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not been palatable, he would not have swallowed it fo greedily; and him I have been particularly afliduous to serve : I have not only taken upon myself the disagreeable task of beating him, but have rendered him other benefits which must last him his life. And I am under the most disagreeable neceflity of drawing an inference, which muft inevitably deprive me, in future, of a very great fatisfaction ; and I will not smother my sentiments, when I believe that they were kindled by truth ;-and I am at present clearly of opinion, that

GOOD USAGE MAKES BAD SERVANTS ; I speak generally; and by good ufage, I mean extraordinary good usage.'

The conclusion seems a little harsh. The inference will not in all cases hold, though it will in many. Good servants, who are attached to their master from the pure principles of gratitude and affection are sometimes, we know, to be found; but never, unless the mafter has judgment to discern and to difcriminate; if this is wanting, these gentle emotions are repreffed in their minds, and they remove to some other master, in queft of a congeniality of disposition. Genuine beneficence of heart, with a steady firmness of temper, capable of resenting without paffion, and inflicting, without abatement, those punishments which reason points out as necessary, are the qualities most likely to attach the virtuous servant, and to disgust the profigate. Without tenderness for a fervant's interest, no master deserves, nor ever will obtain, his hearty good will; but when that tenderness degenerates into weakness, all is loft.

The following reflections on this subject Ihew that the Author has studied it, and contain much truth :

· The Author was more embarraffed in the selection of the Mr. NUTES ON Servants, than in the choice of those on any other subject. On the one hand, he was aware of the irksomeness which must ever accompany a recital of domestic bickerings : on the other, it would have been truly inconsistent in a Man who profeffedly be. comes public to hold out lights to the inexperienced, to have ob. fcured the Beacon which ought, of all others, to be rendered confpicuous : for on a proper management of Servants depends in a great measure the Profits and Pleasures of Agriculture. He therefore see lected for publication such, and such only, as he thought might convey some useful hint to the Novitial Agriculturist.

• For the want of the knowledge of a few such facts as are to be found in the Minutes on Servants, the Writer is conscious that he has experienced many uneasy moments: and he believes, that had he set out with the ideas he is now possessed of, he should have been esteemed a better Master (and to be thought a good Mafter is a laud. able ambition, which Masters in general aspire at) and should have had the satisfaction of paying wages to better Servants.

• It is true, the Author may have been (he hopes and believes he has been) unfortunate in the neighbourhood he happened to fix in ; yet

he cannot help thinking that the seeming ingratitude of Servants is not confined to any particular diftrict; but is an universal frailty founded in Human Nature ; and depends principally upon their ma. nagement.


* SELF-Love is the sovereign of Master and Servant; and SelfES? fem is a fomenter of public and private discord.

By way of illustration; I am a Servant.-I receive a favour, which I did not expect. -- I reason thus : “ This favour mult proceed either from my Master's generosity or from my deserts ;—my Master, it is true, is generous, and so am I deserving ;-how many good offices have I done him? How often have I done those things which many other Servants would have left undone? He must have perceived this, and thus he requites me.” I value myself on this, but continue to do my duty; , and my Master (who probably has put no Small estimate on his generosity) continues to give me good usage : but he does not repeat his extra favour, at the time when in my own esteem I deserve it, and of course expect it. I fancy myself fighted, and grow indifferent;-my Master perceives it, and treats me with referve.-! begin to fancy my good offices thrown away, and grow neglectful of my duty; my Mafter fees this, and becomes authoritative. I, fancying myself too important to be dismissed, resent it; and he, to disburden bimself of an incumbrance, discharges me. Now, and not till now, I perceive my mistake ; it was not my deservingness, but folely my Master's generosity which conferred on me the favour. I did, or endeavoured to do, my duty; and my Master, by way of encouraging me in the perseverance of it, and to gratify his own good disposition, unfortunately conferred on me that which has been the cause of many unhappy hours, and has at length brought me to this disgrace. Had I not received a favour which I did not expe*, I should still have been the dutiful Servant of an indulgent Matter.

