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Suppose one load takes two men three hours and-a-half; two men would re-load three-loads a-day: about 1321. a-load. Ten times 13d. is not equivalent to the difference between good hay and bad.
• Re-making in large cock, may help hay which is under-made; but a cock cannot be drawn into a barn, or under a shed, as a cart · or a waggon.
• Minuting.-When I began to make the preceding Minute, I meant merely to register facts, that I might not, in future, put hay into stack before it be thoroughly made ; and I am of opinion, that had not the former part of the Minute been made, the latter, nor the calculation, would have occurred.
• Is not this an evidence in favour of making Minutes ? Before an intelligible Minute can be made, ideas must be digested-the intellects exerted. This adduces to the mind the whole chain of re. collectable facts and words incident to the subject; many of which would otherwise have lain inert in the memory.-From these, new ideas spontaneously generate; CALCULATIONs and schemes of FUTURE Conduct rush upon the mind; and from mere Minuting, che mental faculties are imperceptibly led to systemISING.
• I have feldom begun a Minute which did not verify this ob. fervation, and which did not prove longer than at first intended.
. In future-before I leave-off making a Minute, look ftedfastly on the mind, and enquire anxiously if any other idea demands an audience. If any shouid, it would be wantonness, even on vivial subjects, to dismiss it unheard : it may be valuable in itself, or it may lead to something valuable.
. But be the last paragraph valuable or trivial, I am firmly of opinion, that it would never have occurred, had not I made the preceding part of the Minute,
• If MINUTING be found serviceable to such an humble subject as hay-making, surely it would be beneficial to the more abitrase branches of science ! And although its evil attendant may be the injury of the memory, in little matters; how many GREAT have Nid away, which a Minute might have rescued from oblivion; nay, how many great THOUGHTS-USEFỤL TRUTHS, might, by MINUTING, have entered the lift of HUMAN KNOWLEDGE, which now are known but to OMNISCIENCE!
• Perhaps, generally-habituating ourselves to register our ideas, learns as to think closely and systematically; and, perhaps, fuch a register would be the furest and moft eligible teft of genius. If any thing strike-no matter what-minute it.-Practise this for a few years, and probably the bent and capacity of the Practicer might be discovered
• Had mankind, from Infinity, left to each succeeding generation their fairelt ideas, and had these ideas been regularly fyftemised and repeatedly retrenched ;-had we a comprehensible fyftem of the GREAT IDEAS OF MAN-of every man-from INFINITY,-or from creation ; --did the present generation know what each and every preceding generation have known, and thro' such a system might have known, how much nearer the CREATED would now have approached the CREATOR!
It was with some degree of reluctance that I began to make this Minute; for "until I began to write, nothing' occurred but the simple fact, and that seemed Icarcely worth notice.' But although I have not luckily developed a Southern Continent, r.or a Northern Palage, I am nor displeased with my evening's amusement *.'
The following observations on hay-making, will afford fure ther specimens of the Author's manner and mode of reasoning :
July 1, 1775. I have adopted this method of making mix-grass and clover hay.
• Let it lie a while to wither in swath ; but while it is tough.ma before it be crisp--make it into light minikin cocks, and rake the bared surface. As the cocklits become dry, aggregate them; and continue to rake the bared grass till the bay be dry enough, and the cocks big enough.- If rain beat down the cocklits, catch a dry opportunity of turning them uplide-down, and lightening them up ;not foaking them out.
• Thus, it will always be out of harm's way, and the leaf, sapa and colour, be preserved.
8th, ' A fine afternoon.--Got the remainder of D. 1. and K. 2, into larger cocks: The one-pitch cocks, everywhere, are almost fit to carry, notwithstanding the sun has not shone these three days.
I apprehend, had this hay been treated in the common mode of hay-making, (See the ift,) it would have been black, if not rotten ; whereas the flowers ftill retain their bloom, and the leaves their verdure.
* This process may not be so expeditions as the common method, but I am pofitive, it is more certain.'
! uth, (See the ift.) To try how the cocklits would make in pitch cock, without lightening up; I put three of them, one-uponihe other, without shaking. In this manner I made two rows: the rest of the field, two cocklits together, thook up. The former was the greenest, fineft hay by much,
19th, The stack of mix.grafs hay (See the ist, 8th, and 11th,) takes as fine a heat as can be wished-for, notwithstanding it was out three weeks of rainy weather.
