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difficult to form a proper idea of these from the plates alone. Mr. Sharp adds, that horses are constantly ready at the manufactory, to sħew the effects of the several rakes, ploughs, shovels, &c. or to draw the different forts of carts, waggons, or rollers, whereby judgment may be formed of the utility of each machine. The lowest price is fixed upon each article, and payment will be expected on the delivery of the goods.' Why were the prices omitted in the catalogue ? This, for many reafons, would have been a most useful addition. No. J. A hand crane. 2. A weighing engine for cattle, hay, straw, &c. from
141b. to 3 or 4 tons. Seemingly simple and portable. 3. Machine for cutting chaff or cane tops for cattle. 4. A drill plough for single dropping. 5. A horsehoe for weeding, &c. in drill husbandry. 6. Mr. Ducket's trenching plough. 7. Mr. Arbuthnot's draining plough improved. 8. A turn-wrist, or Kentish plow. 9. A jointed horse-rake for couch grass or stubble.
10. A winnowing machine. This last is a most useful machine, and what no farmer Tould want, and we hope it will quickly become common in every part of the country. One of these machines was presented to the Society of Arts, &c. in the Strand, by Mr. Evers, in January 1761, an engraving of which was given in Mr. Bailey's description of useful machines and models, plate No. xx. This was, to the best of our remembrance, the first description of the instrument that was given in the English language, yet we have been favoured with the history of this machine from a very knowing gentleman, on whose veraciy we depend, as under:
“ The winnowing machine was invented in Flanders or Holland, and was introduced from the last named country into the fouth of Scotland, about fifty years ago, where it has been common ever since. Yet strange as it may seem, the knowledge of this useful invention has not yet spread over more than three or four counties. In these indeed, no farmer is without one, but in all other parts of the kingdom they seem to be still unknown. Is not this an astonishing fact ! I mult add, that the original winnowing machines were infinitely less complex in their structure than those now in use, and were proportionably more convenient in using. This is perhaps the only instance of a new invention being more simple than it became afterwards.” They are called, in the provinces where they are in common use, fanners.
11. A hand mill for splitting of beans, grinding malt,
No. 13, is an unnecessary attempt to renew the laborious task of our forefathers, before water or windmills were invented. It is fimply a hand corn mill.
14. A wheel barrow for scattering sand or gravel, &c.
17. Rolling carts and waggons. These, instead of wheels, go upon rollers, for saving the roads. This seems to be an useful improvement, especially in deep miry countries. In stony roads, or rocky places, it is probable they would be inconvenient, Legislature encourages these carriages, by allowing them to pass at turnpikes, for some years, without paying any thing, and afterwards for the half of what other carriages pay. Undoubtedly if they should become universal, instead of hurting, they would tend to make the roads better.
A list of many other articles, without plates, follows, which we omit.
Mr. Sharp seems to be a spirited manufacturer, and we wish him success in his laudable attempts to serve himself by conferring benefits on the public.
1 2 3.
Art. VII. Minutes of Agriculture, make on a Farm of 303 Acres of
various Soils, near Croydon, Surry. To which is added, a Digest, wherein the Minutes are fyftemized and amplified ; and elucidated by Drawings of new Implements, a Farm-yard, &c. The whole being published as a Sketch of the actual Business of a Farm; as Hints to the experienced Agriculturist; as a Check to the present False Spirit of Farming, and as an Overture to Scientific Agriculture. By Mr. Marshall. 4t0. Boards. Dodsley. 1778. RITAIN, at present, claims a superiority over all the
other 'nations of Europe, in point of naval affairs and agriculture. Should her claim in these respects be allowed; and should it then be asked, to what peculiarities in our situation do we owe this pre-eminence ? we would answer, To the invigorating influence of political freedom, which, by affording to every man full protection of his person and property, induces him to exert all his powers to the utmost, in full confidence that these exertions will prove highly beneficial to himself or his family.
In little mechanical arts, the subjects of despotic governments may indeed arrive at some degree of eminence; but in the great employments of agriculture and commerce, those who carry them on with spirit must risk so much of their property, and for so long a time, that nothing but the fullest conviction of perfect security can ever induce them to venture far enough.
It was in consequence of this circumstance, that all the nations of old which were distinguished for their skill in com
merce or agriculture, were free states. Tyre and Carthage (in the infancy, at least, of the latter) were fuch, and both of them were eminent for their commercial spirit.
In Greece, agriculture was in the highest esteem ; and in Italy, during the virtuous time of the Roman republic, this science flourished exceedingly; but no sooner did Despotism overturn the free constitution of that state, than the rural arts began to decline; and those fertile fields which once sustained millions of inhabitants, are now converted into pestilential marshes.
Commerce revived in Venice; and, fo long as the preserved her freedom, it profpered abundantly in that state; but no sooner were the baneful effects of her cruel aristocracy felt, than it gradually dwindled to its present insignificance. . .
The Netherlands, more favourably situated for agriculture, next emerged from obscurity, and, under the influence of a mild government, the cultivation of the soil was carried to a degree of perfection, till then unknown among the western states of Europe. From hence we first received a taste for those improvements in agriculture and commerce, which, under the benign auspices of our free government, have attained that high degree of vigour which seems to give weight to our claim of superiority, in these respects, over the nations around us. Long may Britain retain that happy ascendency! for while the does so, the must enjoy all other advantages peculiar to civil fociety. But when agriculture begins to decline, woe to the rinhabitants of this land ! Let him who is in the fields not return into the house, but flee with the utmost precipitation to some happier segion ; for the inevitable ruin of this kingdom will then be at hand!
