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the others were assembled. Every eye was again fixed by turns or me and on the Lake ; when just as the sun had reached his zenith, agreeable to what the priest had foretold, a canoe came round a point of land about a league distanţ. The Indians no sooner

, beheld is, than they fent up an universal thout, and by their looks seemed to triumph in the interest their prielt thus evidently had with the Great Spirit,

• In less than an hour the canoe reached the fore, when I attended the king and chiefs to receive those who were on board, As soon as the men were landed, we walked all together to the king's tent, where, according to their invariable cultom, we began to smoke; and this we did, notwithstanding our impatience to know the tidings they brought, without asking any questions ; for the Indians are the most deliberate people in'the world. However, after some crivial conversation, the king inquired of them whether they had seen any thing of the traders? The men replied, that they had parted from them a few days before, and that they proposed being here the fez cond day from the present. They accordingly arrived at that time, greatly to our satisfaction, but more particularly so to that of the Indians, who found by this event the importance both of their priek and of their nation, greatly augmented in the light of a Itranger.

This story, I acknowledge, appears to carry with it marks of great credulity in the relacor. But no one is less tinctured with thar weakness than myself. The circumstances of it, I own, are of a very extraordinary nature; however, as I can vouch for their being free from either exaggeration or misrepresentation, being myself a cool and dispassionate observer of them all, I thought it neceffary. to give them to the Public. And this I do without wishing to mislead The judgment of my Readers, or to make any fuperftitious impref. sions on their minds, but leaving them tu draw from it whai conclu. fions they please.'

This is, indeed, a curious narrative; concerning which, in imitation of our Author, we shall leave cur Readers to their own remarks and conclusions; and proceed to mention his account of the manners and customs of the Indians, in their ancient purity. This, Mr. Carver Aatters himself, he has been enabled to do, with more justice than former writers, having made his observations on thirty Indian nations. He is, accordingly, very diffuse in his account of these people, who seem to be a race as totally diftinct from the rest of mankind, as the negroes are from the whites. He describes, and illustrates by fome good engravings, their persons, dress, arms, habitations, cookery, temper and dispositions, method of computing time, government, feasts, dances, games, hunting, methods of making war and peace, language, marriage ceremonies, religion, diseases, and the treatment of their dead. Under all these distinct heads we have a great variety of information, and many very entertaining delcriptions and details : in which the fair fex (if it be proper fo to Hlyle the Indian women) come in for a due share of noticc.--He clofes with a general character of the Indians; in which he appears to have discriminated, with great propriety,, between their good and bad qualities. He observes that they are of a cruel, revengeful, inexorable disposition; that they will watch whole days, unmindful of the calls of nature, and make their way through pathless and almost unbounded woods, fubfifting only on the scanty produce of them, to pursue and revenge themselves of an enemy; that they hear unmoved the piercing cries of such as unhappily fall into their hands, and receive a diabolical pleasure from the tortures they inflict on their prisoners : but, adds he, let us look on the reverse of this terri-, fying picture, and we shall find them temperate both in their diet and potations (it must be remembered, that I speak of those tribes who have little communication with Europeans), that they withstand, with unexampled patience, the attacks of hunger, or the inclemency of the seasons, and esteem the gratification of their appetites but as a secondary confideration.

• We shall likewise see them fociable and humane to those whom they consider as their friends, and even to their adopted enemies; and ready to partake with them of the laft morsel, or to risk their lives in their defence.

• In contradi&tion to the reports of many other travellers, all of which have been tinctured with prejudice, I can assert, that not-, withstanding the apparent indifference with which an Indian meets his wife and children after a long absence, an indifference proceeding rather from custom than in sensibility, he is not unmindful of the claims either of connubial or parental tenderness; the little story I have introduced in the preceding chapter of the Naudowellie woman lamenting her child, and the immature death of the father, will elucidate this point, and enforce the affertion much better than the molt studied arguments I can make use of.

• Accustomed from their youth to innumerable hardships, they soon become superior to a sense of danger, or the dread of death i and their fortitude, implanted by nature, and nurtured by example, by precept, and accident, never experiences a moment’s allay.

