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Constructive. A happy mixture of the several sorts gives an agreeable variety : and they serve mutually to recommend and set off one another.'
The Bishop, having before mentioned that there appeared to be two sorts of Hebrew verses, differing from one another in regard to their length, proceeds to explain the nature, and point out the marks of the longer kind, which, though they admit of every sort of Parallelism, yet belong for the most part to the class of constructive Parallels.
• This distinction, says he, of Hebrew Verses into Longer and Shorter, is founded on the authority of the Alphabetical Poems; one third of the whole number of which are manifefly of the Longer fort of verse; the rest of the Shorter. I do not presume exactly to define by the number of Syllables, supposing we could with some probability determine it, the limit that separates one sort of verse from the other; fo that every verse exceeding or falling short of that number should be always accounted a long or a short verse : all that I affirm is this ; that One of the Three Poems Perfe&tly Alphabetical, and therefore infallibly divided into its verses ; and Three of the Nine other Alphabetical Poems, divided into their verfes, after the manner of the Perfectly Alphabetical, with the greatest' degree of probability; that these Four Poems, being the four first Lamentations of Jeremiah, fall into verses about one-third longer, taking them one with another, than those of the other Eight Alphabetical Poems. I shall first give an example of these long verses from a Poem Perfectly Alphabetical, in which therefore the limits of the verses are unerringly defined :
I am the man that hath seen amiction, by the rod of his anger: “ He hath led me, and made me walk, in darkness, not in light; “ Even again turneth he his hand against me, all the day long. “ He hath made old my flesh and my skin, he hath broken my
« bones : He hath built against me, and hath compaffed me, with gall
rs and travail : ** He hath made me dwell in dark places, as the dead of old.”
Lament. iii. 1-6. · The following is from the first Lamentation; in which the Stanzas are defined by Initial Letters, and are, like the former, of three lines ;
“ How doth the city solitary fit, she that was full of people! “ How is she become a widow, that was great among the nations ! “ Princess among the Provinces, how is the become tributary! “ She weepeth sore in the night, and her tear is upon her cheek: “ She hath none to comfort her, among all her lovers : ss All her friends have betrayed her, they became her enemies."
Lament. i. 1, 2, ' I shall now give examples of the same sort of verse, where the limits of the verses are to be collected only from the Poetical ConAruction of the sentences : and first from che books acknowledged on all hands to be Poetical'; and of these we must have recourse to the Psalms only; for, I believe, there is not a single instance of this
fort of verse to be found in the Poem of Job; and scarce any in the Proverbs of Solomon.
". The law of Jehovah, is perfect, restoring the soul; “ The testimony of Jehovah is fure, making wise the simple : “ The precepts of Jehovah are right, rejoicing the heart; “ The commandment of Jehovah is clear, enlightening the eyes : " The fear of Jehovah is pure, enduring for ever ; "The judgments of Jehovah are truth; they are altogether
" righteous : << More desirable than gold, and than much fine gold; “ And sweeter than honey, and the dropping of honey-combs."
Pr. xix, 7–10. " That our fons may be like plants, growing up in their youth ; Our daughters like the corner pillars, carved for the structure
“ of a palace : “ Our ftore houses full, producing all kinds of provision ; « Our focks bringing forth thousands, ten thousands in our fields : “ Our oxen strong to labour; no irruption, no captivity; " And no outcry in our ftreets.”
Pl. cxliv. 12–14: "O! how great is thy goodness, which thou haft treasured up, for
" them that fear thee; “ Which thou hast wrought for them that trust in thee, before the
“ fons of men ! “ Thou wilt hide them in the secret place of thy presence, from
© the vexations of man; “ Thou wilt keep them safe in the tabernacle, from the strife of “ tongues."
Ps. xxxi. 19, 20. " A found of a multitude in the mountains, as of many people ; “ A found of the tumult of kingdoms, of nations gathered to
They come from a distant land, from the end of heaven ; “ Jehovah and the instruments of his wrath, to destroy the whole sc land.”
