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From the whole of the examples produced by our learned Writer, may be observed the different degrees of the Synonymous Parallelism. The parallel lines sometimes consist of three or more synonymous terms; sometimes of two; which is
generally the case, when the verb, or the nominative case of the first sentence is to be carried on to the second, or understood there ; sometimes of one only; as in the two last examples. There are, also, a few instances, in which the lines confift each of double members, or two propofitions. Among others, the following example is very perfect in its kind :
“ Bow thy heavens, o Jehovah, and descend;
Pl. cxliv. 5, 6. Parallels are also sometimes formed by a repetition of part of the first sentence : “ My voice is unto God, and I cry
“ The waters saw thee, O God;
Pf. lxxvii. 1. 11. 16. Sometimes in the latter line a part is to be supplied from the former to complete the sentence :
“ The mighty dead tremble from beneath ;
• The waters, and they that dwell therein.” Job xxvi. 5. Farther, there are parallel triplets; when three lines correspond together, and form a kind of stanza; of which, howcver, only two commonly are Synonymous :
" 'The wicked shall see it, and it shall grieve him,
Pl. cxii. 10.
Isaiah ix. 20. There are likewise parallels consisting of four lines : two. diftichs being so connected together, by the sense and construction, as to make one stanza. Such is the form of the thirtyseventh Pfalm ; which is evidently laid out by the initial letters in stanzas of four lines; though in regard to that disposition some irregularities are found in the present copies. From this Psalm, which gives sufficient warrant for considering the union of two distichs as making a stanza of four lines, our Author takes the first of his examples :
Be not moved with indignation against the evil doers ;
Pf. xxxvii. 1, 2. Some periods; in kike manner, may be considered as making stanzas of five lines; in which the odd line, or member, either comes in between two distichs, or after two distichis makes a full clofe :
They bear him on the shoulder ; they carry him about ; " They set him down in his place, and he standeth;
From his place he shall not remove :
Ifaiah xlvi. 7.
Isaiah xliv. 26. In stanzas of four lines sometimes the parallel lines answer to one another alternately; the first to the third, and the second to the fourth :
" And ye faid: Nay, but on horses will we flee;
Isaiah xxx. 16.
“ Who is there among you that feareth Jehovah ?
Isaiah 1. 10. · The second sort of Parallels, continues our eminent Prelate; are the Antithetic: when two lines correspond with one another by an opposition of terms and sentiments; when the second is contrafted with the first, sometimes in expresions, sometimes in sense only. Accordingly the degrees of Antithesis are various ; from an exact contra position of word to word through the whole sentence, down to à general disparity, with something of a contrariety, in the two propositions. Thus in the following examples :
“ A wise son rejoiceth his father ;
“ But a foolish son is the grief of his mother." Prov. X. In Where every word hath its opposite : for the terms father and mother are, as the Logicians say, relatively opposite.
“ The memory of the just is a blessing;
" But the name of the wicked shall rot.". Rev. Mar. 1779
Prov, X. 7.
Here there are only two Antithetic terms: for memory and name are
" There is that scattereth, and still increaseth;
Prov. xi. 24. Here there is a kind of double Antithesis; one between the two lines themselves; and likewise a subordinate opposition between the two parts of each.
" Many seek the face of the prince;
Prov. xxix. 26. Where the opposition is chiefly between the single terms the Prince, and Jehovah: but there is an opposition likewise in the general sentiment; which expresses, or intimates, che vanity of depending on the former, without seeking the favour of the latter. In the following there is much the same opposition of sentiment, without any contraposition of terms at all :
“ The lot is cast into the lap';
Prov. xvi. 33. That is, the event seems to be the work of Chance; but is really the direction of Providence.'
The foregoing examples are all taken from the Proverbs of Solomon, where they abound; this form being peculiarly adapted to that kind of writing; to adages, aphorisms, and detached sentences. Indeed, says our Author, the elegance, acuteness, and force of a great number of Solomon's wise sayings arise in a great measure from the antithetic form, the opposition of diction and sentiment. We are not, therefore, to expect frequent instances of it in the other 'poems of the Old Teftament; especially those that are elevated in the style, and more connected in the parts. Dr. Lowth, however, produces a few examples of the like kind from the higher poetry ; in the last of which the lines themselves are synthetically parallel ; and the opposition lies between the two members of each :
“ The bricks are fallen, but we will build with hewn llone; “ The sycamores are cut down, but we will replace them with 66 cedars.”