These reflections were naturally suggested by the perufal of the volume, which is the subject of our present Review. The Author of this work seems to pofless, in a very conspicuous degree, that animating fervor and originality of thought, which Hows from conscious freedom and independence. He thinks for
himself, and he utters these thoughts in glowing (some will think daring) expressions, insomuch that even we, shivering in our garrets, felt fome degree of his warmth, and were pleased with his enthusiasm. . How happy, exclaimed we, is the man who can allow his mind to be fully occupied by any one object : He goes forward with alacrity, even when surrounded with dangers. Difficulties come in his way, but these he encounters
with irresistible firmness, and he overcomes them: He looks back with wonder at his former atchievements; he still boldly preffes forward, and performs many noble deeds, which frigid caution would have deemed impoffible,
We have read few books on agriculture with greater satisfaction than the present : not because of any superiority that this Author enjoys over other writers, in the knowledge of the art on which he treats, for, in this respect, he is profesledly a learner : not on account of the purity of his language, or the elegant flow of his periods, for in these respects, the tenderest critic will find much to blame; but it is the vivacity, the ori. ginality, the candour, and ingenuity of the Author, so con
picuous in every page, that we admire. In fine, it is imporsible for a georgical Reviewer, not to be pleased with a work which exhibits a more lively picture of the business of a farmer, and the objects that ought to claim his attention, than is to be found in any other book,- at least, in any that hath fallen into our hands. On these accounts, Mr. Marshall's minutes must be fingularly useful to those who are beginning to practise agriculture, as they will thus obtain a more adequate idea of the pleasures and difficulties, the profits and losses, which they may expect from the practice of farming, than they could from the perusal of any other treatise extant. A book of this kind, we look upon as peculiarly necessary at this time, because it will help to counteract the pernicious influence of those flattering pictures, of the amazing profits that may be drawn from agriculture, which have been held up to public view by a modern popular author. No person, we are bold to say, can more ardentiy wish to promote the advancement of rural improvements than the Authors of the Monthly Review ; but as this can only be done effectually by those who prosecute that business with a rational prospect of success, we cannot help disapproving every thing that has a tendency to induce the unwary, rafhly to engage in a business attended with many difficulties, and which demands the whole attention of those who practise it, if they ever hope to follow it with success.
The work before us consists of two parts. The first, is a series of MINUTES of agriculture, exhibiting the various incidents that occurred to the Author, with his reflections upon them at the time, in a continued journal, beginning the 18th of July 1774, and ending the i5th of July 1777. In the second part, these minutes are arranged under regular heads, só that the reader may see at one view, all that occurs under each head, in the different parts of the journal. "This our Author calls a DIGEST. It is properly a systematic index to the whole, with a few reflections interspersed, tending to supply the de, ficiencies of the journal.
• The Author of the following pages, he tells us, in a short preface *, was born a farmer, bred to traffic, and returned to
the Instead of Preface the Author denominates this the Approach, which we consider as an unnecessary, and therefore, a faulty inC3
the plow a few months before the commencement of the fol lowing MINUTES.' It is not, therefore, to be expected that, this being the case, the Author will so early exhibit great proofs of his knowledge in agriculture; but from the beginning, these minutes afford strong evidence of good natural parts, acuteness, and attention. They shew in what manner a perfon who is poffeffed of these qualities, joined to unwearied application, may gradually acquire knowledge, and learn to furmount the difficulties that occur in practice. They serve to teach an inexperienced person how to think, and thus become his own instructor (instead of making him rely upon the inttructions of others), which is the best method of attaining found knowledge. We recommend this part of the work, as a model worthy the imitation of every farmer, "but particularly useful to beginners, as it will put them into a train of observing facts of reflecting upon past occurrences, and of reasoning consistently with respect to future operations.
The following observation's on the uses that may be made of minuting occurrences, will serve to corroborate what we have said, and, at the same time, give a specimen of our Author's fiyle and manner:
• 1811, July 1776. (Thursday). On Tuesday evening, the hay of K. 2. which had been cut almoit a fortnight, was in tolerable order; and the fap being nearly exhaulted, I was unwilling to expose it any Jonger in this critical llate : I therefore put it upon the waggons, to keep it out of harm's way; but did not unload it.
Yesterday unloaded one load on to the black, very gently, and left it untrodden. On to the emptied waggon re-loaded another, which food in the field. The wind was high, and the fun hot. Two men re-loaded it as deliberately as poffible; breaking every lump, and loading it lightly with a fork : they were three or four hours in doing it. it was unloaded, to-day, in good order. Reloaded another to.day, which will be unloaded to-morrow.
* By thus expoling it to the fun and wind, and by leaving it on the fack for tour-and-twenty-hours, untrodden, it is got from toletable into very good order.
Because hay, which has been long cut, and whose juices are ex, hauled, is loaded on the waggons, to prevent its being totally spoiled; it surely does not foliow ihat it should be hurried into fiack, wet or dry. Perhaps, hay not ha!f-made might, by 'repeated re: loadings during fair blasts, be well-zet; even in such very bad hay, weather as we have lately had.
váron. The whole of this approach bears evident marks of affectation, in a ftronger degree, even than in other parts of the book. We are sorry for this blemish, as it mult tend to prejudice many against the Author. li had that effect upon ourselves ; and had not our en, gagements to the public induced us to proceed, it is probable, we thould have turned from it with disguit, and never wished to have read a line farther,