Isaiah xiii. 4, 5. “ They are turned backward, they are utterly confounded, who
*« trust in the graven image ; «'Who say unto the molten image, ye are our gods !"
Ilaiah xlii. 17. They are ashamed, they are even confounded, his adversaries,
as all of them ; “ Together they retire in confusion, the fabricators of images : “ But Israel shall be saved in Jehovah, with eternal salvation ; “ Ye shall not be alhamed, neither hall ye be confounded, to “ the ages of eternity."
Isaiah xlv. 16, 17. : These examples, all except the two first, are of long verses thrown in, irregularly, but with design, between verses of another fort; among which they stand out, as it were, somewhat diftin. guished in regard to their matter, as well as their form.'
Our discerning Critic thinks that he perceives some peculia. rities in the cast and structure of these verses, which mark them, and distinguish them from those of the other sort. The closing
pause of each line is generally very full and strong: and in each line commonly, toward the end, at least beyond the middle of it, there is a small rest, or interval, depending on the sense and grammatical construction, which may be called a half pause.
• The Conjunction, Vau, adds Dr. Lowth, the common particle of connection, which abounds in the Hebrew language, and is very often used without any neceflity at all, seems to be frequently and ftudiously omitted at the Half-pause: the remaining claufe being added, to use a grammatical term, by Apposition to some word preceding; or coming in as an adjunct, or circumstance depending on the former part, and completing the Sentence. This gives a certain air to these verses, which may be esteemed in some sort as characteristic of the kind.
• The first Four Lamentations are Four distinct Poems consisting uniformly and entirely of the Long Verse, which may therefore be properly called the Elegiac Verse; from those Elegies, which give the plainest and the most undoubted examples of it. There may perhaps be found many other very probable examples in the same kind: but this is what I cannot pretend to determine with any certainty. Such, I think, are the forty-second and forty-third Psalms; which I imagine make one entire Poem, and ought not to have been divided into two Psalms: the lines are all of the Longer kind, except the third line of the Intercalary Stanza three times inserted ; which third line, like that at the close of an example given above from the hundred and forty-fourth Psalm, is of the Shorter kind of verse ; somewhat like the Paremiac verse of the Greeks, which commonly makes the close of a set of Anapæstic verses. Such likewise may perhaps be the hundred and first Psalm ; which seems to confift of fourteen long verses, or seven Diftichs."
The sublime ode of Isaiah in the fourteenth chapter is all of the same fort of verse, excepting, perhaps, a verse or two towards the end : and the prophecy against Senacherib, in the thirty-seventh chapter, as far as it is addressed to Senacherib himself.
With the following modest and judicious reflections of our Author we shall close the present Article :
• I venture to submit to the judgment of the candid Reader the preceding observations, upon a subject, which hardly admits of proof and certainty ; which is rather a matter of opinion and of taste, than of science : especially in the latter part; which endeavours to establish, and to point out, the difference of two sorts of verse, the Longer and the Shorter. For though the Third Lamentation of Jeremiah gives a clear and indubitable example of the Ele. giac or Long Verse, and the two Psalms Perfectly Alphabetical of the Shorter; yet the whole art of Hebrew Versification, except only what appears in the Construction of the Sentences, being totaliy loit, it is not easy to try by them other passages of verse, lo as to draw any certain conclulion in all cases, whether they are of the same kind, or not. And that, for this among other reasons; because what I call the Half-pause, which I think prevails for the most part in the Longer verses, is sometimes so strong and so full in the middle
of the line, that it seems natural'y to resolve it into a diftich of two Short verses. I readily therefore acknowledge, that in fettling the distribution of the lines, or verses, in the following Translation, I have had frequent doubts, and particularly in determining the Long and Short Verses. I am ftill uncertain in regard to many places, whether two lines ought not to be joined to make one, or one line divided into two. But whatever doubts may remain concerning particulars, yet upon the whole, I should hope, that the method of diftribution, here proposed, of Sentences into Stanzas and Verses in the Poetical Books of Scripture, will appear to have some foundation, and even to carry with it a considerable degree of probability, Though no complete System of Rules concerning this matter can perhaps be formed, which will hold good in every particular; yet this way of considering the subject may have its use, in furnishing a principle of Interpretation of some consequence, in giving a general idea of the lyle and character of the Hebrew Poetry, and in sewing the close conformity of style and character between great part of the Prophetical writings, and the other books of the Old Testament, universally acknowledged to be Poetical.'