• JUNE, 1776. Not a speck of mould, nor a handful of musty
hay, in the whole ftack. 26th, Finished hay-making. • Had the hay of River-Mead, &c. been tedded (Spread abroad), it was so exceedingly short, a considerable part of it must have been left in the field; beside the additional expence, and the exhalation of its juices: nor could it have been made in much less time ; for what was carried to-day (Wednesday), was cut on Monday after
Perhaps, in future,--Never ted a light, nor a middling crop of grass, of whatever species. If the weather be fine, let it make itfel in swath,.-If foul, make it in cocklits,
Perhaps, hay makes + faster in heaps, of whatever shape or size, than is generally imagined; especially in windy weather. It is
* These desultory reflections are not inserted as necessary append. ages to pecuniary Agriculture. † Withers-dilipates its fuperfluous fap.
amazing how much the large heaps in River-Mead dried, after they were mixed and shook up light:-even the good old Hayers acknowledged their aftonishment.
£. s. d. • 311t, Twenty-four loads of rye grass hay, off 171 acres this year, has cost in manual labour, for
4 making • 184 loads of mix-grass, off 20 acres
3 5 4 152 mead-grafs, off 21į acres
8 " The first was tedded the second made in cocklits-and the last in swath. The first was made while the heat of the earth and fun would have roasted an egg ;-the second was out three weeks of rainy weather; and the lait had a few showers.
• This surely proves the expence and absurdity of tedding grass; besides, perhaps, the hay's being robbed of its effence.
Perhaps, in future-If the crop be very large, turn it, before it be made into cocklits, with a rake, not a p:ong. This is tedious scatters it about and lays it fiat: That sets it on-edge, snug, and expeditiously.'
August 1. I do not see any material improvement of the process I hit upon this year, of making tare-hay.
• After the Mowers,- instead of leaving the wads indiscriminately on the ridge, or in the furrow; and instead of leaving them rolled, up in hard lumps, I look them up light, and set them in rows on the funny side of the ridges. If one row could not contain them, set them a-zig zag, wbich gives them more fun and air than any situation ; endeavouring as much as pollible to make each wad resemble a bee-bive. By thus ftanding light and open, upon the ridges, I apprehend they made in much less time than they would have done in hard bundles in the furrows. I did not wait to let them wither, but followed the Mowers immediately.
• After a fhower-as soon as the ground, and the outsides of the wads were dry, turned them over on to fresh ground; and with one fhake lightened them up as before: they were dry again presently. The firłt two acres had a whole day's rain upon them, but I apprehend they are very little the worse for it.
Those mown fince the rains, have had nothing done to them, but the first shaking up, and one turning, when the first upper-fides were made: they did not cost 6d. an acre for making,
• The popular idea of tare hay making seems to be this: If the weather happens to be fine, the fodder is incomparable ; but one fhower of rain sends it immediately to the dunghill. I am con, vinced from this year's experience, that if tares are cut at a proper age (while the under pods are filling, and the halm Nill green at the bottom) it is not a shower that will hurt them, nor a whole day's rain that will spoil them. And I am of opinion, that, with proper management, nothing but a fortnight or three weeks rain can fit them for the dunghill; and, perhaps, the chance is ten to one that such weather does not happen in July: And, in future, I will cal. culate on that it is ten to one but I get my tare-hay tolerably.
• This hay-time, the weather has been various. The early clover. hay-time was fine; bat the latter end of June, the Midsummer-rains fer-in, and greatly injured the clover which was backwardly cut.
· The last week in June and the three first weeks of July (meadowy, hay-time) were very ticklish: a great deal of meadow hay was badly got.-The last week or ten days of July have been remarkably fine, and the backward-cut of meadow-hay has been remarkably well
• The spring was very backward. I wished, and shall ever wish, to begin to cut clover the first week in June; but there was none to cut till past the middle of the month, when I began mowing clover. It had some rain, but was got tolerably.
' I began the mix-grass leys the first week in July, and cut one field of five acres. The crop was very light, and the little hay it produced almost spoiled by the weather.
· I had lett the winter-tares, and was thinking of beginning to cut the meadows; but very fortunately stopped the fithe to wait for fairer appearances.-Why?
• Because the fun set foul or showery every evening; because the atmosphere was loaded with huge vertical clouds; and because the barometer was wavering, and seemed rather inclinable to wet than dry.