· The Writer is fo fully convinced of the mischievousness of grant.' ing unexpected favours to Farming-servants (and to ignorant Servants in general), that he has more than once got peaceable riddance of a troublesome fellow by exalting him above his fellow.labourers.

." This is a piece of philosophy which may seem to strike at the root of the firit Christian virtues. God forbid that it hould close the hand of CHARITY, where charity is due! But it is a PROPER choice of the object, not the GIFT, which constitutes benevo. LENCE: it is not the NUMBER OF PIECES given, but the HOURS OF WRETCHEDNESS allev ed, which gives the Sun of CHarity. And how Christianly-foever a due proportion of well-applied Charity may be, the Author has been lately convinced, from daily ex-' perience, that it is the most uncharitable thing in the world to be too charitable.

. Nothing could be more absurd than to lay down particular Rules FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SERVANTS; as che tempers and dispositions of both Masters and Servants are as different as their features : the Author will, neverthelefs, risk the following general guide: Treat them as Men; but not us I TIMATE ; nor yet as MACHINES.

• For although the Wretches who have forfeited their liberty, may be reduced to the Laws of Mechanism, in the field of War; Men, who retain one spark of the celestial fire, will not brook such creatment in the field of Agriculture. For in a country tolerabiy free,


let Fate and Fashion say what they will, Mankind-as Men-are nearly on an equality : and in this country, how Machine-like soever a day-labourer may appear, under the immediate eye of an austere Master, he is a Free-Agent, at his own Fire-side, and an Englishman, at the Ale-house.'

(To be concluded in our next.)


Art. II. Annals of Scotland. From the Acceslion of Robert I.

furnamed Bruce, to the Accession of the House of Stewart. By Sir David Dalrymple. 4to. Vol. II. 12-5. 6 d. Boards. Edinburgh printed; Murray, London. 1779. N a former Review we announced the first volume * of the

Annals of Scotland; and as the work is now completed, it claims our far:her attention : We proceed, therefore, to point out its purposes and merits, and to ascertain the degree of approbation to which it is intitled.

Before the reign of Malcolm III. +, we find the history of Scotland involved in obscurity and darkness. The most penetrating genius would seek in vain for truth amidst the fables which deform the earlier history of this nation. Hence it is, we conceive, that our learned Historian has contented himself with dating his performance from the age and administration of Malcolm III. The period included from the accessicn of this Prince to the advancement of Robert I. exercises his attention and ability in his first volume. In his second volume he continues his narration from Robert I. to the advancement of the House of Stewart.

This field of history, so extensive in itself, and so memorable for many important transactions, has been surveyed with little accuracy by former writers. John de Fordun was but imperfectly informed, and was unacquainted with the true purposes of history. John Major is almost every where so much disposed to trifle, that there is little in his work which deserves commendation, if we except his fpirit of liberty, and the respect he discovers for the rights of the people. Hector Boece is the most fabulous of all historians : and Buchanan, who in the elegancy of his composition may vie with Livy and Salluft, is so careless in his matter, that we read him with distrust, while we admire his talents.

When men of learning wilhed with impatience for a solid and instructive work, on Scottill affairs, Sr David Dalrymple published the first volume of his Annals. The immense collections of Rymer were the most valuable source of intelligence; and the ancient historians of England had preterved a multitude

* Vid. Review, vol. liv, p. 491. June 1775.
+ Surnamed Canmore,



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of memorials concerning Scotland. To dig for the treasures which were concealed in these mines, to bring them forward to obfervation, and to attend at the same time to the commu. nications of Scottish authors and chronicles, were matters not less laborious than intricate. To this task our Historian has submitted ; and while we give him the credit which is due to his industry, we muft do him the justice to acknowledge that his fagacity and discernment are still more worthy of praise.