(To be continued.)
ART. IX. An Account of the Scarlet Fever and Sore Throat, or Scar
latina Anginofa ; particularly as it appeared at Birmingham in the Year 1778. By William Withering, M. D. 8vo. I S. 6 d. Cadell. 1799 THE notice of a rare, and formidable, though not abso. lutely new,
disease cannot too soon be communicated to the Public; especially when there is reason to apprehend that it may be mistaken for another, resembling it in some striking para ticulars, though of a very different nature, and requiring an opposite mode of treatment. It is owing to mere accident that we did not last Month second Dr. Withering's views in the publication of this pamphlet, by communicating to our medical Readers a part of the interesting information contained in it.
The distemper, which is the subject of this performance, appeared at Birmingham, and its neighbourhood, during the last summer and the succeeding autumn; and refembled the disease known by the name of the Scarlet Fever, as described by medical authors : but it betrayed a degree of malignity not obferved in the scarlet fever described by Sydenham, who recommended little more than a simple regimen of diet to combat this disease, and even doubted whether it deserved the name of a disease. In its simple state, says Dr. W. it is not a very uncommon disease in England; but its combination with a sore throat, the violence of its attack, and the train of fatal fymptoms that fol. low, are circumstances hitherto unnoticed by English writers : though Sennertus, and some other foreign physicians, particularly Navier and Plenciz, have described a malignant scarlet
fever, which corresponded, in several particulars, with the distemper which is the subject of the present publication.
The danger of mistaking this disease for the ulcerated or putrid fore throat, induces us to abridge the Author's judicious description of its mode of attack, and of its subsequent symptoms, in the order in which they occur.
The more usual and milder species of this disorder commences with a flight foreness or rather stiffness in the throat, which is fucceeded by alternate chilly and hot fits. On the next day the foreness in the throat increases, and the patients find a difficulty in fwallowing, which seems chiefly to proceed from a difficulty of putting the necessary muscles into action. A fickness comes on, attended with shortness of breath, a dry burning heat, and frequent pricking pains in the skin. In the morning of the third day, the face, neck, and breast appear redder than usual ; 5 and in a few hours this redness becomes universal, and increases to such a degree of intensity, that the face, body, and limbs, resemble a boiled lobster in colour, and are evidently swollen. The skin is smooth to the touch, nor is there the least appearance of pimples or pustules. The eyes and noftrils partake more or less of the general redness; and in proportion to the intensity of this colour in the eyes, the tendency to delirium prevails.'—The pulse is quick, smail, and uncommonly feeble. The alvine discharge is regular; and the urine, though small in quantity, scarce appears to differ from that of a person in health.
At the end of two or three days more the intense scarlet colour begins to abate, and the skin peels off in small branny scales. The tumefaction subsides, and the patient gradually recovers his strength and appetite.
During the continuande of the fever the tongue is more or less covered with a yellowish brown mucus.
The velum pendulum palati, the uvula, the tonfils, and the gullet as far as it is visible, partake of the general redness and tumefaction: but though the Author never faw any real ulceration in these parts, yet collections of a thick mucus are sometimes observed on the back of the qesophagus, which greatly resemble the specks or floughs in the putrid sore throat, but which may be washed off with a gargle. In autumn, however, the tonfils were sometimes convered with whitish foughs ; on the separation of which they appeared raw, as if divelted of their outer membrane.
In the moft malignant or fatal fpecies of this disease, in children, a delirium com nenced within a few hours after the invasion. The scarlet colour appeared on the first or second day, and they died very early on the third.
In adults, the disease became fatal upon the fourth or fifth day, especially if a purging supervened; but some surI