Though flothful and inactive whilst their store of provision remains unexbaufted, and their foes are at a distance, they are inde-, fatigable and persevering in pursuit of their game, or in circumventing their enemies.

* If they are artful and designing, and ready to take every advantage, if they are cool and deliberate in their councils, and.cau. tious in the extreme either of discovering their sentiments, or of revealing a secret, they might at the same time boast of poffefling qualifications of a more animated nacure, of the fagacity of a hound, the penetrating fight of a lynx, the cunning of the fox, the agility of a bounding roe, and the unconquerable fierceness of the tyger.

• In their public characters, as forming part of a community, they possess an attachment for that band to which they belong, unknown to the inhabitants of any other country. They combine; as if they were actuated only by one soul, againlt the enemies of their nation, and banilh from their minds every consideration opposed to this. U 4

• They

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They consult without unnecessary oppofition, or without giving way to the excitements of envy or ambition, on the measures necefsary to be pursued for the destruction of those who have drawn on themselves their displeasure. No selfish views ever influence their advice, or obstruct their consultations. Nor is it in the power of bribes or threats to diminish the love they bear their country.

The honour of their tribe, and the welfare of their nation, is the frit and most predominant emotion of their hearts; and from hence proceed, in a great measure, all their virtues and their vices, Aduated by this, they brave every danger, endure the most exquisite torments, and expire triumphing in their fortitude, not as a personal From thence alfo floy that insatiable revenge towards those

with whom they are at war, and all the consequent horrors that disgrace their name. Their unçuliivated minds being incapable of judging of the propriety of an action, in opposition to their passions which are totally insensible to the controul of reason or humanity, they know not how to keep their fury within any bounds, and consequently that courage and resolution which would otherwife do them honour, degenerates into a savage ferocity.

But this short differtation must suffice ; the limits of my work will not permit me to treat the subject more copioufly, or .to pursue it with a logical regularity. The observations already made by my readers on the preceding pages, will, I truft, render it unnecessary; as by them they will be enabled to form a tolerably just idea of the people I have been describing. Experience teaches, that anecdotes, and relations of particular events, however trifling they might ap. pear, enable us to form a truer judgment of the manners and cus. toms of a people, and are much more declaratory of their real ftate, than the most studied and elaborate disquisition, without these aids.

The natural hisiary forms a considerable part of this work, and is given under the distinct heads of beasts, birds, fishes, reptiles, insects, trees, fhrubs, roots, herbs, and Aowers. The Author has likewife given a vocabulary of the Chipéway and Naudowessię languages; and he concludes with an Appendix, intended to evince the probability of the interior parts of North America becoming commercial colonies ; pointing out the means by which this may be effected; with the tracts of land on which colonies may be established with the greatest advantage: he has also a differtation on the discovery of a north-west passage.

We shall conclude this Article with an extract from Capt. Caryer's general view of his great defign, in exploring these unknown regions; with his reflections on the success of his undertaking; viz.

In October, 1768, I arrived at Boston, having been absent from it on this expedition two years and five months, and during that nime travelled near feven thousand miles. From thence, as foon as

* I had

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I had properly digested my journal and charts, I set out for England, to communicate the discoveries I had made, and to render them beneficial to the kingdom. But the prosecution of my plans for reap.' ing these advantages has hitherto been obtructed by the unhappy divisions that have been fomented between Great Britain and the Colonies by their mutual enemies. Should peace once more be reStored, I doubt not but that the countries I have described will prove a more abundant source of riches to this nation chan either its East or Well Indian settlements; and I shall not only pride myself, but fincerely rejoice in being the means of pointing out to it fo valuable an acquisition,