When the large clouds seemed exhausted by the quantity of rain which had fallen, and the azure concave delicately variegated by flender horizontal clouds; when the fun went down clear, and the barometer stood firm at fine weather-I re-began to cut, and a finer hay-time never happened. We have carried fifty or fixty loads of different forts of hay, this week, in the finest order pofable : and, what is still more pleasing this year of scarcity, there was nearly twice as much upon the ground, as there was before the rains. Be fides, by ftanding till ripe, and being cut in hot weather, the expence of making has been trifling.'
The reader may perhaps recollect, that in our Review for September 1776, we gave, in an extract from Mr. Anderson's Elsays on Agriculture, a new method of making hay. The foregoing observations contain a discovery (for such we suppose it to be in Mr. Marshall, who does not seem to have read that book) of a process very nearly the same with that recommended by the Scotch farmer; and these experiments prove, in a very satisfactory manner, that the method of making hay by putting it into small cocks, immediately after cutting, is a valuable improvement.
The following minute may be of use, and should be generally known :
• Odober 29, 1775. Last night, the Suckler, in a great hurry, drove one of the cows out of the suckling house into the yard, calling out, “ The cow is sprung.” She was swelled prodigiously, and as he ran her about, I perceived that she continued to swell, tili the threw-up a great quantity of phlegm. , This seemed to ease her ; -but presently the swelled more than ever ;-her hide was a perfect drum.head. I considered what to do ;-I was resolved not to stab her, so long as the kept her legs.-In a moment, (whether I gathered the idea from reading, or conversation, or reason, I am Aill at a lofs) I conceived that SALT AND WATER would be of service. In
less than a minute, three or four horns of strong brine were poured into her. She immediately run on to the Common, and took a circuit of about a minute : -- when she came in, I fancied that her off-fide began to fink.--I poured down three or four horns morefill keeping her running. When one man was tired, another res lieved him:-She presently began to dung, with other obvious signs of amendment. I then gave her a little more brine, with a small quantity of black pepper in it,-keeping her gently stirring.-She was almost tired ;-her belly now began to fink on the near fide, the breathed more freely,--and Italed and dunged profusely. In ten minutes the began to chew her cud. I kept her in the house all night,-the sweat profusely, and this morning the is perfectly well.
• On examining the matter thrown-up, I found it to be phlegm and cabbages.- I was totally at a loss for the cause, before I saw this;-for she had not been in, nor near any clover, or other sucu culent herbage. A fledge-load of cabbages had been brought into the yard for the store-hogs ;-the cows fell greedily upon them, and this was no doubt the effect.
• The faving of the cow does not please me more, than the fine plicity of the core * :-it may be the saving of many.
I do not attribute it wholly to the saLT AND WATER nor wholly to the running but to both.-With This alone he grew worse :-That, perhaps, would not have operated so quickly, without the exercise. The rapidity of the effect was astonishing ; -it could not be five minutes between the first dose, and the first discharge by ftool.
• The dose was three or four handfuis of salt to about three pints of water. This was given the two first times ;-the last was the same proportion, with about half an ounce of pepper :-of this the had three or four horns.' But I believe the first cured her.'
Our Author's observations on experimenting, may be of ftill more general utility :
• November 17, 1776. Lait autumn, I made several experiments in K. 4. on top dressing for wheat harrowed in with the seed. But, fame on me! I neglected at harvest to make an accurate observation on the result. It is true, I took cursory views during the summer, but never counted the lands,-never traced the lines till to-day. --And altho' the ftrength and rankness of the stubble be some guide, the experiments are by no means to decisive as they would have been by a rigid observation at harvest.
• Meliorations.--The soil, a poor clay, once plowed after beans ; and the crop upon the whole very bad. However, it is still obvious, that eighty bushels of foot an-acre are rather better than nothing ! Fifty bushels of dry coed ashes are likewise beneficial ; but eighty buihels of slaked lime, whether hot or cold, nor twenty loads of rough gravel, are of very little if any benefit to the present crop.
• The time of sowing was from the roth to the 20th of November; and this seems to have had as much influence as the manure; for a part fown the tenth without dresing, seems nearly equal to its conriguous part drefied with eighty bubels of foot an acre, and sown the
* The Writer has since learnt, that this is not a new, but a wellknown remedy.