Ifaiah ix. 10. The third sort of Parallels our learned Writer calls Synthetic or Constructive : where the Parallelism confifts only in the fimilar form of construction; in which word does not answer to word, and sentence to sentence, as equivalent or opposite; but there is a correspondence and equality between different propofitions in respect of the shape and turn of the whole sentence, and of the constructive parts ; such as noun answering to noun, verb to verb, member to member, negative to negative, intertogative to interrogative.
“ Praise ye Jehovah, ye of the earth ;
* Fire and hail, snow and vapour ;
Pr. cxlviii. 9-13. Of the constructive kind is most commonly the Parallelism of stanzas of three lines; though they are sometimes Synonymous throughout, and often have two lines Synonymous. The following instance is constructively parallel :
" Whatsoever Jehovah pleaseth,
Causing the vapours to ascend from the end of the earth ;
Pl. cxxxv. 6, 7. Of the fame fort of Parallelism are those passages, frequent in the poetic books, where a definite number is twice put for an indefinite: this being followed by an enumeration of particulars naturally throws the sentence into a Parallelism, which cannot be of any other than the Synthetic kind; and seems to have been a favourite ornament. There are many elegant examples of it in the 30th chapter of Proverbs, and some few in other places :
• These fix things Jehovah hateth;
Prov. vi. 16-19. There are a few remarkable examples of the alternate cona struction; where the Parallelism arises from the alternation of the members of the sentences :
“ I am black, but yet beautiful, o daughters of Jerusalem : “ Like the tents of Kedar, like the pavilions of Solomon."
Cant. I. 52 That is, black, as the tents of Kedar; (made of dark-coloured goats hair ;) beautiful as the pavilions of Solomon.
From the examples of the Synthetic or Constructive kind, the Reader will observe, says Dr. Lowth, that though there are perhaps no two lines corresponding with one another as equivalent, or opposite in terms ; yet there is a Parallelism equally apparent, and almost as striking, which arises from the similar form and equality of the lines, from the correspondence of the members and the construction; the consequence of which is a harmony and rhythm, little inferior in effect to that of the two kinds preceding.
• The degrees of the correspondence of the lines in this last fort of Parallels must, from the nature of it, be various. Sometimes the Parallelism is more, sometimes less, exact : sometimes hardly at all apparent. It requires indeed particular attention, much ftudy of the genius of the language, much habitude, in the analysis of the construction, to be able in all cafes to see and to diflinguish the nice selts and pauses, which ought to be made, in order to give the period or the sentence its intended-turn and cadence, and to each part its due time and proportion. The Jewish Critics, called the Masoretes, were exceedingly attentive to their language in this part; even to a scrupulous exactness and subtle refinement; as it appears from that extremely complicated System of Grammatical Punctuation, more embarrassing than ufeful, which they have invented. It is therefore not improbable, that they might have had some insight into this matter; and in distinguishing the parts of the sentence by Accents might have had regard to the harmony of the Period, and the proportion of the members, as well as to the strict Grammatical disposition of the constructive parts of this, I think, I perceive evident token's : for they fometimes, feem to have more regard, in diftributing the sentence, to the Poetical or Rhetorical harmony of the Period, and the proportion of the members, than to the Grammatical Construction,
To explain what he means, our ingenious Author produces some examples, in which the Masoretes, in distinguishing the sentence into its parts, have given marks of pauses perfectly agreeable to poetical rhythm, but such as the Grammatical Construction does not require, and scarcely admits: and then he adds :
• Of the three different forts of Parallels, as above explained, every one hath its peculiar character and proper effect; and therefore they are differently employed on different occasions; and the sort of Parallelism is chiefly made use of, which is best adapted to the nature of the subject and of the Poem. Synonymous Parallels have the appearance of art and concinnity, and a ftudied elegance ; they prevail chiefly in shorter Poems; in many of the Psalms; in Balaam's Prophecies ; frequently in those of Isaiah, which are moit of them distinct Poems of no great length. The Antithetic Paralle. lism gives an acuteness and force to Adages and moral Sentences ; and therefore, as I observed before, abounds in Solomon's Proverbs, and elsewhere is not often to be met with. The Poem of Job, being on a large plan, and in a high Tragic, style, though very exact in The division of the lines, and in the Parallelism, and affording many fine examples of the Synonymous, kind, yet consists chieily of the