' I cannot conclude the account of my extensive travels, without
expresling my gratitude to that beneficent Being who invisibly pro-
tected me through those perils which unavoidably attended fo long a
tour among fierce and untutored savages.'
Art. VI. An Ejay on the Immateriality and Immortality of the Soul,

and its instinctive Sense of Good and Evil, &c. &c. With an Ap-
pendix, in Answer to Dr. Priestley's Disquisitions on Matter and
Spicit. By the Author of the Letters in Proof of a particular as
well as a general Providence, which were addressed to Dr. Hawker.
worth, &c. &c. 8vo. 58. Boards. Dodsley. $778.
HOUGH thiş Effayist declares, at the commencement of

his work, that he thinks metaphysical studies neither inStructive, nor entertaining,' -and that he should

never have been at the trouble of reading either Dr. Hartley's Observations on Man, or the Introductory Efsays which Dr. Priestley has prefixed to his abridgment of that work;' had not a Mr. Seaton's well-known advertisement informed him that Dr. Priestley had denied the immortality of the soul :-he has nevertheless, himfelf, compiled a metaphysical work, consisting of no less than 466 pages in octavo; and doubtless expects that there are readers, beside the Monthly Reviewers, who will take the trouble of perusing it, and may hope to receive in{truction or entertainment from it. A very brief account of the work will serve to shew how far fuch hopes are well founded.

Our Author first endeavours to fhew the general bad tendency of Dr. Priestley's Introductory Essays above mentioned ; and that his arguments in support of the materiality of the human soul are equally inconsistent with that belief in a future state, which is derived from the light of nature, and with the doctrines of revelation contained in the scripture. He next seems inclined to enliven the subject by a studied detail of the ridiculous consequences,' which, he alleges, must follow from denying the immateriality of the soul of man.

These are, indeed, ridiculous enough. We mean the Author's consequences; and that we too may enliven the present Article, and render it as entertaining as is consistent with the nature of the subject

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putting instruction out of the question-we shall exhibit some
of the Author's reasonings on this head.

If we are uniformly and intirely material, our metaphysical
Phyfiologist pretends that there ought to be a total change in
our body of criminal laws.- No man,' says he, - can with
juftice be executed for a murder that was committed twenty
years ago.' Nay, he adds, ' I might strike off half that time,
and say ten years ;' and growing bolder as he proceeds-in con-
sequence, we suppose, of his having more accurately calculated
the wear and tear of the corporeal machine he again adds,

nay, I believe, I might fafely say seven years.'-After that term, he has accordingly computed that it will be impossible, to find the body that did the crime ; as it is now scattered over the face of the earth, and is as incapable of being punished, if found, as it is impossible to find it.'

Further, if it is only the intire material body that perceives, thinks, reasons, &c. then every bone, cartilage, and muscle, as well as the heart, lungs, and liver, &c. have each a part in the perceiving and thinking quality. Now, if this be the case,' says he, a man must lofe part of his thinking principle, on Jofing a leg ;--but if he should happen to lose both his legs maand, perhaps an arm besides-or both be ought to lose balf

, if not more than half, of his thinking principle : for he certainly will then have lost near half of his material frame ! If he was a sensible man, prior to his amputation, he thould confiftently afterwards not be above half as sensible !--In this case, people thould be cautious how they pared their nails, or cut their hair left they loit, with their hair and nails, part of their reason !

Foresceing however that Dr. Priestley, thus driven from the
bowels and extremities, will make a fnug retreat into the cra-,
nium, or rather the medullary substance of the brain, as the part
poffeffed of the exclufive privilege of thinking; our alert Au-
thor, nothing dismayed, pursues him thither, and thus attacks
him in the citadel.

He tells a story of an officer, who, to his certain knowledge,
"had a piece of his skull, of above two inches long, and one
broad, cut out of his head, by a stroke of a broad sword, at the
hattle of Preston-pans, in the year 1745-(which piece of the
skull hung by a bit of skin-and the officer carried it for years,
in his purse) and it was a truth publickly known, that a very
large quantity of the brain came out at the wound-infomuch
that his recovery greatly surprised every one who had heard of
h fituation ; for all ihe surgeons had declared they thought
him past hope--yet he regained his perfect health-and was as
sensible as ever. '--In short, this officer's soul, after his recovery, -
L

owing, under God, to the care and great skill of his fur

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