors. Nothing less than actual proof could justify such severe infinuations against the Directors of 1769, 1770, 1771, 1772, 1773, and 1774, as that they suffered the public faith of the Company to be forfeited, and the honour of the British nation to be deeply affected by their connivance ; and that they had rewarded such fignal dehin' quencies with distinguished approbations, publicly acknowledging the eminent services of Mr. Dupree, and conferring on Mr. Hastings the government of Bengal.
• If any motive could excuse repetition, it would be the defence of meritorious characters thus indiscriminately arraigned. We mall, therefore, from the many which might be adduced, just recapitulate the following recorded facts, viz.
“ The Directors of 1769 declare the Rajah a delinquent both to the Nabob and the Company, for his notorious misdemeanours, and enjoin the Governor and Council to redress the Nabob, and chastise the Rajah.
"The Governor and Council concurred in the propriety of the orders"; though they were under a temporary neceffity of deferring their execution by the treaty of 1769 with Hyder Ali; occasioned by the low'state of their finances, and the Rajah’s intrigues with that avowed enemy
"The Directors of 1772 approve the conduct of the Governor and Council of 1771 against the Rajah, for his fresh breach of treaty, and invading the territories of Marawar and Nalcooty, dependent on the Nabob, which justified with aggravated force the decisive ose ders againit him.
« The fame Directors write to the Nabob, that they foould have been at all svents urged to unfoeath the sword, to chastife-tbat Rajab.
“ The Directors of 1773, with the whole of this business before them bip to that period, the first invasion of Tanjore, possession of Fort Vellum, &c. exprefs not the fightest disapprobation of that meafure. But promise to go into maturc deliberation upon it, in order to frame further instructions for their future conduct.
“ New violations of treaty by the Rajah, even of the laft granted to bim by the Nabob at the gaies of Tanjore, with the cogent circumAtances of the season of the year, and the state of the other powers
of Indoftan, rendered it neceffary to recommence hostilities against him; before the above-mentioned letter from the Company could reach Madras.