It has been said that this work is formed on the model of Henault's famous performance; but this was a mistake. Sir David Dalrymple pursues a method of his own, free from many of the imperfections which appear in that of the French author. The President Henault, indeed, is uniformly instructive, but he is uniformly dry; and his abridgment is not rendered agreeable by the arts of good writing. Sir David Dalrymple is directed in his execution by the subjects he treats. Where his matter admits not of detail or ornament he is simple and brief; where it is inviting, he is diffuse and descriptive. He is the Annalyst and the Historian by turns. Ardent to instruct, he is disposed to omit no topic of which he could inform himself. Defirous to please, he is active to gather all the Aowers that spring up in his way.

To chronology, which so many modern authors affect to despise, our Historian has paid the most exact attention. In authenticating his facts, he appeals every where to the most unexceptionable authorities : and, it must be mentioned to his honour, that the problematical parts of the Scottish story are regarded by him with that solicitude of investigation, which is never felt, or exerted, but by those who are passionately devoted to the interests of science and the propagation of truth. Hence it is that each of his volumes is concluded with detached and particular differtations: the critical acuteness of which will prove alluring to the studious; and, if there are readers who find them tedious, it may be pronounced that they have no great taste for historical accuracy and disquisition.

To particularize what our Historian has collected, under the different reigns which he describes, would be to abridge his work; but if we were to consider them in a comparative view, we should prefer that of Robert I. as the most instructive and entertaining. It cannot be read, indeed, without a variety of emotions, and has something of the charm of romance. There is a passage in Cicero's famous epistle to Lucceius, which is wonderfully applicable to this part of the Scottish story. Ordo ipse annalium mediocriter nos retinet, quasi enumeratione faftorum. At viri fæpe excellentis ancipites varijque cafus habent admirationem, exfpectationem, lætitiam, moleftiam, fpem, timorem : fi vero exitu notabili concluduntur, expletur animus



jucundissima lectionis voluptate*.” The life of Robert I. seems even to be an excellent subject for an Epic poem. Such a work might be intitled, “ The Independency of Scotland restored.”

The poem might open at the time when all Scotland had acknowledged Edward I. as their fovereign. The death of Comyn might then be described, and the coronation of Robert I. "The disasters and viciffitudes of fortune which attended this Prince might next engage the attention of the poet. He might then dwell on the battle of Bannockburn t, detail the continuation of the war, and mark the different me. thods which were taken, on the one hand, for overturning and, on the other, for supporting the Scottish government. At length he would arrive at the peace of Northampton, and at the death of Robert I. who died in the full poffeffion of a kingdom united and independent, which, in the beginning of his reign, was, torn by factions, and fubject to England.

Another remark presents itself to us with regard to Robert I. Scotsmen, while they extol this illustrious man as the deliverer of their nation, and overleap all the boundaries of panegyric, seem to think that the fine things they utter are applied to a native of Scotland. It is true, notwithstanding, that this distinguished warrior and statesman was an ENGLISHMAN. The evidence of this fact is to be found in different places of the work now before us. The 'progenitors of Robert I. were Anglo-Norman lords who had settled in Yorkshire. There they lived and died; and the connexion which this Prince had with Scotland was chiefly by his mother, the Countess of Cara rick,

Amidst the praise which this performance is intitled to from our justice and candour, we cannot but remark, to its advantage, the perspicuity and precision with which the Historian has every where expressed himself. To deep inquiry, and to real learning, he adds the greatest diftinctness of ideas, and the graces of language. He admits his readers into the knowledge of characters rather by the art of his narrative, and the lelection of circumstances, than by laboured and splendid portraits. We catch as we read the manners of the times; and that the current of his story may not be disagreeably interrupted, he has given many notes, in which he corrects the errors of preceding authors, and displays a lettered labour, and an engaging ingenuity.

For the entertainment of our Readers, we shall here select the Author's short and interesting account of the negociations

* Cic. Epift. ad diversos, lib. v. ep. 12,

+ Of this tamous battle, see a circumstantial account in our Review for July last, p. 49. Rev. Mar. 1779.


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